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University  of  California,  San  Diego 
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CI  39  (7/93) 







JOSEPH    WRIGHT,    M.A.,   Ph.D.,    D.C.L. 


Volume  I.    A— C 



OXFORD:    ii6    HIGH    STREET 

NEW    YORK:     G.    P.    PUTNAM'S    SONS 

[AH  n'gfits  rrsfnvd] 




The  English  Dialect  Dictionary  is  printed  at  the  expense  of  Joseph  Wkicht,  MA. 
of  Laugdalc  House,  Park   Town,  Oxford. 

To    THE    -REV. 

TROFESSOR  W.   IV.   SKEAT,  IJtt.T).,  UC.L. 

Founder  and  President  of 

The  English  Dialect  Society 

Editor  of 
'  Chaucer  J    *  Piers  Plowman^  and  '  "The  Bruce ' 

"The   unwearied    Worker   in  the  varied  Field  of  English  Scholarship 

To    whose   patient    industry    and    contagious    enthusiasm 

in  connexion  with  the  laborious  task  of  accumulating 

dialect    material,    the  possibility    of  compiling 

an  adequate 

Dictionary  of  English  Dialects 

is  mainly  due 


THE  Dictionary  includes,  so  far  as  is  possible,  the  complete  vocabulary  of  all  English  dialect  words 
which  are  still  in  use  or  are  known  to  have  been  in  use  at  any  time  during  the  last  two  hundred 
years  in  England,  Ireland,  Scotland,  and  Wales.  All  words  occurring  both  in  the  literary  language  and  in 
the  dialects,  but  with  some  local  peculiarity  of  meaning  in  the  latter,  are  also  included.  On  the  other 
hand,  words  which  merely  differ  from  the  literary  language  in  pronunciation,  but  not  in  meaning,  are 
generally  e.xcluded,  as  belonging  properly  to  the  province  of  grammar  and  not  to  that  of  lexicography. 
It  also  contains  (i)  the  exact  geographical  area  over  which  each  dialect  word  extends,  together  with 
quotations  and  references  to  the  sources  from  which  the  word  has  been  obtained ;  (2)  the  exact  pro- 
nunciation in  each  case  according  to  a  simple  phonetic  scheme,  specially  formulated  for  the  purpose; 
(3)  the  etymology  so  far  as  it  relates  to  the  immediate  source  of  each  word.  The  work  can  never  become 
antiquated,  and,  when  completed,  will  be  the  largest  and  most  comprehensive  Dialect  Dictionary  ever 
published  in  any  country.  It  will  be  a  'storehouse'  of  information  for  the  general  reader,  and  an 
invaluable  work  to  the  present  and  all  future  generations  of  students  of  our  mother-tongue.  It  also 
includes  American  and  Colonial  dialect  words  which  are  still  in  use  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  or  which 
are  to  be  found  in  early-printed  dialect  books  and  glossaries.  After  some  experience  it  became  clear 
that  this  plan  was  absolutely  necessary  in  order  to  avoid  admitting  into  the  Dictionary  words  for  which 
I  had  not  full  and  reliable  evidence.  It  is  difficult  enough  to  obtain  information  about  the  pronunciation 
and  exact  usage  of  many  words  in  the  United  Kingdom,  and  it  would  have  been  still  more  difficult  to 
obtain  such  information  from  abroad.  Some  idea  of  the  labour  involved  in  this  respect  may  be  gathered 
from  the  fact  that  at  least  12,000  queries  have  been  sent  out  from  the  'Workshop'  connected  with  words 
contained  in  this  volume.  And  yet,  in  spite  of  all  this  labour,  it  has  been  necessary  to  keep  back  quite 
a  number  of  words— see  list  on  pp.  xxi-xxiv — for  which  there  is  at  present  insufficient  evidence  to 
allow  them  to  be  included  in  the  Dictionary.  It  is  intended  to  issue  a  list  of  such  words  with  each  Part, 
and  all  the  friends  of  this  undertaking  are  kindly  invited  to  send  to  the  Editor  more  information  about  these 
words,  so  that  they  can  eventually  be  included  in  a  Supplement.  The  article  on  the  verb  'To  be'  cost 
very  considerable  time  and  trouble.  Copies  of  a  printed  form  containing  194  points  were  sent  to  150 
persons  in  various  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom ;  and  150  similar  forms  containing  many  queries  were 
sent  out  about  the  words  By,  By{e.  Many  of  the  replies  to  these  two  sets  of  queries  showed  how  very 
difficult  it  is  becoming  to  obtain  information  about  minute  points  connected  with  grammar.  It  is  quite 
evident  from  the  letters  daily  received  at  the  'Workshop*  that  pure  dialect  speech  is  rapidly  disappearing 
from  our  midst,  and  that  in  a  few  years  it  will  be  almost  impossible  to  get  accurate  information  about  difficult 
points.  Even  now  it  is  sometimes  found  extremely  difficult  to  ascertain  the  exact  pronunciation  and 
the  various  shades  of  meanings,  especially  of  words  which  occur  both  in  the  literary  language  and  in  the 
dialects.  And  in  this  case  it  is  not  always  easy  to  decide  what  is  dialect  and  what  is  literary  English : 
there  is  no  sharp  line  of  demarcation  ;  the  one  overlaps  the  other.  In  words  of  this  kind  I  have  carefully 
considered  each  case  separately,  and  if  I  have  erred  at  all,  it  has  been  on  the  side  of  inclusion. 

It  has  taken   hundreds  of  people,  in  all  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom,  twenty-three  years  to  collect 
the  material  for  the  Dictionary.      For  the  lists  of  Workers  and  Correspondents  see  pp.  ix-xiv.      In  almost 


every  county,  competent  people  have  been  secured  to  assist  in  answering  queries  and  in  supplying  any 
words  that  may  have  been  omitted  from  the  glossaries  in  their  respective  districts.  Such  a  plan  ensures 
a  far  higher  degree  of  accuracy  and  completeness  than  can  possibly  be  attained  by  any  other  method. 
In  addition  to  the  great  amount  of  material  sent  in  from  unprinted  sources — see  pp.  xi,  xii — upwards 
of  three  thousand  dialect  glossaries  and  works  containing  dialect  words  have  been  read  and  excerpted 
for  the  purposes  of  the  Dictionary'.  Through  the  great  kindness  of  the  Princess,  the  whole  of  the 
MS.  collections  and  the  library  of  the  late  Prince  Louis  Lucien  Bonaparte  were  placed  at  my 
disposal  for  over  two  years,  which  enabled  me  to  get  many  thousand  words  and  quotations  from 
hundreds  of  small  local  books  not  to  be  found  in  any  of  our  public  libraries. 

I  had  hoped  to  give  a  classification  of  the  Dialects  in  this  Preface,  but  I  now  think  that  it  will  be 
better  to  wait  until  I  have  finished  a  greater  portion  of  the  Dictionary.  From  the  words  contained 
in  this  volume,  it  would  be  easy  to  give  a  sketch-map  showing  clearly  those  districts  in  which  the 
Norse  element  is  particularly  strong.  It  is  also  most  remarkable  how  in  certain  districts  many 
French  words  have  been  preserved,  which  are  now  obsolete  in  the  literary  language.  At  present 
I  have  not  the  necessary  leisure  to  work  out  and  account  for  the  fact  that  in  Ireland  the 
dialects  of  some  districts  are  essentially  Scotch  whilst  in  other  districts  they  agree  with  those  of 
the  West  of  England.  Also  it  cannot  be  a  mere  accident  that  the  dialect  of  South  Pembrokeshire 
contains  quite  a  number  of  words  of  Flemish  origin.  Later  on  I  hope  to  work  out  these  matters 
fully,  and  also  to  account  for  the  special  peculiarities  of  the  Kentish  dialects.  It  will  also  be  easy 
to  show  that  a  great  many  words  which  are  now  confined  to  particular  districts,  were  confined 
to  those  districts  already  in  the  Middle  Ages,  e.  g.  early  illustrations  of  many  words  still  in  use 
in  East  Anglia  are  only  to  be  found  in  the  Promptorium ;  the  same  applies  to  many  modern 
Yorkshire  words  and  the  York  Mystery  Plays.  In  fact,  when  the  Dictionary  is  completed  it  will 
be  of  immense  value  in  helping  to  settle  the  dialect  in  which  many  of  our  Middle-English 
manuscripts  were  written,  and  it  will  throw  a  flood  of  light  upon  many  problems  connected  with 
Old  and  Middle-English  phonology. 

Any  one  who  takes  the  pains  to  examine  the  Dictionary  will  find  that  neither  time  nor  trouble 
has  been  spared  in  order  to  obtain  accurate  information  about  popular  games,  customs,  and  supersti- 
tions ;  and,  as  far  as  possible,  to  give  the  literature  where  further  information  will  be  found.  In  the 
etymological  part  of  the  dictionary,  it  must  not  be  assumed  that  where  no  etymology  is  given 
there  has  been  no  attempt  made  to  find  one.  The  very  opposite  is  the  case.  It  has  often  happened 
that  dozens  of  dictionaries,  special  glossaries,  and  articles  in  philological  journals  have  been  carefully 
searched  without  any  satisfactory  results.  In  all  such  instances  I  have  preferred  to  give  nothing 
rather  than  a  mere  guess.  In  thousands  of  instances  it  will  be  noticed  that  there  is  no  previously 
printed  authority  for  the  use  of  words  in  some  districts.  In  all  such  cases  I  give  the  initials  of 
the  persons  who  supplied  the  information ;  and  I  may  add  that  one  of  my  senior  assistants  has 
spent  over  a  fortnight  in  verifying  these  initials;  so  that  they  may  be  accepted  as  being  correct. 
Several  words  found  in  printed  glossaries  are  omitted  from  the  Dictionary  as  being  'Ghost  Words.' 
All  such  words  will  be  collected  together  and  printed  in  the  last  volume. 

The  number  of  queries  sent  out  was  proportionately  greater  in  the  C-words  than  in  A  and  B, 
owing  to  the  great  importance  of  obtaining  accurate  information  about  their  pronunciation  ;  as  it  is 
of  special  value  to  students  of  English  philology  to  know  in  which  districts  the  initial  guttural  has 
remained  and  in  which  districts  it  has  become  the  affricata  c/i.  When  the  letters  C  and  K  are 
finished,  it  will  become  evident  that  several  factors  have  to  be  taken  into  consideration  in  formulating 
the  laws  for  the  normal  development  of  Germanic  initial  k-.  This  volume  contains  a  large  number 
of  words  which  will  be  specially  interesting  to  folk-lorists  and  English  philologists,  as  well  as  to  the 
students  of  dialects  in  general ;  e.  g.  Acre,  Adder,  Agate,  All,  As,  At,  Bandy  sb.^.  Banian-day,  Banshee, 

'  There  is  now  in  tlie  'Workshop'  over  a  million  and  a  half  of  slips — and  the  number  increases  daily— each  containing 
the  source,  with  quotation,  date,  and  county. 




















Barghesl,  Barley-break,  Barring  out,  Baiim-rappil,  Begaged,  Beltane,  Blin  v.,  Blithemcat,  Blue  adj.,  Bty,  Bo  sb.\ 
Bodev.\  Boggart  sb.\  Bogle,  Bait  sb.'.  Bondage,  Boucshave,  Bood,  Boon  sb.\  Boorey,  Boot  sb.";  Boun,  Braid vr, 
Bride-ale,  Bride-door,  Bull  sb.\  Bungums,  Bushel  sb.\  Busk  v.\  But  prep.,  Buttony,  Call  v.\  Calve  v.^  and  sb., 
Canny,  Cantrip,  Car-cake,  Carlinlg)s,  Carritcli,  Catsb.',  Cattern,  Charge  sb.'  andt/.',  Chilver,  Clout,  Cock,  Cunie  v.\ 
Cow,  Crack  sb.'  and  v.,  Cradden,  Crook  sb.'  and  v.,  Crouse,  Crundcl,  Cuckoo,  &c. 

Owing  to  the  large  number  of  ^-words  containing  Latin  and  Greek  prefixes,  the  difference  between 
the  number  of  words  beginning  with  A  and  B  is  not  great  in  a  dictionary  of  literary  English ;— e.  g. 
in  Webster,  A  occupies  99  pages  and  B  81  pages.  A  occupies  106  pages  in  the  English  Dialect  Dictionary, 
but  B  occupies  no  less  than  370  pages.  The  statistics  given  below  will  show  what  an  immense  wealth 
of  words  there  is  in  our  dialects,  and  from  them  some  idea  can  also  be  formed  of  the  enormous  amount  of 
labour  involved  in  the  production  of  this  volume.  It  ought  to  be  mentioned  that  the  figures  do  not  include 
the  quotations,  &c.,  from  early  writers,  which  are  placed  within  square  brackets  at  the  end  of  each  article. 
Nor  is  any  account  taken  of  the  many  thousands  of  cross-references.  This  volume  contains  17,519 
simple  and  compound  words,  and  2,248  phrases,  illustrated  by  42,915  quotations  with  the  e.\act  source 
from  which  they  have  been  obtained.  There  are,  in  addition,  39,581  references  to  glossaries,  to 
manuscript  collections  of  dialect  words,  and  to  other  sources  ;  making  a  total  of  82,496  references.  These 
figures  are  made  up  as  follows  :  — 

Simple  and  Compound  Words         .  1,508 

Phrases 379 

Quotations 6,759 

References  without  quotations         .  2,500 

Total  references       ....  9,259 

As  stated  on  the  title-page,  the  Dictionary  is  in  a  great  measure  founded  upon  the  publications 
of  the  English  Dialect  Society.  It  was  with  this  express  object  in  view  that  the  Society  was  started 
at  Cambridge  in  1873,  with  the  Rev.  Prof.  Skeat  as  Secretary  and  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Cartmell 
as  Treasurer.  In  1876  the  Headquarters  of  the  Society  were  removed  to  Manchester;  when  J.  H.  Nodal, 
Esq.,  became  the  Secretary  and  G.  Milner,  Esq.,  the  Treasurer.  The  Headquarters  remained  at 
Manchester  until  1893.  During  these  eighteen  years  Mr.  Nodal  rendered  most  valuable  services 
to  the  Society,  and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  it  was  mainly  through  his  great  interest  in  the  subject 
that  the  Society  published  so  many  excellent  County  and  other  glossaries.  From  1893  to  1896  the 
Headquarters  were  in  Oxford,  during  which  time  I  acted  as  Secretary  and  the  Rev.  A.  L.  Mayhew 
as  Treasurer.  After  the  Dictionary  had  been  begun,  it  was  no  longer  necessary  to  continue  the  existence 
of  the  Societ}',  and  it  was  accordingly  brought  to  an  end  in  1896  after  it  had  published  80  volumes, 
all  of  which  are  being  incorporated  in  the  Dictionary. 

In  the  year  1886  Professor  Skeat  raised  a  fund,  to  which  he  contributed  nearly  half  the  money 
himself,  for  the  purpose  of  helping  to  defray  the  expenses  of  collecting  and  arranging  the  material 
for  the  Dictionary.  He  had  the  good  fortune  to  obtain  the  services  of  the  Rev.  A.  Smythe  Palmer, 
D.D.,  who  acted  as  organizing  Editor  for  two  years  and  a  half.  During  this  period  Dr.  Smythe  Palmer 
succeeded  in  getting  together  and  in  arranging  in  rough  alphabetical  order  a  large  amount  of  material. 
And  I  take  this  opportunity  of  expressing  to  him  my  sincere  gratitude  for  all  the  valuable  help  he  rendered 
at  this  initial  stage  of  the  work.  In  1889  it  was  thought  the  material  was  sufficiently  complete  to 
enable  me  to  begin  to  edit  the  work  for  press.  I  accordingly  prepared  several  articles  and  had  them 
printed.  These  articles  convinced  me  that  at  least  twice  the  amount  of  the  material  which  had  then  been 
collected  would  be  required  before  attempting  to  edit  the  Dictionary.  I  issued  a  circular  stating  the 
kind  of  help  wanted,  and  sent  it  to  all  the  principal  newspapers  and  public  libraries  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  as  well  as  to  many  thousand  people  who  might  be  likely  to  help  in  the  work.  By  this  means 
the  number  of  voluntary  helpers  was  increased  to  over  600.  It  then  became  advisable  to  form  local  Com- 
mittees in  various  parts  of  the  country  with  the  object  of  getting  all  the  books  relating  to  the  respective 
districts  read  and  the  slips  arranged  in  alphabetical  order  before  being  sent  to  me.  After  preparing  several 
lists  of  books  which  still  remained  to  be  read  for  the  Dictionary,  I  addressed  many  meetings  on  the  great 

viii  PREFACE 

value  of  dialects  for  philological  and  other  purposes,  and  succeeded  in  forming  a  number  of  local  Committees 
which  have  rendered  most  valuable  assistance.     In  this  connexion   I  wish  to  express  my  best  thanks  to 
all  the  Committees  and  their  Secretaries,  and  more  especially  to  J.  K.  Hudson,  Esq.,  B.A.,   Manchester; 
S.  K.  Craven,  Esq.,  Bradford  ;   R.  O.   Heslop,  Esq.,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne ;  T.  C.  Peter,  Esq.,  Redruth ; 
and  W.  H.  Hills,  Esq.,  Ambleside,  who  have  spared  neither  time,  trouble,  nor  expense  in  helping  to  make 
the  material  as  complete  as  possible.     I  have  also  the  pleasant  task  of  expressing  my  sincere  gratitude 
to  all   the  voluntary  readers,  correspondents,  and  those  people  who  so   kindly  placed   their  manuscript 
collections  of  dialect  words  at  my  disposal.     From  the  lists  given  on  pp.  ix-xiv  it  will  be  seen  that  some- 
thing like  a  thousand  people  have  in  one  way  or  another  rendered  valuable  assistance  in  the  work.     In  the 
Preface  it  is  not  necessary  to  repeat  all  these  names,  but   I   must  specially  mention   the  following  who 
have  so  largely  contributed  to  make  my  material  what  it  is: — Mrs.  F.  A.  Allen,  Ilminster;  H.  A.  Barnes, 
Esq.,  Farnworth;   Dr.  G.  F.  Blandford,   London,  W. ;    the  Rev.  G.  B.  R.  Bousfield,  M.A.,  London,  W. 
Dr.  T.  N.  Brushfield,  Budleigh-Salterton ;  Miss  E.  F.  Burton,  Carlisle;  Miss  R.  H.  Busk,  London,  W. 
R.    Pearse    Chope,    Esq.,    B  A.,    Bayswater,    W. ;    G.    E.    Dartnell,    Esq.,    Salisbury ;    J.    W.    Darwood 
Esq.,   Cambridge ;    Prof  C.  A.  Federer,  Bradford ;    Dr.   Fitzedward   Hall,    Marlesford ;   the   Rev.    E.   H 
Goddard,  M.A.,  Wootton  Bassett;    Mrs.  S.   Hewett,  Lynton  ;   J.  K.  Hone,  Esq.,  Dudley;    E.  C.  Hulme, 
Esq.,    F.R.C.S.,    S.    Kensington;    the    Rev.    Hamilton    Kingsford,    M.A.,   Stoulton ;    Miss    S.  A.    Kirby 
London;    B.    Kirkby,    Esq.,    Batley ;    Miss   E.  Lloyd,    Crowborough;    the   Rev.    Dr.    Mitchell,   S.   Leith 
the  Rev.  W.  M.  Morris,   M.A.,  Treherbert;    Mrs.   Parker,   Oxford;   A.  Pope,    Esq.,    B.A.,    Manchester 
Dr.  E.  W.  Prevost,   Newnham,  Glos. ;   Miss  Romanes,  Oxford  ;   the    Rev.  W.  F.   Rose,   M.A.,  Weston 
super-Mare;    the    Rev.   J.    S.    F.    Singleton,   M.A.,  Weston-super-Mare;    E.   Smith,    Esq.,    Birmingham 
J.  E.  Sugars,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Manchester ;  S.  P.  Unwin,  Esq.,  .Shipley ;  the  Rev.  Alex.  Warrack,  M.A.,  Stranraer 
T.  C.  Warrington,   Esq.,  B.A.,  Carnarvon ;    L  Wilkinson,  Esq.,  Skelton,  Yorks. ;  the   Rev.    G.  Williams, 
M.A.,  Thornhill ;    Mrs.  Joseph  Wright,  Oxford;    and  also  the    Editors   of   The  Leeds  Mercuiy  Supple- 
ment,   The  Penrith  Observer,  Notes  and  Queries,  and   The   Yorkshire  Weekly  Post. 

I  owe  most  sincere  thanks  to  my  senior  Assistants,  Miss  Partridge,  Miss  Hart,  and  Miss  Yates, 
as  also  to  the  other  Assistants  who  have  helped  so  faithfully  and  excellently  in  the  preparation  of 
this  volume.  My  special  thanks  are  also  due  to  Mr.  Horace  Hart,  Controller  of  the  University 
Press,  for  much  valuable  advice  in  regard  to  the  technic  of  the  Dictionary;  and  also  to  Mr.  Ostler, 
the  press  reader,  for  the  most  excellent  manner  in  which  he  has  read  the  press  proofs.  I  also  express  my 
deep  sense  of  indebtedness  and  obligation  for  the  bequest  of  the  late  Thomas  Hallam,  Esq.,  Manchester, 
and  for  the  grant  from  the  Royal  Bounty  Fund  made  by  the  Right  Hon.  A.  J.  Balfour,  M.P.,  the 
First  Lord  of  the  Treasury.  Had  it  not  been  for  this  timely  substantial  support,  the  labours 
of  hundreds  of  people,  extending  over  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century,  would  have  been  spent 
in  vain ;  for  I  had  exhausted  all  my  own  mone}',  amounting  to  considerably  over  ;^2,ooo.  And 
lastly,  to  the  Delegates  of  the  University  Press  I  owe  my  best  thanks  for  their  great  kindness  in 
providing  me  with  a  'Workshop'  at  the  Press  at  a  nominal  rent;  but  the  Delegates,  while  offering 
me  every  facility  for  the  production  of  the  work,  have  no  responsibility,  pecuniary  or  other,  in  con- 
nexion with  it.  The  whole  responsibility  of  financing  and  editing  the  Dictionary  rests  upon  myself 
I  am  therefore  all  the  more  grateful  to  the  Subscribers  who  have  supported  me  in  this  great  and 
difficult  undertaking.  They  may  rest  assured  that  every  effort  will  be  made  to  maintain  the  present 
quality  of  the   work,  and    to  issue   the    Parts   at   regular   intervals   of  six   months    until   the  Dictionary 

is  completed. 


Juiu  1898. 




Addy,  S.  O.,  Sheffield. 
AiNswoRTH,  C,  Bolton-Ie-Moors. 
Alexander,  Miss  H.  L.,  Musselburgh. 
Allan,  E  ,  Newcastle-on-Tjne. 
Allen,  Mrs.  F.  A.,  Uminster. 
Andrews,  Miss  E.  J.,  London,  N.W. 
Angel,  S.  F.,  London,  S.  E. 
Antram,  Mrs.,  Riding  Mill-on-Tyne. 
Apperson,  G.  L.,  Wimbledon. 
Arlosh,  J.,  Littlemore,  Oxon, 
Armitt,  Miss  S.,  Ambleside. 

Bacon,  Rev.  M.  J.,  Reading. 

Barnes,  H.  A.,  Farnworth,  R.S.O. 

Baron,  J.,  Blackburn. 

Barrett.  Rev.  R.,  Bepton  Rectory. 

Barrs,  Miss  E.  A.,  Rotherhithe,  S.E. 

Barton,    Rev.    H.    C.    M.,    Christchurch, 

Bell,  O.,  Tynemouth,  Nhumb. 
Bellows,  M  ,  Upton  Knoll,  nr.  Gloucester. 
Bemfold,  Miss,  Oxford. 
Bentinck-Smith,  Miss  M.,  Egham. 
Berkley,     Miss    A.,     Swahvell,    R.S.O., 

Binns,  M.,  Wilsden,  Yorks 
Blandford,  Dr.  G.  F.,  London,  W. 
Blomeley,  S.,  Manchester. 
Boone,  Miss,  Ramsgate. 
Boswell- Stone,  W.  G.,  Beckenham. 
BousFiELD,  Rev.  G.  B.  R.,  London.  W. 
BousFiELD,  Miss  L.,  Bury  St   Edmunds. 
Bradbury,  H.,  Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Bradley,  Rev.  E. ,  Grantham. 
Bradley,  W.  ,  Worcester. 
Bramwell,  Miss  F.,  London,  S.W. 
Brierley,  G.  H. ,  CardilT. 
Brothers,  R.  G.,  Poynton,  Cheshire. 
Brown,  G.  H.,  Matlock. 
Brown.  Rev.  G.  JL,  Gigglcswick. 
Browne,  Miss  E.  M..  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Browne,  Mrs.W.,  Worcester. 
Brownlie,  Rev.  J.,  Portpatrick,  N.B. 
Brushfield,  Dr.  T.  N. ,  Budleigh-Salterton. 
Bryce.  Dr.  A.,  Birmingham. 
BuBB,  Miss  A.,  Malvern  Wells. 
BucKMAN,  S.  S.,  Cheltenham. 
Bulloch,  J.,  Aberdeen. 
Bullock.  C.  J.,  Wilmslow,  Cheshire. 
BuRNE,  Miss  C.  .S.,  Eccleshall,  StaUj. 
Burr,  H.  W.,  Sheffield. 
BuKSON,  W.,  Shrewsbury. 
Burton,  Miss  E.  F. ,  Carlisle, 
BuRiT,  G.  W.,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Burtwhistle,  A.,  Skipton. 
Busk,  Miss  R.  H.,  London,  W. 
Butler,  S.  I.,  Lambeth. 
Butterworth,  J.,  Oldham. 
Byles,  Mrs.  S.  A.,  Bradford. 
VOL.  I. 

Cameron,  Miss  L,  Birkenhead. 
Canny,  Mrs.  C.  R.,  London,  N.W. 
Carter,  Miss  A.  Q. .  Manchester. 
Carter,    Miss   M.    H.,    Headington    Hill, 

Catherwood,  MissE.,  West  Norwood,  S.E. 
Chalmers,  Miss  E.  N.,  Newport,  Pembroke. 
Chamberlain,  Rev.  F.  W.,  Exeter. 
Charleton,  R.  J.,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Chore,  R.  Pearse,  Bayswater,  W. 
Christie,  C,  Aberdeen. 
Clapham,  J.,  Bradford. 
Clarke,  R.  G.,  Stroud  Green,  W. 
Clarke,  R.  J.,  London,  N. 
Cochrane,  F.  S.,  Matlock  Bridge. 
Cole,  Rev.  R.  E.,  Lincoln. 
Colfox,  W.,  Bridport. 
Collier,  Rev.  C.  V.,  Gt.  Ayton,  Yorks. 
Combs,  Miss  M.  J.  L,  Leytonstone,  E. 
Cooke,  Rev.  E.  A.,  Bradford. 
Cooke,  Miss  L.,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Copley,  A.  B.,  Leicester. 
Courtney,  Miss  M.  A.,  Penzance. 
CowiE,  Miss  H.,  Troon,  Ayrshire. 
Craven,  S.  K.,  Bradford. 
Crawhall,    Miss    M.    V.,    Newcastleon- 

Crofton,  Rev.  A.,  Settle. 
CuRGENVEN,  J.  B.,  Hvde  Park,  W. 
CuRGENVEN,  Miss  R.  M  ,  Hyde  Park,  W. 
Curtis,  F.  J.,  Beith,  N.B. 

Dale,  Rev.  B.,  Bradford. 

Dallas,  A.  K.,  Glcnluce,  N.B. 

Dartnell,  G.  E.,  Salisbury. 

Darwood,  J.  W. ,  Cambridge. 

Davies,  Rev.  T.  L.  O.,  Woolston,  South- 

Dawson,  W.  H. 

Deedes,  Rev.  C,  Brighton. 

Ditchfield,  Rev.  P.  H.,  Wokingham, 

Dixon,  D.  D.,  Rothbury,  Nhumb. 

Dutchburn,  a.,  Fillingham,  nr.  Lincoln. 

Dymond,  C.  W.,  Ambleside. 

Eagleston,  Miss  A.,  Oxford. 
Eagleston,  Miss  R.,  Oxford. 
Ellis,  Miss  Beth,  Wigan. 
Ellis.  Miss  C,  Belgrave.  nr.  Leicester. 
Elworthy,  F.  T. ,  Wellington,  Somerset. 
Evelyn-White,   Rev.    C.    H.,    Chesham, 

Federer,  Prof.  C.  A.,  Bradford. 
Ferrand,  Miss  E.,  Hudderstield. 
Firth,  F.  H.,  Ashhiirton. 
Fletcher,  E.  H..  Skipton. 
FoRsTER,  G,  B.,  Corbridge,  R.S.O. 

FoRSTER,  T.  E. .  Corbridge,  R.S.O. 
Fowler,  J.  T.,  Winterton. 
Fowler,  Miss  W.  M.  E.,  Liphook,  Hants. 
Foxley,  Rev   J.,  Worksop. 
Frankland    M.,  Ossett. 
Eraser,  H.  E.,  M.B.,  Inverness. 
Freeman,  Rev.  E.  V.,  Dulverton. 
French,  E.,  Redhill,  Surrey. 
Fulcher,  Miss  A.  G.,  Dereham,  Norf. 

Gatty,  Rev.  R.,  Rotherham. 

Gem,  Miss,  Carlisle. 

Gibson,  Rev.  A.,  Perth. 

Goddard,  Rev.  C.  V.,  Shrewton. 

Goddard,  Rev.  E.  H.,  Wootton  Bassctt, 

Gosselin,  Miss  G.  H, ,  Guernsey. 

GossELiN,  H  ,  Ware,  Herts. 

Gottheil,  Miss,  Bradford. 

GoTTO,  Rev.  E,  K.,  Braunton,  Devon. 

Grandage,  J.,  Bradford. 

Green,  Miss,  Thornton  Heath   Surrey. 

Green,  Rev.  J.  H.,  Huddersfield. 

Green,  Miss  K.  M..  Liverpool. 

Greenstock,  Rev.  Canon,  Exeter. 

Greg.  Miss  E.  M.,  Handforth,  nr.  Man- 

Gregor,  Rev.  W.,  LL.D.,  Fraserburgh. 

GuNN,  W.,  Edinburgh. 

Gurney,  Miss  A.,  London,  W. 

GuTCH,  Mrs.,  York. 

Hailstone,  A.,  Manchester. 
Hankinson,  G.  H. ,  Manchester. 
Harbottle,  J.,  Gateshead-on-Tyne. 
Harkness,  D.,  Carlisle. 
Harris.  Miss  M.  D.,  Oxford. 
Hart,  Miss,  Oxford. 
Hart,  Miss  B.,  Oxford. 
Hawell,  Rev.  J.,  Middlesborough. 
Havlock,  J.  F.,  Stretford,  Manchester. 
Hemington,  J.,  Birmingham. 
Henderson.  Miss  F.  L.,  Truro. 
Hesketh.  W.,  Harliston. 
Heslop,  R.  O.,  Corbridge,  R.S.O. 
Hill,  Rev.  A    D.,  Salisbury. 
Hill,  T.  A.,  Plumtree.  nr.  Nottingham. 
HiLLENNE,  H.  J  ,  King's  L3'nn. 
Hills,  W.  H  ,  Ambleside. 
Hodgson,  J.  G.,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Hogg,  Miss  M.,  London,  S.W. 
Holden,  Mrs.,  Twickenham. 
HoLGATE,  C.  W. ,  Salisbury. 
Holland,  R.,  Warrington. 
HoLMDEN,  Miss  W.,  Birmingham. 
Homer,  J.  K.,  Dudley. 
HoMERSHAM,  Miss  M.  C  ,  Canterbury. 
Hone,  J.  K.,  Dudley. 
Hooper,  J.,  Norwich. 


Hooper.  Rev.  J.  W.,  Gateshead. 
Hope,  Miss  G.,  Redliill,  Surrey. 
HoRSLEY,  Miss  S.,  O-xford. 
Howard,  R.  H.,  Masham,  Yorks. 
Hudson,  Rev.  Canon  J.  C,  Horncastle, 
Hudson,  J.  K.,B.A.,Longsight,  Manchester. 
Hull,  R  ,  Byfield,  Northants. 
HuLME,  E.  C,  S.  Kensington,  S.W. 
HuLME,  E.  W.,  S.  Kensington,  S  W. 
HuLME,  Miss  E.,  S.  Kensington,  S.W. 
Humphreys,  A.  C,  Ealing  Dean. 
Hunter,  Rev.  D. ,  Edinburgh. 
Hunter,  W.  R.,  Bradford. 

Jackson,  Miss,  Chester. 

Jackson,  Miss  E.  M.,  S.  Kensington,  S.W. 

Jackson,  H.,  Keighley. 

Jenkinson,  Rev.  S. ,  Malton. 

JowETT,  J.  S.,  Brighouse,  Yorks. 

KiDSON,  F.,  Leeds. 

KiRBY,  Miss  S.  A.,  London,  W. 

Kirk,  J.  P.,  Bingham,  Notts. 

KiRKBY,  B.,  Batley. 

Knight,  A.  L.,  Leeds. 

Knowles,  W.  J.,  Ballymena. 

Krauss,  Mrs.  A.  M.,  Maiden,  Mass. 

Lamburn,  J.  B.,  West  Kensington  Park,  W. 

Lange,  Miss  D.  G.,  Oxford, 

Langford,  Dr,  J,  A.,  Birmingham. 

Latham,  H.,  Wakefield. 

Laurence,  Miss  E.  M.,  Exeter. 

Law,  Rev.  A.,  Chippenham. 

Lawrance,  H.,  Gainsborough. 

Laws,  E.,  Tenby. 

Lawson,  R.,  Urmston,  nr.  Manchester. 

Lawton,  D.  p.,  Saddleworth. 

Laycock,  B.,  Wilsden,  Yorks. 

Lea,  Miss  E.,  West  Kirby. 

Lea,  Miss  M.  K.,  West  Kirby. 

Leach,  R.  E.,  Hartlepool. 

Leader,  Miss,  London,  S.W. 

Leader,  Miss  E.  E  ,  Sheffield. 

Lee,  M.  L.,  London,  W. 

Leveson  GowER,  G  ,  Godstone, 

Lewin,  D.  W.,  Ramsgate. 

Lewis-Jones,  W.,  N.  Wales. 

Lloyd,  Miss  E.,  Crowborough. 

LoRiMER,  Miss,  Oxford. 

Lothian,  Rev.  W. 

LowENBERG,  Rev.  W.,  Bury. 

Lucas,  M.  B.,  London,  W. 

Lyall,  Miss  E.,  Wellington,  Somerset, 

Lyall,  Miss  L.  K.,  Wellington,  Somerset. 

Lyall,  Miss  W.,  Wellington,  Somerset. 

Lynn,  W.  T.,  Blackheath,  S.E. 

M'Call,  P,  J  ,  Dublin. 
Macdonell,  Mrs.  G.  P.,  London,  W. 
Mackay,  M.,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Maddison,  R.  D.,  Barnsley. 
Major,  Miss  K.  J..  Derby. 
Mammatt.  Miss  W.,  Ilklcy,  Yorks. 
Mann,  Miss,  Warwick. 
Mansergh,  J.  F  ,  Liverpool. 
March,  J.  E.,  Dorchester. 
Marsh,  Miss  M.  A.,  Dorking. 
Mathwin,  H.,  B  a.,  Southport. 
May   I\Iiss  E.,  Birmingham. 
Mayhew,  Mrs.,  Oxford. 
Mayhew,  Rev.  A.  L.,  Oxford. 
Maylam,  p.,  Canterbury. 
Mereuiiii,  Miss,  Oxford. 

Merryweather,  Miss  M.,  Ipswich. 

Metcalfe,  J.,  Baildon, 

Milroy,  Miss  H.,  Gateshead. 

Mitchell,  Rev.  Dr.  J.,  South  Leith. 

Moberly,  Rev.  G.  H  ,  Bradford-on-Avon. 

MoLYNEUx,  E.  K  ,  Woodford. 

Moore,  A.,  Dover. 

MuRisoN,  W.,  Aberdeen. 

Murray,  E.,  Beckenham. 

Murray,  L.,  Beckenham, 

Murray,  W.,  Beckenham. 

Musters,  Mrs.  L.  C,  Bingham,  Notts. 

Nash,  Mrs.,  Bolton-le-Moors. 
Negus,  Rev.  S. ,  Jamaica. 
Newboult,  F.  J.,  Bradford. 
Nicholson,  Miss  A.  F.,  Lewes. 
Nicholson,  J.,  Hull. 
NooTT,  Rev.  J.  F.,  Wangford. 
Norton,  C.  H.  B.,  Nottingham. 

OsTLE,  Rev.  J.  S.,  Penrith. 
Owen,  Miss  R.,  New  York. 

Palgrave,  Rev.  F.,  Canterbury. 
Palmer,  Mrs.  Smythe,  Woodford, 
Palmer,  Rev,  A.  Smythe,  Woodford. 
Parish,  Rev.  W.  D.,  Polegate. 
Pawson,  T.,  Bradford. 
Peacock,  E,,  Kirton  in-Lindsey. 
Peacock,  Miss  M,,  Kirton-in-Lindsey. 
Peattie,  Rev.  G,,  Stranraer,  NB. 
Pendlebury,  T.,  London,  N.E, 
Pengelly,  W.,  F.R.S.,  Torquay. 
Penny,  Rev,  C.  W.,  Wellington  College, 

Peter,  T.  C,  Redruth. 
Pigott,  Miss  E.  p.,  Oxford. 
Pilling,  A.,  Rochdale. 
Pinnock,  T.,  Birmingham. 
Plenderleath,  Rev.  W.  C,  Exeter. 
Porter,  R.  V.,  Beckenham. 
Potter,  G.  W.  J.,  S.  Woodford. 
PowLEY,  J.,  Langwathby,  Cumb. 
Prevost,  Dr.  E.  W.,  Newnham,  Gloucester. 
Pringle,  p.  D.,  Bradford. 

Reeve,  Miss  E.,  Brentwood. 
Roberts,  Miss,  Bradford. 
Robertson,  Rev.  G.  P.,  Stranraer,  N, B, 
Rogers,  Rev.  C.  F. ,  Helston,  Cornwall. 
Romanes,  Miss  M.,  Oxford. 
RooFE,  W..  Wandsworth,  S.W. 
Rose,  N.,  Birmingham. 
Rowell,  G.,  Newcastleon-Tyne. 

Sanderson,  W.  J.,  Hampstcad,  N.W. 
Satterthwaite,  W.,  Hawkshcad. 
Sawyer,  F.  E.,  F.S.A.,  Brighton. 
Scarse,  C,  E,,  Birmingham. 
Seward,  H.,  Balham  Hill,  London,  S,W. 
Shadwell,  L.  L.,  Marylebone,  W. 
Sharples,  L  B  ,  Radclifte,  Lane. 
Shaw,  Rev.  W.  F.,  Huddersfield. 
Shearer,  Prof.  W.  C,  Bradford. 
Shepherd,  Miss  H.  F. ,  Settle. 
Shiach,  Mrs.  M.,  Portobcllo,  N.B. 
Shuffrey,  Rev.  W.  A.,  Skipton. 
Sills,  Mrs.  C.  L.,  Nottingham. 
Singleton,  Rev.  J,  S,  F.,  Weston  super- 
Skeat,  Rev,  Prof,  W.  W.,  Cambridge, 
Skevves,  Miss,  Oxford. 
Smith,  E.,  Birmingham. 
Smith,  E.,  Walthamstow. 

Smith,  G.  A.,  Scarborough, 
Smith,  Rev,  G,  W.,  Sheffield, 
Speight,  E.  E.,  B.A.,  London,  E.G. 
Stafford,  R.,  Ashtonunder-Lyne. 
Steggall,  J.,  London,  W.C. 
Stokes,  Dr.,  Sheffield. 
Strachan,  Miss  C.  J.,  Reading. 
Strachan,  L.  R.  M.,  Oxford. 
Stuttard,  H.  P.,  Bradford. 
Sugars,  J,  E,,  Manchester. 
SuGDEN,  E,  H,,  Bradford. 
Sumner,   Miss,  Grasmere, 
Sutton,  A.,  London,  W.C. 
Sutton,  C.  W.,  Manchester. 
Sykes,  E.  W.,  Oxford. 

Taylor,  E.,  Goole. 
Thomas,  E.  J.,  Birmingham. 
Thompson,  Miss,  Settle. 
Thompson,  Miss  F.  P..  Settle. 
Thomson,  Miss  C,  Solihull,  Warw. 
Thomson,  Miss  M.,  Teddington. 
Threlkeld,  Miss,  Oxford. 
Tinker,  H,,  Huddersfield. 
Turner,  J,,  Bradford, 
Turner,  Miss,  Gloucester. 
TwEDDELL,  G.  M.,  Stokesley,  Yorks. 
TwEDDELL,  Mrs.,  Stokesley,  Yorks. 
Tyson,  Miss  M.,  Folkestone. 

Unwin,  Miss  D.,  Shipley,  Yorks, 

Varnish,  E.  G.,  Maida  Vale,  W. 

Waddington,  G.  W.,  Whitby, 

Walker,  Rev.  G.  G ,  Spilsby,  Line. 

Walker,  H.,  M,A,,  Retford,  Notts. 

Walter,  Miss  P,  E.  F.,  Wellington,  Somer- 

Warburton,  S.,  Broughton  Park,  Man- 

Ward,  H.,  Bradford. 

Warrack,  Rev.  A.,  Stranraer,  N.B. 

Washbourne,  Rev.  J.  K.,  Gloucester. 

Waterhouse,  a.  G.,  Pendleton,  nr.  Man- 

Watson,  C,  Nottingham. 

Weaver,  Rev.  F.  W.,  Evercreech,  Somerset. 

Webber,  Miss  M.  A.,  Maidenhead. 

Wheatley,  a.,  Bradford. 

Wheeler,  M.,  Bradford. 

Whelpton,  Miss  M.  W.,  Oxford. 

White,  Rev.  E.  C.  H.,  Chesham. 

White,  R.,  Worksop,  Notts. 

Whitwell,  R.  J.,  Kendal. 

Wildridge,  T.  T.,  Hull. 

Wilkinson,  L,  Skelton,  Yorks. 

Wilkinson.  Miss,  Cambridge. 

W1LLIA.MS,  Miss  F.  A,,  Salisbury. 

Williams,  Rev.  G.,  Stirling. 

Willis,  Dr.,  Bradford. 

Wilson,  Miss  A,  G.,  Scarborough. 

Wilson,  D.,  Windermere. 

Wilson,  MissE.  L.,  Stockfield-on-Tyne. 

Wilson,  H.  A.,  Oxford. 

Wiper,  W.,  Manchester. 

Woodcock,  L.,  Etwall,  Derby. 

WooLWARD,  Miss  E.,  Grantham. 

Wright,  J.,  Oxford. 

Wright,  Mrs.  E.  M.,  Oxford. 

Wright,  Miss  S.   L.  P.,  Scarborough. 

Wright,  W.  H.  K.,  Plymouth. 

Wroot,  H.  E.,  Bradford. 

Wkotteslev,  F.  J.,  London,  N.W. 



Abbott,  R.  L.  [Not,") 

ACKERNLEY,   M.   [w.YkS.] 

Adair,  J.  [Cum.1 

Addy,  S.  O.   [w.Yks.] 

Alderson,  E.  S.  [Yks.] 

Allen,  Mrs.  F.  A.  [Dev.,  Som.] 

Amerv,  p.  F.  S.   [Dev.] 

Anon.    [Men.,   Or.I.,    Sh.I.,   Wor.]    Coll. 

Arlosh,  J.  [Sc,  Nhb.,Cum.] 
Armitage,  Miss.   [e.Yks.] 
Atkinson,  J.  [Wm.] 
Aykroyd,  H.  E.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Bacon,  Rev.  M.  J.  [Brks.] 

Ballard,  H.  [ne.Hrf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Banting,  W.  B.  [Brks.]  Co//.  L.L.B. 

Barker,  Rev.  J.   [War.] 

Barnes,  W.  [Dor.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Barton,  Rev.  H.  C.  M.  [Hmp.] 

Batson,  Miss  H.  M.   [Brks.] 

Beesley,  T.   [Oxf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Bentinck-Smith,  Miss  M.  [Var.  dial.] 

Berkley,  Miss  A.  [Dur.] 

Betham.  C.  G.  de.  rSuf.] 

Bingham,  C.  W.  [Dor.] 

BiNNs,  JE.  [w.Yks.] 

Birley,  J.  [Der.] 

Blair,  R.,  F.S.A.  [Var.  dial.] 

Bradley,  Rev.  E.  [Lin.] 

Bradley,  W.  [Wor.] 

Bramble,  J.  R.  (Som.] 

Braund,  G.  [Dev.] 

Brenan,  Rev.  -S.  A.  [Ant.] 

Brigg,  J.  J.  [w  Yks.] 

Brookes,  W.  M.  [Cmb.] 

Brown,  J.  H.  [Not.] 

BuBB,  Miss  A.  [Glo.] 

Buckingham,  J.  H.  [Min.  terms,  Yks.] 

Buckman,  S.  S.  [Glo.] 

Bullock,  C.  J.  [Lan.,  Chs.] 

Burgess,  Rev.  B.  (Hrt.] 

Burgon,  J.  W.  [Bdf  1 

Burr,  H.  W.  [Cum.] 

Butler,  S.  I.  [w.Yks.  and  Nrf.] 

Byles,  Mrs.  S.  A.  [Tech.  terms,  w.Yks.] 

Carter,  Miss  M.  H.  [Ess.] 
Castle,  J.  [Oxf.] 
Castleman,  W.  H.  [Glo.] 
Chadwick,  S.  J.  [Min.  terms,  w.Yks.] 
Chalmers,  A.  E.  [w.Yks] 
Chalmers,  Miss  E.  N.  [Var.  dial.] 
Chalmers,  F.  R.  [Lan.l 
Chamberlain,  Rev.  F.  W.   [Dev.] 
Chore,  R.  P.  [Dev.] 

Clapham,  J.  [w.Yks.] 

Clarke,  R.  G.  [Var.  dial.] 

Clear,  A.   [n.Bck.] 

Cole,  Rev.  R.  E.  [sw.Lin.] 

CoLFox,  W.   [Dor.] 

Collier,  Rev.  C.  V.  [Quarry  terms,  Yks.] 

Collins.  A.  [Per.] 

Combs,  Miss  M.  J.  \.  [Var.  dial.] 

Conder,  E.  [Wm.] 

Cooke,  J.  H.   [Glo.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Cooper,  Rev.  T.  S.  [sw.Sur.] 

Cotton.  J.  [MS.  Additions  to  Ray.] 

Coulthard,  Rev.  H.  [Cum.] 

Courtney,  Miss  M.  A.  [Cor.] 

Craven,  S.  K.  [w.Yks.] 

Crofton,  Rev.  A.  [Yks.,  Lan.] 

Cuming,  W.  [Dor.] 

Curry,  Dr.  [MS.  Additions  to  Grose.] 

D.  A.  [MS.  Additions  to  Grose.] 
Daniels,  W.  H.  [n.Dev.] 
Darlington,  T.  [Var.  dial.] 
Dartnell,  G.  E.  [s.Wil.,  var.  dial.] 
Darwood,  J.  W.  [Cmb.] 
Davey,  F.  H.  [Cor.] 
Davidson,  Rev.  J.  S.   [Yks.] 
Davies,  Rev.  J.  [Lan.] 
Davies,  Rev.  T.  L.  O.   [Hmp.] 
Davis,  J.  [Hrf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
Dent,  Miss  J.  E.  [Dur.] 
Denwood.  J.  [Cum.] 
Dickinson,  J.  W.   [w.Yks.] 
DiTCHFiELD,  Rev.  P.  H.   [Brks.] 
Douglas,  E.  [s.Pem.,  Shr.] 
Douglas,  Miss.  [Dev.,  Cor.] 
Dymond,  C.  W.  [Lan.] 

Eaden,  H.  W.  [Hmp.] 
Eagleston,  J.   [Oxf.] 
Fames,  F.  [Var.  dial.] 
Eaton,  Rev.  W.  R.  [Nrf.] 
Edmundson,  J.  [Tech.  terms.] 
Ellacombe,  Rev.  H.  T.  [Glo.] 
Ellin,  T.  R.  [w.Yks.] 
Ellis,  Miss  C.  [Lei.] 
Ellwood,  Rev.  T.  [Wm.] 
Elworthy,  F.  T.  [Som.] 
Emerson,  P.  H.  [Nrf.] 
Evans,  W.  H.  [Var.  dial.] 

Federer,  Prof.  C.  A.  [Yks.] 
Feltoe,  Rev.  C.  L.  [Suf.] 
Fennell.  C.  A.  M.  [Cmb.] 
Ferim,  T.  P.  [Hnt.] 
Ferrand,  Miss  E.   [w.Yks.] 
Field,  Rev.  T.  [Lin.] 

Fowler,  Rev.  J.  C.  [Yks.] 

Fowler,  J.  T.  Inw.Lin.] 

Fowler,  Miss  W.  M.  E.  [Yks.  and  Hmp.] 

Frankland,  M.  [lech,  terms,  w.Yks.] 

Fraser,  H.  E.,  M.B.   [Inv.  I 

Freeman,  Rev.  E.  V.   [n.Dev.] 

French,  E.  [Var.  dial.] 

Freshfield,  E.,  a  Collection  of  Commoner 

Words '  used  at  Winch.  School, 
Fulcher,  Miss  A.  G.  [Nrf.] 

Gardner,  Miss  G.  [Ken.] 
Gardner,  W.  [War.] 
Garrett,  W.   [n.Cy.]  Coll.  L.LB, 
Goddard,  Rev.  C.  V.  [w. Dor.] 
Goddard,  Rev.  E.  H.  [n.Wil.] 
GossELiN,  H.  [Hrt.] 
GoTTO,  Rev.  E.  R.  [Dev.] 
Grandage,  J.   [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 
Grant,  W.  A.  [Sh.I.]  Colt.  L.L.B. 
Graub,  W.  A.  [Sh.I.] 
Green,  Rev.  J.  H.  [w.Yks.] 
Green,  Miss  K.  M.  [Wil.] 
Greene,  W.  H.  [Hrf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
Greenwood,  E.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 
Greg.  Miss  E.  M.  [Chs.] 
Gregg,  J.  C.  [Hrf]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
Gregor,  Rev.  W.   [Sc  ] 
Gregory,  Miss  M.  [w.Yks.] 
Griffith,  Rev.  J.,  D.D.  [Hrt.] 
Gurney,  Miss  A.  [Nrf.] 

Hall,  F.  [Suf.] 

Hallam,  T.  [nw.Der.] 

Hallward,  Rev.  J.  T.  [Hrt] 

Hamilton,  Rev.  C.  W.  [w.Yks] 

Hankinson,  G.  H.   [Chs.,  s.Der.,  Stf] 

Harbottle,  J.   [Nhb.] 

Harris,  W.  [Not.] 

Hart,  H.  C.  |] 

Haylock.  J.  F.  [Lan.] 

Healey,  T.  H.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Heckley,  W.   [n.  and  e.Yks.] 

Henderson,  Miss  F.  L.  [Cor.] 

Hetworth,  S.  C.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Hesketh,  W.  [s.Nrf  ] 

Heslop,  R.  O.  [Nhb.] 

Hewett,  Mrs.  S.   [Dev.] 

Hey,  H.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Hill,  Rev.  A.  D.  [Winch.  School.] 

Hill.  J.  [n.Yks.] 

Hill,  T.  A.  [Not.] 

HiLLENNE,  H.  J.   [Nrf.] 

Hills,  W.  H.  [Wm.] 

Hodgson,  J.  [n.Cy.,  var.  dial] 

Hodson,  C.  F.  [Hrt.] 




HoLDERNESS.  T.  [e.Yks.] 

Hole,  R.   [MS.  Additions  to  Grose.] 

HoLMDEN,  Miss  W.  [Var.  dial.] 

Hooper,  J.   [Nrf.] 

Hooper,  Rev.  J.  W.  [Var.  dial.] 

Hopkins,  Rev.  G.  M.  [Ir.J 

Howard,  R.  H.   [Yks.] 

Hudson,  J.  K,  B.A.  [Lan.] 

HurroN,  Mrs.  H   S.  [Glo.] 

Jones,  J.  [Glo.,  m.Hrf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
Jones,  J.  S.  [Not.] 
Jones,  T.  K.  [Fit.] 
Joyce,  P.  W.  [Ir.] 
Just,  —  [Wm.] 

Rennet,  W.  [MS.  GI.  c.  1700.] 
Kewley,  J.  [Der.,  Stf.] 
KiDsoN,  F.  [Yl<s.,  Lan.l 
KiNGSFORD,  Rev.  H.  [Wor.] 
Kipling,  T.  [Yks.] 
KiRBY.  Miss  S.  A.  [Var.  dial.] 
Kirk,  J.  P.   [s.Not] 
KiRKBY,  B.  [n.Wm.,Yks.] 
Knowles,  W.  J.  [Ir.] 

Lach-Szyrma,  Rev.  W.  S.  [Cor.] 

Langford,  J.  A    [Stf] 

Latham,  H.  [w.Yks.] 

Law,  Rev.  A.  [Wil  ] 

Lawrence,  T.  [Lan.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Laws,  E.  [s.Pem.] 

Lawson,  Rev.  R.  [Won] 

Lawton,  D.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

L.  E.  [Sh.I.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Lea,  Miss  E.   [Var.  dial.] 

Leach,  R.  E.   [Dur.] 

Lee,  J.  [Lan.] 

Lee,  Mrs.  M.  [Shr.] 

Lee,  p.  F.  [Min.  terms,  Yks.] 

Leech,  R.  E.  [Suf.] 

Lewin,  D.  W.  [Ken.] 

Lewis,  Rev.  J.  S.  [Mtg] 

Littledale,  H.  a.  [w.Yks.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Lloyd,  Miss  E.  [w.Yks.] 

Lloyd-Price,  W.  [Dev.] 

LowRV.  W.  D.  [Cor.] 

Lupton.  F.  M.  [w.Yks.] 

Lyall,  Miss  L.  K.  [Som.] 

Lysoxs,  S.  [Glo] 

M'-Call,  p.  J.  [Ir.] 

Madden,  Sir  F.  [MS.  Additions  to  Grose.J 

Manley,  H.  [Var.  dial.] 

Mansel,  G.  [Dor.] 

Mason,  J.,  M  D.   [Wm.] 

Mathwin,  H.  [Ken.] 

Matthew,  Miss  E.  [Nrf.] 

May,  Miss  E.   |Wor.] 

Mavlam,  p.   [Ken.] 

Mayor,  J.  E.  B.  [Yks.] 

Meredith,  Miss.  [Glo.] 

Merrick,  W.  P.  [Mid.] 

MiLLETT,  F.  W.  [Cor.] 

MiLROY,  Miss  H.  [Gall.,  Nhb.,  n.Yks.] 

MiNCHiN,  Rev.  H.  H.  [Ess.] 

Moon,  Miss  M.  S.  [Cav.] 
Moore,  R.  W.  [Wor.] 
Morris,  E.  R.  [Mtg.] 
Morris,  Rev.  M.  C.  F.  [Yks.] 
Morris,  Rev.  W.  M.   [s.Pem.] 
MuNBY,  A.  J.  [Var.  dial.] 
Murray,  E.   [Ir.] 
Musters,  Mrs.  L.  C.  [Not.] 
Myers,  J.   [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Newboult,  F.  J.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 
Northrop,  M.   [w.Yks.] 
Norton,  C.  H.  B.  [Nrf.] 

Oddie,  Rev.  J.  W.  [Cum.] 
Ostle,  Rev.  J.  S.  [Cum.] 

Palmer,  Miss.  [Ker.] 

Palme  i,  Rev.  A.  Smythe.  [Var.  dial.] 

Parker,  G.  [Chs.] 

Parker,  Mrs.  G.  |  Oxf.] 

Parkin,  W.  W.  [Yks.  I 

Partridge,  J.  W.  [ne.Wor.] 

Paiterson,  G.  [Nnd.] 

Patterson,  W.  H.  [n.Ir.] 

Paul,  C.  K.  [Dor.] 

Peachey,  G.  C.  [Brks.] 

Peacock,  Miss  M.  [Lin.] 

Peel,  R.  [Lan.] 

Pegge,  S.  [MS.  Additions  to  Grose.] 

Pengelly,  W.  [sw.Dev.] 

Peter,  T.  C.   [Cor.] 

Petrie,  G.  [Or. I.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 

Pigott,  Miss  E.  P.  [Var.  dial.] 

Pilling,  A.  [Lan.] 

Pinnock,  T.  [s.Stf.] 

Piper,  Mrs.  A.  M.  F.  [Hrf.]  ColL  L.L  B. 

Plesderleath,  Rev.  W.  C.  [WiL] 

PowLEY,  Miss  M.  [Cum.] 

Prevost,  E.  W.  [Cum.] 

Priestley,  J.  [w.Yks.] 

Punchard,  Rev.  E.  G.  [Suf.] 

Radcliffe,  p.  [Var.  dial.] 
Rayner,  F.  [Tech.  terms,  Y'ks.] 
Rhodes,  J.  [w.Yks.1 
Richards,  Rev.  T.  H.  [Lin.l 
Ridgway,  M.  [w.Yks.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
Robertson,  J.  D.  [Var.  dial.] 
Robinson,  C.  C.  [Yl-s.] 
Robinson,  C.  J.  [Hrf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
Rogers,  Rev.  C.  F.  [Cor.] 
Rope,  Miss  M.  E.  [Suf.] 
Rose,  N.  [War.] 
Rose,  Rev.  W.  F.  [Som.] 
RowBOTTOM,  H.  [Der.] 
Rowland,  Miss  M.  A.  [Oxf.,  Ess.] 
RowNTREE,  J.  S.  [Yks.] 
RuDD,  R.  H.  [w.Yks.] 
Rundle,  Rev.  S.  [w.Cor.] 
Ryland,  J.  W.  [War.] 

Sandys,  W.  [Cor.] 
Satterthwaite,  W.  [n.Lan.]   . 
Sawyer,  F.  E.  [Sus.J 

Scot,  S.  A.  [Or.I.] 

Scott,  R.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Shaw,  Rev.  W.  F.  [Ken.] 

Shepherd,  Miss  H.  F.  [w.Yks.] 

Singleton,  Rev.  J.  S.  F.  [Glo.,  Som.] 

Skeat,  Rev.  Prof.  W.  W.   [Var.  dial.] 

Slingsby,  W.  C.  [w.Yks.] 

Smith,  E.  [War.] 

Smith,  W.  H.  [Yks.] 

Southall,  Miss  M.  L.  [Shr.,  Hrf.] 

Stevenson,  W.  H.  [Not.] 

Stock,  J.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Strong,  W.  A.  [Won] 

SuTCLiFFE,  H.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 

Sutton,  E.  [n.Lin.] 

Sutton,  T.  S.  [Wil.] 

Sykes,  Dr.  W.  [Var.  dial.] 

Tate,  T.  [w.Yks.] 

Terry,  C.  [Suf.] 

Thompson,  Miss  C.  [w.Yks.] 

Thompson,  Miss  F.  P.  [w.Yks.] 

Thompson,  G.  H.  [Nhb.] 

Thornton,  W.  [Tech.  terms,  Y'ks.] 

Thorpe,  D.  [Min.  terms,  Yks.] 

Tomline,  G.  H.  [s.War.]  Coll.  L.L.B.        ■ 

Tomlinson,  Mrs.  J.  [Wm.] 

Turner,  J.   [Tech.  terras,  Yks.  and  Min. 

terms,  Stf.] 
Turner,  W.  B.  [w.Yks.] 
Twistleton,  T.  [w.Yks.] 
Tyson,  Miss  M.  [e.Ken.] 

Unwin,  S.  P.  [w.Yks.] 

Vernon,  C.  J.  [I.W.] 

Vint,  W.  H.  [Quarry  terms,  w.Yks.] 

Waddington,  G.  W.  [Yks.] 
Waddell,  Rev.  C.  H.  [Dwn.] 
Walker,  G.  B.  [w.Yks.] 
Walker,  Rev.  G.  G.  [e  Lin.] 
Walker,  H.  [Cum.,  Not.] 
Walker,  J.  T.  [Yks.] 
Walmsley,  E.  [Tech.  terms,  Y'ks.] 
Warburton,  S.  [Lan.] 
Washbourne,  Rev.  J.  K.  [Glo.] 
Watson,  C.   [w.Yks.] 
Watson,  Miss  M.  [Ess.] 
Waugh,  E.  [Lan.] 
Westlake,  Prof.  J.   [w.Con] 
White,  R.  [Not.] 
Wilkinson,  Miss.   [Van  dial.] 
Wilkinson,  I.  [n.Yks.] 
Williams,  Rev.  G.   [Sc] 
Williams,  Rev.  W.  P.  [Som.] 
Wilson,  A.  G.  [Lan.] 
Wilson,  J.   |  Hrt.] 
Wise,  J.  R.  [Wan,  Hmp.] 
Woodhouse,  R.   [Hrf.]  Coll.  L.L.B. 
WooLWARD,  Miss  E.    I  Lan.,  Lin.] 
Wordsworth,  Rev.  C.   [Don] 
Wright,  J    [w.Yks.] 
Wroot,  H.  E.  [e.  and  w.Yks.] 

Young,  Rev.  W.  H.  [Var.  dial.] 



Abbott,  R.  L.,  Oxford.  [Not.] 
Adair,  J.,  Egremont.  [Cum.l 
Addy,  S.  O.,  Sheffield.  [w.Yks.] 
Alderson,  E.  S.,  Wakefield.  [w.Yks.] 
Andk^,  J.  L.,  Horsham.  [Sus.] 
Atkinson,  A.,  Brigg.   [Lin.] 
Aylward,  T.  G.,  Hereford.  [Hrf.] 

Bacon,  Rev.  M.  J.,  Reading.  rBrks.,Cmb.] 
Bamford,  F.  [Tech.  terms,  Yks.] 
Baring,  F.  H.,  London,  W.    [Sus.,Hmp.] 
Barker,  Rev.  J.,  Eardisland.  [Hrf.] 
Barlow,  Miss  J.,  Raheny,  S.O.  [Ir.] 
Barrett,  Rev.  R.,  Bepton.   [m.Sus.l 
Barton,  Rev.  H.  C.  M.,  Ringwood.  [Hmp.] 
Bealby,  J.  T.,  Finchley,  N.  [Lin.] 
Beckett,  J.,  Whitchurch.  [Shr.] 
Belcher,  Miss  M.  E.,  Abingdon.  [Brks.] 
Bell,  C.  C,  Epworth,  nr.  Melton  Mowbray, 

Benifold,  Miss  K.,  Oxford.  [Oxf.] 
Bentinck-Smith,  Miss  M.,  Egham.  [Ir.] 
Berkley,  Miss  A.,  Swalwell.  [Dur.] 
Betham,  C.  G.  de,  Brettenham.  [Suf.] 
Bevan,  C.  N.,  Lynmouth.  [Dev.] 
BiNNS,  JE..,  Wilsden.  [w.Yks.] 
Bird,  Rev.  M.  C.  H.,  Stalham.   [Nrf.] 
Blakeborough,      R.,     Stockton-on-Tees. 

Bond,  N.,  Wareham.  [s.Dor.] 
Boswell-Stone,  W. G.,  Beckenham.  [Dor.] 
Bosworth,  Rev.  R.  P.,  Fakenham.   [Nrf.] 
Bousfield,  Rev.   G.   B.  R.,  London,  W. 

Bradley,  W.,  Worcester.  [Wor] 
Brassington,  W.   S.,   Stratford-on-Avon. 

Brenan,  Rev.  S.  a.,  Knockiiacarry.  [Ant.] 
Brown,  Rev.  R.H.,  Southport      [w.Yks.] 
Brown,  Rev.  T.  E.,  Ramsay,  I. Ma.  [LMa.] 
Brushfield,  Dr.  T.  N.,  Budleigh-Salterton. 

Buckman,  S.  S.,  Cheltenham.  [Glo.] 
Bumby,  F.  E.,  Nottingham.  [Not.] 
Burne,  Miss  C.  S.,  Cheltenham.  [Shr.,  Stf.] 
Burr,  H.  W.,  Sheffield.  [w.Yks.] 
Burson,  W.,  Shrewsbury.  [Shr.] 

Cambridge,  Rev.  O.  P.,  Bloxworth.  [Dor.] 
Carter,  Miss  A.,  Manchester.  [Lan.] 
Casson,  J.,  Seathwaite.  [Cum.] 
Caux,  J.  W.  PE,  Great  Yarmouth.  [Nrf.] 
Cave,  E.  L.,  Bromyard.  [Hrf.] 
Chadwick,  .S.  J.,  Dewsbury.  [w.Yks.] 
Chafy-Chafy, Rev.  W.  K. W.,Rous Lcnch. 

Chamberlain,  Rev.  F.W.,  Exeter.  [Dev.] 
Chope,  R.  p.,  Bayswater,  W.  [Dev.] 
Clapham,  J.,  Bradford.  [w.Yks.] 
Clarkson,  G.,  Hull.  [e.Yks.] 
Clear,  A.,  Winslow.  [n.Bck.] 
Coats,  Mrs.,  Paisley.  [Sc.  1 
Codrington,  Rev.  R.  H.,Chichester.  [Sus.] 
Cole,  Rev.  E.  M.,  Wetwang.  [e.Yks.] 
Cole,  Rev.  R.  E.,  Doddington.  [sw.Lin.] 
Cooper,  Rev.  T.  S.,Chiddingfold.  [sw.Sur.] 
Cornish,  J.  B.,  Penzance.   [Cor.] 
CouLTHARD,  Rev.  H.,  Kendal.  [Cum.] 
Courtney,  Miss  M.  A.,  Penzance.  [Cor.] 
Cowie,  Miss  H.,  Troon.  [Slk.] 
Cozens-Hardy,  H.,  Norwich.  [Nrf.] 
Cramond,  W.,  Cullen.  [Bnff.,  Kcd.,  Abd.] 
Crashaw.  C.  B.,  Dewsbury.  [w.Yks.] 
Craven,  S.  K.,  Bradford.  [w.Yks.] 
Crockett,  S.  R.,  Penicuik.  [Gall.] 
Crofton,  Rev.  A.,  Settle.  [w.Yks.] 

Dand,  M.  H.  [Nhb.] 
Darlington,  TP.,  West  Dulwich.  [Chs.] 
Dartnell,  G.  E..  Salisbury.  [Wil.] 
Davidson,  Rev.  J.  S.,Full  Sutton.  [w.Yks.] 
Davies,  Rev.  T.  L.  O.,  Woolston.  [Hmp.] 
Dennis,  Rev.  P.  G.,  N.  Luffenham.  [Rut., 

DncHFiELD,    Rev.     P.    H.,    Wokingham. 

DixoN,  D.  D.,  Rothbury.  [Nhb.] 
DowDEswELL,   Rev.  E.  R.,   Tewkesbury. 

Downey,  A.,  Hanley.  [Ir.] 

Eaden,  H.  W.,  Jotton.  [Hmp.] 
Edgecumb,    Mrs.  R.   M.,    Hanley  Castle. 

[Hrf.,  Wor.] 
Ellis.  Miss  C,  Leicester.  [Lei.] 
Elworthy,  F.  T.,  Wellington.   [Som.  and 

Evans,  J.  Y.,  Talgarth.  [Gmg.] 

Farquharson,  Rev.  J.,  Selkirk.  [Slk.] 
Faull,  W.,  St.  Ives.  [Cor.] 
Faunthorpe,  Rev.  J.  P.,  Chelsea.  [Lin.] 
Feltoe,  Rev.  C.   L. ,  Bury  St.   Edmunds. 

ffrench.  Rev.  J.  F.  M.,  Clonegal.  [Ir.] 
Field,  Rev.  T.,  Brigg.   [Lin.] 
Firth,  J.,  Bradford.  [w.Yks.] 
FiSHWicK,  H.,  Rochdale.  [Lan.] 
Forster,T.  E.,Corbridge,  R.S.O.  [Nhb.] 
Foster,  J.,  Beith.  [Ayr.] 
Fowler,  Rev.  W.,  Liverscdge.  [w.Yks.] 
Fowler,  W.  W.,  Oxford.  [Birds.] 

Fox,  Rev.  E.  S.,  Snaith.  [w.Yks.] 
Frankland,  M.,  Ossett.   [w.Yks.] 
Eraser,  H.  E.,  Dundee.  [Inv.] 
Eraser,     W.    C,    Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Frost,  J.,  Limerick.  [Ir.] 
Fulcher,  Miss  A.  G.,  Dereham.  [Nrf.] 

Giles,  P.,  Cambridge.  [Abd.] 

Goddard,  Rev.  C.  V.,  Maddington.  [Dor.] 

Goddard,  Rev.  E.   H.,  Wootton  Bassett. 

Goldthorpe,  W.,  Levenshulme.     [Lan.] 
GoMME,  Mrs.  A.  B.,  London,  N.W.     [Var. 

Gosselin,  Miss  G.  H.,  Guernsey.     [Hrt] 
Gould,  H.,  Crewkerne.   [e.Som.] 
Green,  Miss  G.  L.,  Thornton  Heath.  [Sur.] 
Green,  J.,  Sunderland.  [Nhb.] 
Greenwood,  J.  [Nhb.] 
Grierson,    Prof.    H.     J.    C,    Aberdeen. 

GuNN,  J.,  Edinburgh.  [Or.I.] 

Hall,  F.,  Marlesford.  [Suf.] 
Hallward,  Rev.  J.  T.,  Harlow.  [Hrt.] 
Hardy,  Dr.  J.,  Cockburnspath.   [Nhb.] 
Hardy,  T.,  Dorchester.  [Dor.] 
Harris,  Miss  M.  D.,  Leamington.   [War.] 
Hartland,  E.  S.,  Highgarth.  [Glo.] 
Hartley,  J.,  Leeds.  [w.Yks.] 
Hawell,    Rev.     J.,    Ingleby    Greenhow. 

Hawes,  Miss  S.  P.,  Richmond.  [Ess.] 
Heslop,     R.     O.,    Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Hewett,  Mrs.  S.,  Lynton.  [Dev.] 
Hill,  T.  A.,  Plumtree.  [Not.] 
Hills,  W.  H.,  Ambleside.  [Wm.] 
Holland,  R.,  Frodsham.  [Chs.] 
Hooper,  J..  Norwich.  [Nrf] 
Howard,  R.  H.,  Mashara.  [Yks.] 
Hudson,   Rev.  Canon  J.  C.,    Horncastle. 

HuTTON,  Mrs.  H.  S.,  Stroud.  [Glo.] 

Irvine,  Miss  K.,  Lerwick.  [Sh.I.] 
Irwin,  A.  J.,  Ballyortan.  [Ir.] 

Jackson,  Miss  G.  F.,  Chester.  [Shr.] 
Jackson,  W.,  Masham  Mill.  [n.Yks.] 
Jakobsen,  J.,  Copenhagen.  [Sh.I.] 
Jephson,  Rev.  J.  M.  [Ess.] 
Jowett,  J.  S.,  Brighouse.  [w.Yks.] 
Joyce,  P.  W.,  Rathmines.  [s.Ir.] 



Kermode,  Rev.    S.  A.  P.,  Kirk  Onchan. 

[I.  Ma.] 
Kewley,  Rev.  W.,  Broughton-in-Furness. 

King,  J.  C  ,  London,  N.W.  [Brks] 
KiNGSFORD,  Rev.  H.,  Stou'.ton.  [s.Wor.] 
Kirk.  J.  P.,  Bingham.  (Not.] 
KiRKBY,  B.,  Batley.  [Wm.,w.Yks.] 
Knight,    A.    L.,    Leeds.      [Tech.   terms, 

-Knowles,  W.  J.,  Ballymena.  [n.Ir.] 

Larcombe,  F.  W.,  Wadhurst.  [Sus.,  Som.] 
Lawlev,  G.  F.,  Bilston.  [s.Stf.] 
Laws,  E.,  Tenby.  [s.Pem.] 
Leach,  R.  E..  Hartlepool.   [Dur.] 
Lee,  Rev.  J.  N.,  Cowling.  [vv.Yics.] 
Lee,  Mrs.  M.,  Whitchurch.  [Shr.] 
Lewin,  D.  W.,  Ramsgate.  [Ken.] 
Lewis.  J.  S.,  Welshpool.  [Mtg.] 
LowsLEY,  Col.  B.,  Southsea.  [Brks.] 

M'EwEN,  Mrs.  K.,  Kirkwall.  [Or.L] 
McLaren,  J.  W.,  Edinburgh.  [s.Sc] 
Mains,  J.  H.,  Portland.     [Dor.] 
Markham,  C.  a.,  Northampton.  [Nhp.] 
Mathwin,  H.,  Birkdale.  [Lan.,  Ken.] 
Mayhew,  Rev.  A.  L.,  Oxford.    [Var.  dial.] 
Mavlam,  p.,  Canterbury.  [Ken.] 
Mellor,  H.,  Huddersfield.  [w.Yks.] 
Metcalfe,  J.,  Baildon.  [w.Yks.] 
Miller,  Rev.  L.,  Oxford.  [War.] 
Minchin,  Rev.  H.H.,  Manningtree.  [Ess.] 
Mitchell,  Rev.  J.,  South  Leith.  [Sc] 
Moore,  A.,  Eythorne.  [Ken.] 
Moore,  H.  C,  Hereford.  [Hrf.] 
Morris,  Rev.  M.  C.  F.,  Hayton.   [n.Yks.] 
Morris.  Rev.  W.  M.,  Treherbert.  [s.Pem.] 
Moule,  H.  J.,  Dorchester.   [Dor.] 
MuLCAiiY,  Very  Rev.  D.  P.,  Lusk.  [Ir.] 
MuRisoN,  W.,  Aberdeen.  [Abd.] 
Murray,  Rev.  J.,  Cupar.  [e.Sc] 
Musters,  Mrs.  L.  C,  Bingham.  [Not.] 

NicHOLL,  S.,  Halifax.   [w.Yks.] 
Nicholson,  J.,  Hull.  [e.Yks.] 
Nodal,  J.  H.,  Heaton  Moor.  [Lan.] 
Northall,  G.  F.,  Erdington.  [War.] 

Oddie,  Rev.  J.W.,  Lyzwick  Hall, Keswick. 

OLaverty,  Rev.  Father,  Holywood.  [Ir.] 
Orger,  Rev.  E.  R.,  Dover.  [Ken.] 
Owen,  Rev.  E.,  Oswestry.   [Mtg.] 

Palgrave,  Rev.  F.,  Canterbury.     [Dur.] 
Palmer,  Rev.  A.   Smythe,  S.   Woodford. 

[Var.  dial.] 
Parish,  Rev.  W.  D.,  Polegate.  [Ken.] 
Parker,  Mrs  ,  Oxford.  [Oxf.] 
Patterson,  A.,  Yarmouth.  [Nrf.] 
Patterson,  Miss,  Holywood.   [Ir.] 
Peacock,  E.,  Kirton-in-Lindsey.  [n.Lin.] 
Peter,  T.  C,  Redruth.  [Cor.] 
Phipson,  E.  A.,  Stratford-on-Avon.    [Var. 

Plummer,  Rev.  C,  Oxford.  [Hmp.] 
Pope,  A.,  Pendleton.  [Stf.] 
PowLES,  Rev.  R.  F.,  Southampton.  [Hmp.] 
PowLEY,  J.,  Langwathby.  [Cum.] 
Prickman,  J.  D.,  Okehampton.   [Dev.] 
Punchard,  Rev.  Dr.  E.  G.,  Luton.  [Nrf. 

and  Suf.] 

Radcliffe,  J.,  Greenfield.  Oldham.   [Lan.] 
Rawnsley,  Rev.  Canon  H.  D.,  Keswick. 

Raymond,  J.  T.,  Upton  Snodbury.   [Wor.] 
Rhodes,  J.,  Keighley.   (w.Yks.T 
Richards,  D.  M.,  Aberdare.   [Wal.] 
Richards,  Rev.  T.  H.,  Burton-on-TrenL 

[m.  and  s.Lin] 
Robertson,  J.  D.,  Richmond  Hill.  [Glo.] 
Rope,  Miss  M.  E.,  Orford.  [Suf.] 
Rope,  Miss  H.  J.  L.,  Blaxhall.  [Suf.] 
Rose,    Rev.    W.    F.,  Weston-super-Mare. 

RowBOTTOM,  H.,  Alfreton.   [Der.] 
Rowland,  Miss  M.  A.,  Woodstock.  [Oxf.] 
RoY,  N.,  Edinburgh.  [Sc] 
Rudd,  R.  H.,  Bradford.  [w.Yks.] 
Rycroft,  Rev.  E.  H.,  Newbury.  [Hmp.] 
Rye,  W.,  London,  W.  [e.An.] 
Ryland,  J.  W.,  Rowington.  [War.] 

Salisbury,  J.,  Little  Comberton.  [Won] 
Salmon,  J.,  Belfast.  [Ir.] 
Sanders,  Rev.  F.,  Hoylake.   [Chs.] 
Scott,  J.,  Skipton.  [w.Yks.] 
Shadwell,     L.      L.,     Marylebone,     W. 

[Winch.  School  ] 
Shaw,  Rev.  W.  F.,  Huddersfield.  [Ken.] 
Shuffrey,  Rev.W.  A.Arncliffe.  [w.Yks.] 
Si.MMONS,  D.  A.,  Millyman,  Moy.  [Ir] 
Skyrm,  L.  M.,  Heckmondwike.  [w.Yks.] 
Slingsby,  W.  C,  Skipton.   [w.Yks.] 
Slow,  E.,  Wilton.     [Wil.] 
Smith,  Rev.  C,  Whippingham.  [I.W.] 
Smith,  E.,  Birmingham.  [War.] 

Snowden,  J.  K.,  Leeds.     [w.Yks] 
Stead,  R.,  Folkestone.   [e.Yks.] 
Steen,  J,  Wexford.  [Ir.] 
Street,  E.  E.,  Chichester.  [Sus.] 
Strong,  H.  A.,  Liverpool.  [Dev.] 
Stephenson,  T.,  Whitby.  [n.Yks.] 
Stokes,  Dr.  J.,  Sheffield.  [w.Yks.] 
Sugars,  J.  E.,  Manchester.  [Cum.] 
Sutton,  C.  W.,  Manchester.   |Lan.] 
Sweeting,  Rev.  W.  D.,  Market  Deeping. 

Sweetman,  G.,  Wincanton.  [Som.] 

Taylor,  F.  E.,  Chertsey.  [s.Lan.] 
Tomes,  R.  F.  [Wor.  J 
Treloar,  Rev.  J.  P.,  Brighouse.  [Cor.] 
Turner,  J.,  Girlington.  [w.Yks.] 
Tweddell,     G.     M.,     Stokesley,    Yorks. 

Vint,  W.  H.,  Idle.  [w.Yks.] 

Waddington,  G.  W.,'\Vhitby.  [n.Yks.] 
Wagstaff,  T.  B.  rWor.] 
Wainwright,  T.,  Barnstaple.  [Dev.] 
Walker,  Rev.  G.  A.,  Emsworth.  [w.Sus.] 
Walker,     G.    B.,     Tankersley     Grange. 

Walker,  Rev.  G.  G. ,  Spilsby.  [e.Lin.] 
Walker,  H. ,  Headingley.  [Not.] 
Walter.  Rev.  J.  C,  Horncastle.  [Lin.] 
Warburton,  S.,  Manchester.   [Lan.] 
Ward,  T..  Dewsbury.  [w.Yks. J,  Rev.  T.  P.,  Desertmartin.  [Ir.] 
Warrack,  Rev.  A.,  Stranraer.  [Sc] 
Warrington,  T.  C,  Carnarvon.  [Stf.] 
Watson.  Miss  M.,  Tetsworth.  [Oxf.] 
Watt,  Mrs.  J.  W..  Liverpool.     [Dmf.] 
Weaver,  Rev.  F.  W.,  Evercreech.  [Som.] 
Wilkinso.n,  I.,  Skelton.  [n.Yks.) 
Williams,  Rev.  G.,  Thornhill    [Sc] 
Williams,    Rev.   W.   P.,    Weston-super- 
Mare.  [Som.] 
Wilson,  Rev.  J.  B.,  Knightwick.  [Hrf.] 
Woodcock,  L.,  Etwall.     [Der.] 
WooDRUFFE  Peacock,  Rev.  E.  A.,  Brigg. 

Woodward,    Rev.    F.     W.    M.,    Oxford. 

Wordsworth,  Rev.  C,  Tyneham.  [Dor.] 
Wright,  Mrs.  E.  M.,  Oxford.  [w.Yks.] 

Young,  R.  M.,  Belfast.  [n.Ir.] 

Young,  Rev.  W.  H.,  Wallingford.  [Brks.] 



H.I.*         =    Antrim  and  Down. — A  Glossary  of  Words  in  use 

in    the  Counties  of  Antrim  and  Down.     By  W. 

Hugh  Patterson.     E.  D.  S.,  1880. 
Bnff.'        =     Banffshire. — The  Dialect  of  Banffshire.     By  Rev. 

W.  Gregob,  1866. 
BrkB.*       =    Berkshire. — A  Glossary  of  Berkshire  Words  and 

Phrases.     By  Major  B.  Lowsley.     E.  D.  S.,  1888. 
Cmb.'        =     Cambridgeshire. — MS.    Collection   of  Cambridge- 
shire Words.     By  J.  W.  Darwood. 
Cbs.i         =    Cheshire. —  Glossary  of  Words  used  in  the  County 

of  Chester.     By  R.  Holland.     E.  D.  S.,  1884-6. 
Chs.'         =    Cheshire. — An  Attempt  at  a  Glossary  of  some  Words 

used  in  Cheshire,     By  Roger  Wilbraham.  1826. 
Chs.^         =     Cheshire. — A  Glossary  of  Words  used  in  the  Dialect 

of  Cheshire.     By  E.  Leigh,  1877. 
s.Chs.*      =    Cheshire. — The    Folk-Speech    of  South   Cheshire. 

By  Th.  Darlington.     E.  D.  S.,  1887. 
Cor.'         =    Cornwall. — Glossary  of  Words  in  use  in  Cornwall. 

By    Miss    M,  A.    Courtney   and  T.   Q.    Couch. 

E.  D  S.,  1880. 
C0T.2         =    Cornwall. —  Ihe  Ancient  Language  and  the  Dialect 

of  Cornwall.      By  F.  W.  P.  Jagu.  1882. 
Cor,^         =    Cornwall — MS.  Collection  of  Cornish  Words.     By 

T.  C.  Peter. 
Cnni.^        =    Cumberland. — A  Glossary  of  Words  and  Phrases 

pertaining   to   the    Dialect   of  Cumberland.     By 

W.  Dickinson.     E.  D.  S.,  1878-81. 
Ctim.2       =    Cumberland. — The    Dialect    of  Cumberland.     By 

R.  Ferguson,  1873. 
Cam.^       e=    Cumberland. — The    Folk-Speech    of   Cumberland 

and  some  Districts  adjacent.     By  A.  C.  Gibson, 

Der.^         =    Derbyshire.— Pegge's   Derbicisms,   edited   by  Th. 

Hallam  and  W.  W.  Skeat.     E.  D.  S.,  1894. 
Ber.3         =    Derbyshire. — An  Attempt  at  a  Derbyshire  Glossary. 

By  John  Sleigh,  1865. 
BW.Der.*  =    Derbyshire. — MS.  Collection  of  North-West  Derby- 
shire Words.     By  T.  Hallam. 
Sev.*         =    pevonshire. —  Glossary    to    'A    Dialogue    in    the 

Devonshire    Dialect,'    by    a    Lady.       By    J.    F. 

Palmer,  1837. 
Sev.^        =    Devonshire. —  MS.  Collection  of  North  Devonshire 

Words.     By  W.  H.  Daniels. 
Dev.^        =    Devonshire. — MS. CoUectionof  Devonshire  Words. 

By  Mrs.  Sarah  Hewett. 
Hey.*        —    Devonshire. — A    Glossary    of    Devonshire    Plant 

Names.   By  Rev.  Hilderic  Friend.    E.DS.,t882. 
Bw.Dev.*  =    Devonshire. — The    Dialect    of    Hartland,    Devon- 
shire.    By  R.  Pearse  Chope.     E.  D.  S,  i8qi. 
SoT.^         =    Dorsetshire. —  Poems  of  Rural  Life,  in  the  Dorset 

Dialect;  with  a  Dissertation  and  Glossary,  1848. 

By  W.  Barnes. 
Snr.*        =    Durham.— A   Glossary  of  Provincial   Words  used 

in  Teesdale  in  the  County  of  Durham.     1849. 

Durham. — A  List  of  Words  and  Phrases  in  every-    =     e.Dor.^ 

d.ny  use  by  the   natives   of  Hetton-le-Hole.     By 

Rev.  F,  M.  T.  Palgrave.     E.  D.  S.,  1896. 
East    Anglia. — The   Vocabulary    of   East   Anglia.    =       e.An.' 

By  R.  FoRBY,   1830.     Second  Edition,  consider- 
ably enlarged,  by  W.  Rye.     E.  D.  S.,  1895. 
East  Anglia.  -  The  Vocabulary  of  East  Anglia.     By    =       e.An.' 

Rev.  W.  T.  Spurdens.     E.  D.  S.,  1879. 
Essex.- A   Glossary   of   the    Essex   Dialect.      By    =         Ess.' 

R.  S.  Charnock,  1880. 
Gloucestershire. — A     Glossary     of    Dialect     and    =  Olo.' 

Archaic  Words  used  in  the  County  of  Gloucester. 

By  J.  Drummond  Robertson.     E.  D.  S.,  i8go. 
Gloucestershire. — A    Glossary    of    the    Cotswold     =         Glo.^ 

(Gloucestershire;  Dialect.     By  Rev.  R.  W.  Hunt- 
ley, 1868. 
Hampshire. — A    Glossary    of   Hampshire   Words    =       Emp.' 

and  Phrases.     By  Rev.  Sir  W.  H.  Cope,  Bart. 

E.  D.  S.,  1883. 
Hampshire. — Isle    of  Wight   Words.      By    Major    =         I.W.' 

H.  S.MiTH  and  C.  Roach  Smith.     E.  D.  S.,  1881. 
Hampshire. — A    Dictionary'    of  the   Isle  of  Wight     =3         I.W,^ 

Dialect,  and  of  Provincialisms  used  in  the  Island, 

By  W.  H.  Long.  1886. 
Herefordshire. — A   Glossary  of  Provincial  Words    =         Hrf.' 

used  in  Herefordshire  and  some  of  the  adjoining 

Counties.    Anon,  1839. 
Herefordshire. — Herefordshire        Glossary.       By    =         Hrf.* 

Francis  T.  Havergal,  1887. 
Kent.— A  Dictionary  of  the   Kentish   Dialect    and     =        Ken.' 

Provincialisms    in    use    in    the   County    of  Kent. 

By  W.D.  PARisHandW.  F.Shaw.    E.D.S,  1887. 
Kent. — An  Alphabet  of  Kenticisms.     By  Samuel    =        Ken.* 

Pegge.     E.  D.  S.,  1876. 
Lancashire. — A  Glossary  of  the  Lancashire  Dialect.     =         I^an.' 

By  J.  H.  Nodal  and  G.  Milner.    E.D.S.  1875-82. 
Lancashire. — A  Glossarj- of  the  Words  and  Phrases    =     n.Lan.' 

of  Furness  (North  Lancashire].     By  J.  P.  Morris, 

Lancashire.— A   Glossary   of  the   Dialect   of    the    =  ne.Kan.' 

Hundred  of  Lonsdale.   By  R.  B.  Peacock.  London 

Phil.  Soc.  Tians.,  1869. 
Lancashire.— A  Glossary  of  Rochdale- with-Rossen-    =     e.lAn.' 

dale  Words  and  Phrases.      By  H.  Cunliffe   1886. 
Lancashire. — A    Blegburn    Dickshonary.      By   J.    =    m.Iian.' 

Baron,  1891. 
Leicestershire. — Leicestershire    Words.     Phrases,     =  lei.' 

and  Proverbs.  By  A.  Benom  Evans.  E.  D.S..1881. 
Lincolnshire. —  Provincial  Words  and  Expressions     =  Lin.' 

current  in  Lincolnshire.     By  J.  E.  Brogden,  1866. 
Lincolnshire.— A  Glossary  of  Words  used  in  the    =      n.Iiin.' 

Wapentakes  of  Manley  and  Corringham,  Lincoln- 
shire.     By  Edward    Peacock.      E.  D.  S.,    First 

Edition,  1877;  Second  Edition,  1889. 



sw.Iiin.'  =  Lincolnshire.— Glossary  of  the  Words  in  use  in 
South-West  Lincolnshire.  By  Rev.  R.  E.  G.  Cole. 
E.  D.  S„  1886. 

Wrf.i  =    Norfolk. — Great  Yarmouth   and    Lowestoft.       By 

J.  G.  Nall,  1866. 

Nhp.'  =  Northamptonshire. — Glossary  of  Northamptonshire 
Words  and  Phrases.     By  A.  E.  Baker,  1854. 

NUp.^  =  Northamptonshire. — The  Dialect  and  Folk- Lore  of 
Northamptonshire.    By  Thomas  Sternberg,  1851. 

N.Cy.*  =  North  Country. — A  Glossary  of  North  Country 
Words.     By  J.  T.  Brockett,  1846. 

N.Cy.2  =  North  Country. —  A  Collection  of  English  Words, 
1691.     By  John  Ray.     E.D.  S.,  1874. 

Hhb.'  =  Northumberland. — Northumberland  Words.  A 
Glossary  of  Words  used  in  the  County  of  North- 
umberland.    By  R.  O.  Heslop.     E.  D.  S.,  1892-4. 

Kot.'  =  Nottinghamshire. — MS.  Collection  of  Nottingham- 
shire Words.     By  Thomas  A.  Hill. 

Not.*  =  Nottinghamshire. — MS.  Collection  of  Nottingham- 
shire Words.     By  Horace  Walker. 

ITot.^  =  Nottinghamshire. — MS.  Collection  of  Nottingham- 
shire  Words.     By  R.  L.  Abbott. 

Oxf.'  =    Oxfordshire. — Oxfordshire  Words.  By  Mrs.  Parker. 

E.  D.  S.,  1876,  i88i. 

Rnt.'  =  Eutlandshire. —  Rutland  Words.  By  Rev.  Christo- 
pher Wordsworth.     E.  D.S.,  i8gi. 

S.&Ort.'—  Shetland  and  Orkneys. — An  Etymological  Glos- 
sary of  the  Shetland  and  Orkney  Dialect.  By 
T.  Edmondston,  1866. 

Shr.i  =     Shropshire. — Shropshire  Word-Book,  a  Glossary 

of  Archaic  and  Provincial  Words,  &c.,  used  in  the 
County.     By  G.  F.  Jackson,  1879. 

Shr.2  =  Shropshire. — Salopia  Antiqua.  By  C.  H.  Harts- 
HORNE.     London,  184 1. 

w.Som.^  =  Somersetshire. — The  West  Somerset  Word-Book. 
A  Glossary  of  Dialectal  and  Archaic  Words  and 
Phrases  used  in  the  West  of  Somerset  and  East 
of  Devon.     By  F.  T.  Elworthy.     E.  D.  S.,  1886. 

Stf.*  =     Staifordshlre. — An  Attempt  towards  a  Glossary  of 

the  Archaic  and  Provincial  Words  of  the  County 
of  Stafford.     By  Charles  H.  Poole,  1880. 

Stf.'^  =     Staffordshire. — MS.     Collection     of    Staffordshire 

Words.     By  T.  C.  Warrington  and  A.  Pope. 

Suf.'  =     Suffolk.— SuliolkWordsand  Phrases.    By  E.  Moor, 


Snr.*  =  Surrey. — Surrey  Provincialisms.  By  Granville 
Leveson-Gower.     E.  D.  S.,  1876,  1893. 

Sns.'  =  Sussex. — A  Dictionary  of  the  Sussex  Dialect.  By 
W.  D.  Parish,  1875. 

Sus.*  =  Sussex. — A  Glossary  of  the  Provincialisms  in  use  in 
the     County   of    Sussex.      By   W.   D.   Cooper, 

War."^        =    Warwickshire. — Warwickshire        Glossary.       By 

War.*        =    Warwickshire. — A  Warwickshire  Word-Book.  By 

G.  F.  Northall.     E.  D.S.,  1896. 

W^arwickshire. — MS.  Collection  of  Warwickshire    =        War.^ 

Words.     By  E.  Smith. 
■Warwickshire.—  South  Warwickshire  Words.     By    —     s.War.i 

Mrs.  Francis.     E.  D.  S.,  1876. 
Westmoreland. — MS.  Collection  of  Westmoreland    =        Wra.' 

Words.     By  W.  H.  Hills. 
Westmoreland     and     Cumberland.  —  Dialogues,    =    Wm.  & 

Poems,   Songs,  and  Ballads,  by  various  writers,  Cum.^ 

in  the  Westmoreland   and  Cumberland  Dialects. 

Published  by  J.  R.  Smith,  1839. 
Wexford. — A  Glossary,  with  some  Pieces  of  Verse,    =        Wxf.* 

&c.     By  Jacob  Poole,  1867. 
Wiltshire. — A    Glossary   of    Words   used   in    the    =         Wil.' 

County  of  Wiltshire.      By  G.  E.  Dartnell  and 

E.  H.  GoDDARD.     E.  D.  S..  1893. 
Wiltshire. — A  Glossary  of  Provincial    Words  and     =         WU.* 

Phrases  in  use  in  Wiltshire.     By  J.  Y.  Akerjian, 

■Worcestershire. — A  Glossary  of  West  Worcester-    =   w.'Wor.' 

shire  Words.  By  Mrs.  Chamberlain.  E.D.S.,1882. 
Worcestershire.  —  South  -  East       Worcestershire    =  se.Wor.' 

Words.     A  Glossary  of  Words  and  Phrases  used 

in  South-East  Worcestershire.     By  Jesse  Salis- 
bury.    E.  D.  S.,  1894. 
■Worcestershire. — Upton-on-Severn     Words     and    =     s.Wor.* 

Phrases.     By  Robert  Lawson.     E.  D.  S.,  1884. 
Yorkshire. — A  Glossary  of  the  Cleveland  Dialect.    =     n.Yks.' 

By  Rev.  J.  C.  Atkinson,  i868.     Additions  to  the 

above.     E.  D.  S.,  1876. 
Yorkshire. — A    Glossary    of   Words   used   in    the    =     n.Yks.* 

neighbourhood  of  Whitby.     By  F.  K.  Robinson. 

E  D.  S.,  1876. 
Yorkshire. — A  Glossary  of  Words  used  in  Swale-    =     n.Yks. ^ 

dale,   Yorkshire.      By   Captain   John    Harland. 

E.  D.  S.,  1873. 
Yorkshire. — Yorkshire   Folk- Talk.      By   M.  C.  F.    =  ne.Yks.' 

Morris,  1892. 
Yorkshire. —A  Glossary  of  Words  used  in  Holder-    =      e.Yks.^ 

ness  in  the  East  Riding  of  Yorkshire.     B3'  F.  Ross, 

R.  Stead,  and  Th.  Holderness.     E.D.  S.,  1877. 
Yorkshire. — A   Glossary   of  Words  pertaining  to    =    m.Yks.' 

the  Dialect  of  Mid-Yorkshire.      By  C.  Clough 

Robinson.     E.  D.  S.,  1876. 
Yorkshire. — The  Dialect  of  Craven,  in  the  West    =    w.Yks.l 

Riding  of  the  County  of  York.    By  W.  Carr,  1828. 
Yorkshire. — A    Glossary    of  Words   used   in    the    =    v.Yks.* 

neighbourhood     of  Sheffield.      By   S.  O.  Addy. 

E.  D.S.,  1888-90. 
Yorkshire. — A  Glossary  of  the  Dialect  of  Almond-    =    w.Yks.^ 

burv  and   Hudderstield.     By   Alfred   Easther. 

E.  D.  S.,  1883. 
Yorkshire. — The    Hallamshire    Glossarj'.      By   J.    =    w.Yks.* 

Hunter,  1829. 
Yorkshire. — The  Dialect  of  Leeds,  and  its  Neigh-    =    w.Yks.* 

bourhood to  which   is   added  a  copious 

Glossary.     By  C.  C.  Robinson,  1861. 

Where  no  authority  is  given  for  plant-names,  the  in/orniaiion  has  been  obtained  /tan  A   Dictionary  of  English 
Plant  Names,  by  J.  Britten  and  R.  Holland.     E.  D.  S.,  1878-86. 


After  making  many  experiments,  it  has  been  found  advisable  to  devise  a  plain  and  simple  phonetic  alphabet 
to  represent  the  approximate  pronunciation.  An  elaborate  transcription  is  useless  to  people  who  have  not 
had  a  practical  training  in  phonetics.  And  it  can  all  the  more  easily  be  dispensed  with  in  giving  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  dialect  words  in  the  body  of  the  Dictionary,  because  the  phonological  introduction  which 
I  hope  to  write  when  the  Dictionary  is  finished  will  contain  the  exact  pronunciation  of  all  the  common  words 
in  everyday  use.  It  is  impossible  to  attempt  this  part  of  the  work  alongside  of  the  Dictionary,  as  it  will  require 
some  years  of  patient  toil  to  collect  reliable  material  and  to  digest  it.  In  the  meantime  I  must  ask  philologists 
to  be  contented  with  the  brief  resume  given  at  the  beginning  of  each  letter  of  the  alphabet  for  the  vowels,  see 
e.  g.  pp.  I,  2.  On  comparing  the  results  given  there  with  those  arrived  at  by  Karl  Luick  in  his  excellent  book 
U)ilcrsuchmigen  sur  englischen  Lautgeschichte,  it  will  be  found  that  we  differ  in  a  few  minor  points.  After  a 
careful  perusal  of  his  book,  I  now  think  it  would  have  been  better  to  have  used  the  word  usual  instead  of 
noiiiml  on  p.  i  of  the  Dictionary, 

The  only  consonants  which  require  to  be  specially  mentioned  are  ; 
dg  like  the  /  in  just. 
J      »      ..     >    ,,  yon. 
2      „      „     s    „  pleasure. 
X      ,)      I,    ch    „   Germ.  Nachf,  ich. 
J      ,.      »    sh   „  ship. 

Note :  (r)  is  only  sounded  when  the  next  word  in  the  same  sentence  begins  with  a  vowel. 

tj  like  the  ch  in  cheap. 

IP  »      ,,     'h  „  !>"»■ 

t5  „      „     th  „   then. 

tj  „      „     n  „  think. 

11.  VOWELS 

Simple  Vowels. 


like  the  a  in  Germ.  Mann. 




a  „   Southern  Engl.  bat. 




u  „   up. 




e  „  men. 




i  „   b,t. 




0  „  mob. 




u  „  full. 




e   „   Germ.  Cabe, 




a  „  father. 




e   „    Germ.  Reh. 




ee  „  feet. 




0   „    Germ.  Bote. 




aw  „    law. 




oo   „  food. 




i    „    bird. 




6   „    Germ,  mdgen. 




a   „    Germ.  Giite. 


ai  like  the  »  in  five. 

au  „  „  CM  „  mouse. 

ei  „  „  a   „  late. 

eu  „  „  ou  „  thes.  dial.pronun.  ofwoj/s?. 

ea  „  „  a    „  care. 

iu  „  „  ew  „  few. 

ia  >.  „  ea  „  fear. 

oi  „  „  qy  „  boy. 

ou  „  „  ow 

oa  „  „   o 

93  „  „  a 

ui  „  „  00 

low  (with  the  first  element  more  open). 
bone  (dial,  pronun.  of  w.Yks.). 
all  (n.  dialects). 
mood  (n.  dialects). 

Note :  (i)  No  attempt  is  made  to  distinguish  between  close  and  open  e.  (2)  The  first  element  of  od  is 
a  very  close  sound  closely  approacliing  u.  (3)  The  stress  is  always  on  the  first  element  of  diphthongs,  unless 
the  contrary  is  indicated  in  the  Dictionary.  (4)  Vocalic  m,  n  are  written  am,  an.  (5)  A  point  after  a  vowel 
(no-bad)  indicates  that  the  vowel  bears  the  chief  stress  in  the  word, 

VOL.  I.  '^ 




■a  adjective. 



Gothic  (-Moeso-Gothic). 


=>  Old  West  Saxon. 


=  adverb. 





=  Palsgrave. 


=  adverbial,  -ly. 





=  passive,  -ly. 


=  Anglo-French. 





=  person,  -al. 


=  American. 





=  perfect. 


=  apparently. 





=  phrase. 


=  archaic. 




pl,  pl. 

=  plural. 


=  association. 





=  popular,  -ly. 


=  attributive,  -ly. 





=  past  participle. 

B.  &H. 

=  Dictionary  of   English    Plant 




ppl.  adj. 

=  participial  adjective. 

Names.     By  J.  Britten  and 





=  predicative,  -ly. 

R.  Holland. 





=  prefix. 


=  circa,  about. 





=  preposition. 


=  Century  Dictionary. 





=   present. 

Cf.,  cp. 

=  confer,  compare. 





=  preterite. 

co^n.  w. 

=  cognate  with. 




Prim.  sign.  =  Primary  signification. 

Co//.  L,L.B.  =  Collection  of    Louis   Lucien    | 





=  privative. 




Low  German. 


=  probably. 


=   colloquial. 





=  pronoun. 


=  combination. 



literal,  -ly. 


=  pronunciation,  pronounced. 


=  compound. 

M.  &  D. 


Dictionary  of  the  Gaelic  Lan- 


=  proverb. 


=  comparative. 

guage.       By  Rev.    N.  Mac- 


=   present  participle. 


=  conjunction. 

leod  and  Rev.  D.  Dewar. 


=  quod  vide,  which  see. 


=  construction. 



Middle  Dutch. 


=  regular. 


=  contamination. 



Middle  English. 

representative,  representing, 


=  contracted,  contraction. 






■=  Cotgrave. 



Middle  High  German. 


=   Romanic,  Romance. 


=  Danish. 



midland  (dialect). 


=  substantive. 


=  Supplementary  English  Glos- 



mediaeval  Latin. 


=  Scotch. 

sary.  ByRev.T.L.O.Davies. 



Middle  Low  German. 


=  singular. 


=  demonstrative. 





=  spelling. 


=  derivative,  -ation. 



north,  northern  (dialect). 


=  special. 


■=  dialect,  -al. 





=  substantively. 


=  Dictionary. 



Notes  and  Queries. 


=  suffix. 


e=  diminutive. 



New  English  Dictionary. 


=  superlative. 


=  Dutch. 



Northern  French. 


=  Swedish. 


•=  Daily. 



j  New  High  German, 


=  south-western  (dialect). 


=  English. 

/       modern  German. 


=  transitive. 


=  east  midland  (dialect). 





=  transferred  sense. 


=  Early  English  Text  Society. 





=  unknown. 


=  equivalent. 




v.,  vb. 

=  verb. 


=  erroneous,  -ly. 





=  variant  of. 


=  especially. 



occasional,  -ly. 

var.  dial 

=  various  dialects. 


=  etymology. 



Old  Danish. 

vbl.  sb. 

=  verbal  substantive. 


=  figurative,  -ly. 



Old  Dutch. 

V.  r. 

=  various  readings. 


=  Flemish. 



Old  English  (  =  Anglo-Saxon). 

V.  sir. 

=  verb  strong. 


=  French. 



Old  Flemish. 

V.  w.  irr 

=  verb  weak  irregular. 


=  frequently. 



Old  French. 

W.   & 

J.    Gl.  =  Glossary    of    Provincial 


.  =  frequentative. 



Old  Frisian. 

Words  in  use  in  Somerset- 


=  Frisian. 



Old  High  German. 



=  German. 



Old  Irish. 


=  word. 


=  Gaelic. 



Old  Norse  (Old  Icelandic). 


=  Welsh. 


—  genitive. 



Old  Northern  French. 


=  West  Germanic. 


=  general,  -ly. 



Old  Northumbrian. 


=  Weekly. 

gen.  sign.  =  general  signification. 



original,  -ly. 


=  west  midland  (dialect). 


=  Glossary. 



Old  Saxon. 


=  West  Saxon. 


—  glossaries. 



Old  Swedish. 


=  WOrterbuch. 




=  Aberdeen 


=   Dorset. 




=  Radnor. 


=  Ang]esea. 


=   Dublin. 





=   Renfrew. 


=  Angus. 


=  Durham. 





=  Ross. 


=  America. 


=   Duwn. 





=  Roscommon. 


=  Antrim. 


=  East  Anglia. 





=  Rutland. 


=  Argyll. 


=  Edinburgh. 





=  Roxburgh. 


=  Armagh. 


=  Elgin. 





=  Scotland. 


=  Australia. 


=   England. 





=  Scilly  Isles. 


•=   Buchan. 


=  Essex. 





=  South  Country. 


-  Bucks. 

e  Yks. 

=  EastRidingofYork- 





=  Shetland  Isles. 


=  Bedford. 


-=   Fife.                  [shire. 





=  Shropshire. 


-  Banff. 


=   Flint. 





=  Stirling. 


=   Brecknock. 


=  Forfar. 





=  Selkirk. 


=  Berks. 


=  Fermanagh. 





=  Sligo. 


=  Bute. 


=  Galloway. 





=  Somerset. 


=  Berwick. 


=  Gloucester. 





=  Stafford. 


=  Caithness. 


=  Galway. 





=  Sutherland. 


=  Cavan. 


=  Glamorgan. 





=  Suffolk. 


=  Cardigan. 


=   Haddington. 





=  Surrey. 


•=  Cheshire. 


=  Hampshire. 





=  Sussex. 


=  Clare. 


•=  Huntingdon. 





=  South  Wales. 


=  Clackmannan. 


=  Hereford. 





=  Tipperary, 


=  Clydesdale. 


=  Hertford. 



North  Country. 


=  Tyrone. 


=  Cambridge. 

I  Ma. 

=  Isle  of  Man. 





=  Ulster. 


=  ConnaughL 


=•  Inverness. 





=  United  States. 


=  Cornwall. 


.-  Ireland. 





=  Wales. 


=  Cork. 


=  Isle  of  Wight. 





=  Warwick. 


=  Carlow. 


=   Kircudbright. 





=  West  Country. 


"=  Cromarty. 


=  Kincardine. 


.     = 

New  South  Wales. 


=  Wigtown. 


=  Carnarvon. 


=  King's  County. 



North  Wales. 


=  Wiltshire. 


■I  Carmarthen. 


.=  Kent. 



N.  Riding  of  York- 


=  Wicklow. 


=  Cumberland. 


=  Kerry. 



New  Zealand.[shire. 


=  Westmoreland. 


=  Derby. 


=  Kildare. 

Or.  I. 


Orkney  Isles. 


^  West  Meath. 


=   Devon. 


■=  Kilkenny. 





=  Worcester. 


=  Dumbarton. 


=   Kinross. 





=  Waterford. 


=  Dumfries. 


=   Lakeland. 





=  Wexford. 


=  Denbigh. 


=  Lancashire. 





=  West  Riding  of 


«  Donegal. 


=  Londonderry. 



Queen's  County. 


=  Yorks.    [Yorkshire 





Peebles    . 


King's  County       .    Kco. 


.  Nhp. 

Selkirk     . 


Queen's  County    .    Qco. 


.   War. 

Shetland . 




South  Ireland        .   sir. 


.    Wor. 

Orkney    . 


Dumfries . 



.    Klk. 


.    Shr. 






.   CrI. 


.    Mtg. 






.    Wxf. 

Herefordshire  . 

.    Hrf. 






,    Mun. 

South  Wales    . 

.   s.Wal 



Waterford     . 

.   Wtf. 

Cardiganshire  , 

.   Cdg. 




.    Tip. 

Radnorshire    . 

.    Rdn. 

Moray      .         , 




.    Cla. 


.    Brk. 




.    Lim. 


.    Gmg. 

Elgin        .        . 


North  Ireland. 



.    Crk. 


.    Cth. 

Banff       . 


Ulster      . 



.    Ker. 


.    Pern. 

Buchan    . 


Antrim     . 



.    Glo. 






.    Oxf. 



Londonderry  . 




.    Brks. 



Tyrone    . 



.    Bck. 



Donegal  . 



ind   .    Nhb. 

Bedfordshire    . 

.    Bdf. 






.    Dur. 

Hertfordshire  . 

.   Hrt. 

West  Scotland. 





.    Cum. 


.    Mid. 

Argyll      . 




Westmoreland       .    Wra. 

London    . 

.    Lon. 



Armagh   . 



.   Yks. 


.   Hnt. 

Fife . 


West  Ireland  . 



.    Lan. 

East  Anglia 

.   e.An. 

Kinross    . 




Isle  of  Man 

.    I.  Ma. 


.    Cmb. 

Clackmannan  . 


Leitrim    . 



.    Chs. 

Norfolk    . 

.    Nrf. 

Stirling    . 





.    Wal. 

Suffolk     . 

.    Suf. 

South  Scotland 




North  Wales 

.    n.Wal. 


.    Ess. 



Galway    . 



.    Fit. 


.    Ken. 



Roscommon     . 



.    Dnb. 

Surrey     . 

.    Sur. 

Renfrew  . 


East  Ireland     . 


Carnarvonshire      .    Crn. 

Sussex     . 

.    Sus. 

Ayr . 


Leinster  . 



.   Agl. 


.   Hmp. 

Lanark     . 




Merionethshire      .    Mer. 

Isle  of  Wight  . 

.  I.W. 



West  Meath     . 



.    Stf. 


.   Wil. 

Lothian    . 


Meath       . 



.    Der. 


.    Dor. 





Nottinghamshire   .    Not. 


.    Som. 



Dublin      . 



.    Lin. 


.   Dev. 






.    Rut. 

Cornwall . 

.    Cor. 

Berwick  . 


Kildare    . 


Leicestershire        .    Lei. 

Scilly  Isles 

.    Scl. 


ABLACH,56.  An  insignificant  person  fAbfl.). 
ACCIDENCE,  sb.  A  slip  [of  memory]  (Ayr.). 
ACHE,  V.   To  walk  hurriedly  (w.Yks.K 
ACTION,  sb.    The  game  also  called  Bac- 

care,  q.v.  (War.) 
ADDER-STINGER,  sb.    A  large  dragon- 
fly (Hmp.). 
AESOME,  adj.    Single  (Sc). 
AFLOCHT,  fpl.  adj.    Agitated,  in  a  flutter 

AFLOITS,  adv.     In  confusion  (Yks.). 
AFORE  THE  STEM, />/(/-.  A  large  sleeping 

bunk  in  a  ship  (Sc). 
AGOY,  mA    A  form  of  oath  (Lan.). 
AIRIE,  sb.     A  hill-pasture  ;   a  level  green 

among  the  hills  (Sc). 
ALLOW,  V.    To  order  (n.Irel.). 
ALMANAC,  sb.    A  diary  (Yks.). 
ALMARK,    sb.      An    animal    addicted    to 

breaking  fences  or  trespassing  (Sh.I.). 
ALWAYS,    adv.      Still,    at    the    present 

moment  (Sc). 
AMAUNGE,56.  A  muddle.confusion  (Lan.). 
AMBUSH,  V.    To  hide  (Yks.). 
AMEND,    V.     In    phr.   amend  me,   a   mild 

oath  (Oxf.  or  Slang). 
AMINO,  V.   To  consider,  bear  in  mind  (Ircl.). 
AMOVET,  pp.     Moved,  roused  (Sc). 
ANCHOVY-DUCK,  sb.    ?  (Sc) 
ANGLE,  sb.     A  large  hook  fixed  into  the 

ceiling  (Lan.). 
ANGLER,    sb.    The    fish   Lophimts  pisca- 

/on'iis  (dial,  unknown  I. 
ANKER,  sb.    The  angular  end  of  a  scythe- 
blade,  by  which  it  is  attached  to  the  pole 

APPLE-CHAMBER,  sb.    A  spare  bedroom 

APPLE-TWELIN,  sb.    An  apple-turnover, 

q.v.  (e.An.) 
ARCELL,  sb.    A  kind  of  lichen,  Omphalodes 

ARGUE,  V.     To  talk  to  oneself,  to  muse 

ARICH,  sb.    The  morning  (s.Wxf.). 
ARMED     BULL-HEAD,    phr.      The    fish 

Aspidophonis  europaetis  (dial,  unknown). 
ARMED  GURNARD,  i>/ir.     The  fish  Peri- 

stedion  malanitat  (dial,  unknown  1. 
ARNLOIN,  sb.  Straightened  circumstances 

ARTILLERY,  sb.    Baggage  (Yks.). 
ARUM,  adv.    Within  (s.Wxf.). 
ASHEAPLY,  adj.     Senseless,  stupid  (Not.). 
ASSART,  sb.     Land  cleared  of  trees  (Ilrl.j. 

ASS-KIT,  sb.    A  portable  tub  or  removing 

ashes  (Wm.). 
ASTID,  conj.    As  well  as  (Sc). 
XSTBID,adv.     Inclined  (Suf.). 
AUDISCIENCE,    sb.      Hearing,    attention 

AUMA,  si.     A  kind  of  pancake  (Hrf.). 
AWID  [sic],  adj.     Anxious,  eager  (Sc). 
A-WITTINS,  in   phr.  me  awillins,  without 

my  knowledge  (Sc). 
AYVISH,  adj     Babyish,  foolish  (Wil.). 

BAAKER  {sic],  sb.    A  wood-louse  (Som.). 

BABBLE,  adj     Half-witted  (Sc). 

BACHILLE,  sb.  A  small  piece  of  arable 
ground  (Sc). 

BADDERLOCKS,  sb.  The  hart's-tongue 
fern  (Sc). 

BADGER,  sb.     A  heavy  fall  in  sliding  (Not.). 

BADGER-SNAIL,  sb.    A  large  snail  (Not). 

BADLINS,  adv.  Out  of  health,  unwell  (Sc. 

BADOCK,  5*.  The  Arctic  gull,  Larus para- 
siticus ;  also  the  common  skua.  Stereo- 
rarius  catarrhactes  (dial,  unknown). 

BAFFLE,  sb.     A  portfolio  (Sc). 

BAL,  sb.     A  quarry  (Cor.). 

BALEEN,  sb.     Whalebone  (Sc). 

BALL  AND  CAT,  phr.  A  game  played  by 
children.     Obs.t  (Lon.) 

BALLANT-BODICE,  sb.  A  lady's  bodice 
made  of  leather  (Sc). 

BALLER,  sb.  An  implement  for  breaking 
clods  of  earth  (n.Dev.). 

BALLION,  5*.  A  reaper  who  assists  those 
who  are  falling  behind  in  the  work  (Sc). 

BALLOON,  sb.  A  cylinder  for  drying 
warps  (w.Yks.). 

BALLY-ACK,  sb.  In  phr.  to  knock  a  man 
to  bally-ack,  to  give  a  sound  beating,  to  get 
the  better  of  a  fight  (Con). 

BALZIE,  sb.     Neuralgia  (Suf.). 

BAMMOCK,  V.  To  'field'  in  a  cricket 
match  (Lan.). 

BANDY,  sb.    The  stickleback  (.')  (Sc  ). 

BANG,  adj.  Wrong ;  in  a  contrary  direc- 
tion (w.Yks.). 

BANGE,  V.    To  idle  about  (?)  (Wor.). 

BANG  UP  AND  DOWN,  phr.  Straightfor- 
ward, blunt  (Wm.). 

BANK,  V.  In  coal  mines :  to  fill  in  crevices 
after  cribs  are  set  (w.Yks.^. 

BANNYS,  sb.  In  phr.  I'll  box .  .  .ye,  over 
the  baniiys  (?)  (Sc). 

BANTERS  O'  BOBY'S,  phr.  Fig.  destruc- 
tion, death  (Lan.). 

BARK,  sb.  In  phr.  to  go  or  be  ativeen  the 
bark  and  the  tree  ( Nrf.). 

BARLEY-HUMMELLER.  sb.  A  machine 
to  take  the  awns  from  b.irlcy  (Ken.). 

BARLING,  sb.  The  smallest  pig  of  a  litter 

BARMIGOAT,  sb.  A  skin  disease  ;  erysi- 
pelas (?)  (n.Irel.). 

BARN-FAN,  sb.  A  winnowing-fan  ;  a  chafl- 
basket  (Sc.  Suf). 

BARRELBREISTED.rtfl^'.  Corpulent  (Sc). 

BASTOUN,  5*.     A  stick,  a  staff  (Sc). 

BAT  AND  BREED,  phr.  The  ground 
which  a  mower  covers  with  one  stroke  of 
his  scythe  (w.Yks.). 

BAT-BEGGAR,  sb.    A  beadle  (Lan.). 

BATCH,  s6.'    A  bachelor  (Sc). 

BATCH,  sb.''  A  clump  of  fern  or  shrubs 

BATCHING,  5*.     An  unfledged  bird  (War.). 

BEAR -STAKE,  sb.  A  piece  of  wood  used 
to  guide  the  driving-belt  of  a  pulley 

BEEDS,  sb.  A  wooden  collar  put  on  a 
horse  to  keep  it  from  biting  itself  (Bdf.). 

BEEST,  sb.  In  phr.  to  give  beest  of  a  busi- 
ness, &.C.,  to  relinquish  it  (w.Yks.). 

BEETON,  sb.  In  rime  '  Hushic-ba,  burdic- 
beeton  '  (?)  (Sc). 

BEIRSH,  sb.  and  v.  To  run  headlone.  A 
violent  push,  a  sudden  motion  (Cum.). 

BEIST,  sb.     A  rabbit-hole  (Glo.). 

BELLANDINE.  sb.  A  broil,  squabble  (Sc). 

BELLAVEN,  sb.  In  phr.  to  give  bct/aiin,  to 
treat  with  violence,  to  beat  (Yks.). 

BELLERSOUND,  adj  As  sound  as  a  bell 

BELLHAUR,  sb.    A  beadle  (n.Irel.). 

BELLONIE,  sb.  A  noisy,  brawling  woman 

BELLRAIVE,  v.  To  rove  about ;  to  be  un- 
steady ;  to  act  hastilj'  (Sc  ). 

BELLY-RIVE,  sb.  A  great  feast,  a  social 
gathering  (Sc). 

BELSTRACHT,  adv.  Prostrate,  headlong 

BELTON,  sb.  or  adj  (?)  Said  of  a  cow 
'  hoven  '  or  swollen  in  the  body  (w.Yks.). 

BEL  VET, s6.  An  article  of  woman's  dress  (?) 

BESHREW,  V.  Obs.  (?)  To  curse,  to  wish 
ill  to  (Sc). 

BEWIDDIED,  ppl.  adj    Bewildered  (Sc  ). 



BILER,  sb.     The  metal  handle  of  a  pail 

BILLET,  sb}     A  curved  knife  (Bdf  ?). 
BILLET,   sA.2    A  bundle   of  half-threshed 

straw  (Wm.). 
BIRR,  V.    To  scotch  a  cart-wheel  (Wm.). 
BIT,  sb.     In  phr.  As  dark  as  bit  (?)  ( Nhp.). 
BLACKLIE,  adj.     Ill-coloured,  dirty-look- 
ing (Sc). 
BLACK-RAPPER,  sb.    Also  called  Black- 
guard (?)  (Sc). 
BLADE,  5*.     In  ploughing:  '  put  it  a  blade 

lower '  [plough  a  little  deeper]  (?)  (w.Yks.). 
BLAIRHAWK,   sb.     A   term  of  contempt 

used  to  persons  (n.Yks.). 
BLAOONGY  [s;c],  adj.    Of  weather  :  misty, 

drizzling  (w.Yks.). 
BLASNIT,  ppl.  adj.    Of  leather:    without 

hair(?)  (Sc). 
BLENS,  sb.   A  cod-fish  (Cor.  and  var.  dial.). 
BLETT,  V.    Pret.  of  bleat  (Sc). 
BLISH,  V.    To  hack  wheat,  to  spoil  it  in 

reaping  (Wil.). 
BLUB,  sb.     A  bulb  (Lin.). 
BLUDKERCAKE,  sb.  (?)  (Sc.) 
BLUELY,  sb.    The  porpoise  (Sus.). 
BLUNNTHER,  sb.  A  person  of  hasty  temper 

and  unguarded  speech  (Ant.). 
BOARD-RADES,  sb.  pi.    Movable  sides  of 

a  cart  (Som.). 
BOBBY- JUB,  sb.    Strawberries  and  cream 

BOD,  t'.    To  poke,  'bob'  (Lan.). 
BODABID,  (?)    Applied  to  two  boats'  crews 

fishing  in  company,  and  shanng  the  fish 

BODACH,  sb.    The  small  ringed  seal,  Phoca 

/o^'Z/rfa  (dial,  unknown). 
BODE,  v>    To  bid  at  a  sale  (n.Sc). 
BODE,  v?    To  board,  dwell  (e.An.). 
BODEN,  V.     To  be  in  a  difficulty  (n.Cy.). 
BODGE,  sb.    A  wooden  basket  or  '  scuttle ' 

(Ken.,  Sus.). 
BODLE,  sb.    A  bodkin  (Lan.). 
BODY,  sb.     In  phr.  to  be  up  in  the  body,  to 

be  intoxicated  (Dor.). 
BOFTLY,  adj.     Untidy,  wretched  (Irel.). 
BOGGIE-BAW,  sb.    Anything  nasty  or  dis- 
gusting.    Used  in   speaking  to   children 

BOILING,  ppl.  adj.      Feverish,   in  phr.   a 

boiling  cold  (Sur.). 
BOLD,  adv.     Of  a  draught  of  cider:  in  phr. 

to  go  down  very  bold  {:)  (Wor.). 
BOLLS,  sb.  pi.    The  beard  of  bariey  (Won). 
BONELESS,  sb.    The  north  wind  ( Ken.). 
BONEY,  sb.    Arag-and-bone  man  (w.Yks.). 
BOOLYIE,  sb.    A  loud,  threatening  noise 

BOOMER,  sb.    A  heron  (Ken.). 
BOON,  sb.     Drink  (Yks.). 
BOOROOSHING,  sb.     A  scolding  (Hrt.). 
BOOR-STAFF,  sb.    The  pin  with  which  a 

hand-weaver  turns  the  beam  (Cum.). 
BOOST,  V.    To  guide  (?)  (Sc). 
BOOTY,  sb.    A  disease  in  wheat  (Sc). 
BOPPERTY,  adj.    Conceited  (Suf ). 
BOSTIN,  sb.  The  rack  or  trough  in  a  stable 

BOTTOM,  sb.    The  horizon  (Wor.). 
BOUGAN,  sb.    The  large  end  of  a  piece  of 

wood  (Cor.). 
BOUGUIE,  sb.    A  nosegay,  posy  (Ayr.). 
BOUKIT-WASHIN',  sb.     An  annual  wash, 

'  bucking-wash '  (Sc). 

BOULT,  V.  To  cut  pork  into  pieces  for 
pickling  (Ken.). 

BOULTINGTUB,  sb.  A  tub  in  which  pork 
is  salted  (Ken.). 

BOUNDER,  sb.  Anything  very  large  of  its 
kind  (Dev.). 

BOVACK,  sb.     A  bed  (Sh.L). 

BOWHILL,  sb.    A  species  of  apple  (Dev.). 

BO WNESS,  sb.     Plumpness  ( Suf ). 

BOWPIT,  adj.  Of  rain  :  accompanied  by 
a  north-east  wind  and  threatening  a  down- 
fall (?)  (Brks.). 

BOW-SHOTTLED,  adj  Of  an  umbrella : 
having  bent  wires.  Of  a  child:  bow-legged 

BOX  OVER,  vbl.  phr.  To  talk  a  matter  over 

BOXY,  adj.     Right,  ' ship-shape '  (Glo). 

BOYLUM,  s6.     A  kind  of  iron  ore  (Stf). 

BOZEN,  sb.     A  wooden  milk-dish  (Sc). 

BOZZARD,  sb.     A  ghost  (Wor.). 

BRAAL,  56.    A  fragment  (n.Sc). 

BRACH,  sb.     A  crop  of  beans  (?)  (Bdf). 

BRADDOCK,  sb.  A  weed  growing  in  corn- 
fields.    The  same  as  Brassock  1?)  (Yks.). 

BRADLEY,  sb.  A  'broad  lea,'  pasture 

BRAG,  adv.     Proudly,  haughtily  fLan.). 

BRAGEANT,  adj.     Bombastic  (Hrf ). 

BRAISHY,  sb.     A  hill  (Yks.). 

BRAITH-HURDLE,  sb.  A  hurdle  made 
with  wattles  (Hmp.). 

BRAM-YED,  sb.  A  muddle-headed  fellow 

BRAN,  sb.  The  carrion  crow  (dial,  un- 

BRANDBETE,  v.  To  make  or  mend  a  fire 

BRANDLY,  adv.     Sharply,  fiercely  (n.Cy.). 

BRANDY-BALL,  sb.  A  children's  game 

BRANNOCK,  sb.     A  young  salmon  (Sc). 

BRASH,  V.  To  bank  up  a  fire  with  small 
coal  (Dev.  ?). 

BRAVE,  V.    To  pay  court  to  (Stf). 

BRAWL,  V.    To  galbp  (n.Sc). 

BRAWLINS,  sb.  The  trailing  strawberry- 
tree.  Arbutus  Uva-tirsi;  also  the  red  bil- 
berry (n.Sc). 

BRAWN,  sb.^  The  fork  between  a  branch 
and  the  trunk  of  a  tree  (Yks.  1. 

BRAWN,  sb.'  The  fungus  Ustilago  segetum 

BRAZE,  V.  Of  food  :  to  become  tainted  from 
standing  in  brazen  vessels  (Yks.). 

BREAKAGEMENT,  sb.   A  breakage  (Hrf). 

BREAM,  sb.  In  phr.  a  bream  of  kippers  (?) 

BREE,  sb.  or  adj.  In  phr.  he's  no  bree,  he  is 
not  good  (Cum.). 

BREEL,  V.    To  move  rapidly  (Sc). 

BREESE  or  BREEZE,  sb.  Sand  sprinkled 
on  the  floor  of  a  house  (Ayr.). 

BREFLING,  sb.  A  species  of  apple 

BREK,  V.  To  bask,  to  lie  exposed  to  the 
sun  (Not.). 

BREX,  sb.    The  breast  (Lan.). 

BREXIE,  sb.    A  deep  pond  or  pit  (Yks.). 

BRIM(E,  V.     To  bring  (e.An.,  Sus.). 

BRINDLE,  sb.     Money,  cash  fn.Sc). 

BRINDLED  DOWN,  phr.  Thrown  down 
violently  (Ess.). 

BROD,  sb.    The  sea-shore,  beach  (Lan.?). 

BRODGET,  V.     To  brag,  boast  (Stf). 

BROG,  V.     To    break    up.    to    exhaust  (?) 

BROGH,  sb.     A  mussel-bed  (Sc). 
BROWN-DOVE, s6.  The  swallow(?)  (Hmp.). 
BRUDLER,  sb.    A  boy  (Nrf). 
BRUMBLE,  V.     To  make  a  rumbling  noise, 

to  murmur  like  water  (vv.Sc). 
BRUMBLE-HANDED,     adj        Awkward, 

clumsy  (Nrf). 
BRUNSH,  sb.     A  blotch,  an  eruption  on  the 

skin  (Not.). 
BRUNT,  adj     Sharp  to  the  taste  (n.Cy.). 
BRUSEY,  sb.     An  overgrown  girl,  a  romp 

BUBLICANS,  sb.  pi.     Flowers  of  the  marsh 

marigold,  Caltlia  palitstris  (Yks.). 
BUCH,  V.     To  dash,  rush  (Sh.L). 
BUCHT  OOT,  phr.    Used  as  an  ejaculation : 

get  out !  (Irel.) 
BUCHTS,  sb.  pi.     The  roots  of  a  hedge 

BUCK,  V.    To  fill  a  basket  (?)  (Ken.). 
BUCK,  int.    A  call  to  horses,  used  by  carters 

and  ploughmen  (Yks.). 
BUCK  AND  CRUNE,  phr.    To  be  extremely 

desirous  of  anything  (?)  (Sc). 
BUCKAW,  sb.   The  short  game  which  ends 

a  curling  match  (Sc). 
BUCKER,  sb}    A  bucket  (e  An.). 
BUCKER,  5A.2     A  species  of  whale  (w.Sc). 
BUCKET,  sb.     A  beam  (Suf). 
BUCKETIE,  sb.   The  paste  used  by  weavers 

in  dressing  their  webs  (e.Sc.i. 
BUCKIE,  sb.    The  hind-quarters  of  a  hare 

BUCKIE-INGRAM,  sb.    A  species  of  crab 

BUCKIE-TYAUVE,  s6.    A  good-humoured 

struggle,  a  wrestling  match  (n.Sc). 
BUCKISE,  sb.    A  smart  stroke.    Also  used 

as  V.  (n.Sc.) 
BUCKLER,  sb.     A  large  beam  (Lin.). 
BUGALUG,  sb.    An  effigy,  dummy  figure 

BUGHULK,  sb.  A  coarse,  awkward  woman 

BULB,  BULBOCH,  sb.     A  disease  among 

sheep  (Sc). 
BULBS,  sb.  pi.   Blight,  esp.  green  fly  (Sun). 
BULCARD,  sb.    The  fish  Blenny  (Con). 
BULK,  V.    To  play  marbles  (Irel.). 
BULLE,  sb.     An  oil  measure  (Sh.I.). 
BULLEN,  sb.     A  heap  (Sh.L). 
BULLIHEISLE,  sb.    A  scramble,  squabble ; 

also  a  boys'  game  (Sc). 
BULL  IN,  phr.    To  swallow  hastily  (Sc). 
BULLYART,   sb.     The   stick   or  piece  of 

wood  used  in  the  game  of '  knur  and  spell ' 

BULLYEND,  adv.     Head   foremost,  head- 
long, rashly  (Cum.). 
BULLYON,  sb.     A  quagmire,  treacherous 

ground  (Lan.). 
BULLYTHRUMS,  sb.  />/.     Frayed  tufts,  as 

on  cord,  &c.  (Chs.) 
BULTY,  adj.    Large  (Sc). 
BULYON,  sb.    A  crowd,  collection  (Sc). 
BULYOR,  sb.     An  uproar,  outcry  (Irel.). 
BUNGO,  sb.     In  phr.  under  the  bungo  o'  th' 

moon,  in  difficulties, 'under  the  weather' 

BUNK,  sb.     A  rabbit  (Suf). 
BUNNY-HEADED,  adj    Dull,  stupid  (Sun). 
BUNYOCH,  sb.    The  last  sheaf  to  be  tied 

on  the  harvest-field  (s.Irel.). 



BUOYREN,  V.    To  frighten  (Wxf.). 
BURLINS,*//.;^/.  Bread  burnt  in  thcovenfSc). 
BURN,  sb.    A  five-gallon  wooden  measure, 

with  two  handles  (  Yks.). 
BURTLE,  V.    To  do  anything  awkwardly 

BURTON  DOG,  p/tr.     In  prov.  'As  stiff  as 

Burton  dog'  (Yks.). 
BUTTON,   V.      In    phr.   fo  have  one's  coat 

Iniltoiu'd  behind,  to  look  like  a  fool  (Irel.). 
BUZZERT,  sb.     Inferior  coal  (Lan.). 
BUZZIES,  5/;.  pi.     Flies  (Som.). 
BUZZLE-HEAD,  sh.(>)  (e.An.) 
BUZZY,  sb.    A  cockchafer  (Suf.). 
BY,  V.    To  hush  to  sleep  (Lan.,  Stf.). 
BY,  prep.    In  form  bin  before  vowels  (n.Cy.). 
BYENIR,  sb.     A  cow  (Sh.I.i. 
BYLEER.  adv.    Just  now  (Som.,  Cor.). 
BYSTART,  adj.     Bastard  (?)  (Sc). 

CADDLE,  sb.  A  set  of  four,  applied  to 
cherry-stones  in  the  game  of '  cherry-pit ' 
or  '  papes'  (se.Sc). 

CALL,  V.  In  phr.  to  call  to,  to  be  aware  of 

CAMDOOTSHIE,  adj.    Sagacious  (Per.). 

CAMPABLE,  adj    Capable  (n.Cy.l. 

CANDLESTY,  adv.  Secretly,  clandestinely 

CANDLING,  sb.  A  feast  on  the  eve  of 
Candlemas  Day  (dial,  unknown). 

CANNECA",  sb.    The  woodworm  (Fif ). 

(.')  CANNEL,  sb.  A  stickleback;  a  tadpole 

CANNON,  sb.  A  cataract  or  other  disease 
of  the  eye  (dial,  unknown). 

CANNY,  adj.l  In  phr.  to  be  at  laiig  canny, 
to  be  distressed  for  want  of  food  (w.Yks.). 

CANNYGOSHAN,  sb.  One  who  dwells  in 
the  Canongate,  Edinburgh. 

CANTATION.  sb.  Talk,  conversation  (Frf ). 

CANTLINGSTONE,  s6.  A  rocking  stone  (?) 

CAPELTHWAITE,  sb.  A  sprite  or  hob- 
goblin in  the  form  of  an  animal  (Wm.,Yks.). 

CAPOOCH,  adv.  In  phr.  to  go  capooch,  to 
collapse,  give  way  (Dev.). 

CAPPLESNOD  (?).  Meaning  unknown 

CARAVASSING,  ppl.  adj  Restless,  wan- 
dering (Lin.). 

CARB,  sb.  A  raw-boned,  loquacious  woman 

CARKEEN,  sb.     Meaning  unknown  (Irel.). 

CARKERED,  fl«^'.     Ill-natured  (Lan.). 

CARLING,  sb.  A  fish.  prob.  the  pogge, 
Ai;n)ius  cataphractns  (Fif). 

CARMUDGELT,/i/'/.aa>'.  Made  soft  by  light- 
ning (Ayr.). 

CARNAP,  adj    Coquettish  (s.Pem.). 

CARNELL,  sb.  A  bird,  prob.  a  rook  (I.W., 
Dor.  ?). 

CAST,  y}  To  choke  oneself  by  over-eating 

CAST,  I'.*    To  groan  (War.). 

CATAMARAN,  sb.  Anything  very  rickety 
or  unsafe  (Dev.). 

CATCHELD,  ppl.  adj.  Of  thread,  &c. :  en- 
tangled (Bdf). 

CATERRAMEL,  v.     To  hollow  out  (War.). 

CATTERILS,  sb.  pi.  Meaning  unknown 

CAUTION,  sb.  A  person  who  is  clever  or 
capable  in  business— «o/  conveying  the 
sense  of  curious  or  amusing  (Irel.). 

CAWSIETAIL.  sb.     A  dunce  (n.Cy.). 
CEDGY,  adj.    Stiff,  clinging  together  (Ken.). 
CELTER,  i*.     Money  (Lin.). 
CHA'  FAUSE,  phr.    To  suffer  (?)  (Abd.). 
CHAMLETED,  rt(i)'.    Of  timber:  having  the 
appearance   of   'chamlet'    or    camlet  (?) 
CHAMP,  sb.    Quality,  stamp,  kind  (s.Sc). 
CHANDLER  PINS,//»r.    To  be  a' on  chandler 
pins,  of  speech  :  to  be  elegant,  refined  (?) 
CHARIOT,  sb.     A  lorry  for  carrying  wood 

in  mines  (w.Yks.). 
CHASTIFY,    V.      To     chastise,     castigate 

CHAVELING,  sb.    A  spokesh.tve  (Sc). 
CHEMIS,     Chips  (?)  (s.Wxf ). 
CHERRY-FINCH. s/).    The  hawfinch,  Cocco- 

Ihraiisles  vulgaris  idial.  unknown). 
CHESTER,  sb.     A  penny  (w.Yks.  Slang). 
CHETTOUN,  sb.    The  setting  of  a  precious 

stone  (Ayr.). 
CHEURE,  V.    To  chide,  scold  (Dev.). 
CHICK(Y,  V.     To  crouch  down  (Cor.). 
CHIME-HOURS,  sb.  pi.    Meaning  unknown 

I  Som.). 
CHIP-CHACK,  sb.    The   young   shoots   or 

leaves  of  the  oak  (Sus. ). 
CHISELER,  sb.    A  heavy  blow  with  the  fist 

CHISM,  V.  To  take  the  sprouts  from  potatoes 

CHIT-A-DEE-DEE,  sb.      The  tomtit,  Pariis 

caenileiis  (War.). 
CHIVELLER.  sb.     The  goldfinch,  Cardiielis 

ebgans  (Nrf.). 
CHOCKERED,  adj     Of  sheep:    having  a 

swelling  under  the  jaws  (dial,  unknown). 
CHOCKY,  adj.     Pert,  lively  (War.). 
CHOG,  sb.    The  soft  part  of  a  boiled  crab 

(dial,  unknown). 
CHORCE,  V.     To  rejoice  (Glo.). 
CHORIES,  sb.  pi.    Thieves  (n.Yks.). 
CHORK,   adj.      Saturated   or  soaked  with 

water  (Nhb.). 
CHRISTMAS-TUP,  sb.    Meaning  unknown 

CHUFF,  adj.     Meaning  unknown  (Wxf.). 
CHUGH,  adj.     Meaning  unknown  (Wxf). 
CHULZ,  V.     To  coddle  (Hmp.). 
CHURCHIL'D  MANE,  phr.     Meaning  un- 
known (w.Yks.). 
CHUTE,  sb.     A  steep,  hilly  road  (I.W.). 
CHYWOLLOCK,  sb.    The  redwing,  Turdits 

iliactts  (Cor.). 
CILLINS,  sb.  pi.    Meaning  unknown  (Ayr.). 
CIPHAX,  sb.     A  fool,  nonentity  (Der.). 
CLADPOLE,  sb.     A  blockhead,  stupid  (?) 

CLAM,  adj.     Hard  (Dur.). 
CLAM,  V.    To  kill,  '  do  for '  (e.An.). 
CLAMISH,  rt<^.     Dry  (Cum.). 
CLAMMAS,  V.    To  climb  (n.Cj'.). 
CLAMMIN',  vbl.  sb.     Bickering  (Chs.). 
CLAMPER,  V.    To  fight  anything  out  among 

themselves  (?)  (Gall.). 
CLAMPHER,  V.    To  litter,  strew  in  con- 
fusion (?)  (Ayr.). 
CLANDESTICAL,  adj.    Clandestine  (Hrf ). 
CLANG,  5*.     A  number,  bevy  (w.Yks.). 
CLANGUM,    sb.      A    delicious     beverage, 

'nectar'  (Oxf). 
CLANGUMSHOUS,  adj.     Sulky  (Lnk.). 
CLASP-FEET,     adv.       Holding    the     feet 
closely  together  (Suf.). 

CLAW,  V.    In  phr.  to  claw  off,  to  reprove 

CLEASE,  sb.    A  measure  of  wool  (Cum.). 
CLEIRO,  sb.   'A  sharp  noise,  a  shrill  sound 

CLEMMY,  sb.    A  stone  (Hrf.). 
CLEP,  V.    To  walk  or  move  like  a  crab  (?) 

CLEVICE,  sb.     Meaning  unknown  (Oxf.). 
CLICKY,  sb.     A  shepherd's  staff  (Gall.). 
CLIMBERS,  sb.  pi.     Eyes  (?)  (w.Yks.). 
CLINCH,  5*.     The  clinging  of  a  bucket,  &c., 

to  the  water,  when  it  is  being  pulled  out 

CLISHAWK,  V.    To  steal  (Lin.). 
CLOSH,  sb.^    A  boys'  game  played  with 

stones  (n.Yks.). 
CLOSH,  sb.'^    A  pronged  instrument,  used 

by  whalers  (n.Yks.). 
CLOWE,  sb.    A  heap,  a  cock  of  hay,  &c. 

CLUGSTON,  sb.     An  amusement  among 

farmers  (Wgt). 
COACH,  sb.      A  small   cart  for   carrying 

about  wet  pieces  of  cloth  (w.Yks.). 
COACH,  V.    To  coax  (Nrf). 
COARY,  adj.     Meaning  unknown  (Hmp.). 
COBBY,  int.     A  call  to  sheep  (n.Yks.). 
COBSEEDING,     sb.       Meaning    unknown 

COCKER,  sb.     A  dram  or  drink  of  whisky 

COCK-HORNS,  sb.  pi.    Horns  standing  up 

on  the  head  (s.Won). 
COCK-THROPPLED,  adj  having  the  throat 

projecting  (Wm.). 
CODLNG-COMBER,    sb.      A    wool-comber 

who  went  his  rounds  on  foot  (e.An.). 
CODNOR,  sb.     Stewing  (?)  (Cor.). 
CODPIGEON,  56.    A  pigeon  with  a  ruff  of 

feathers  (?)  (Won). 
COGLAN-TREE,  sb.     A  large  tree  in  front 

of  the  house,  where  the  laird  always  met 

his  visitors  (Sc). 
COK,  .sA.     Meaning  unknown  (Sc). 
COLLIRUMP,  sb.    The  oak  (w.Yks.). 
COLMACE  or  COLMATE,  sb.     A  coul-staff 

COLT,  sb.    A  piece  of  gritstone  set  in  wood, 

used  by  shoemakers  to  rub  the  soles  and 

heels  to  make  them  take  the  black  stain 

COMBER,  s6.    Meaning  unknown  (Der.). 
COMEPTED,  adj.     Facetious  (e.An.). 
COMREE,  sb.     Trust,  confidence  (Wxf). 
CONFABULATE,  v.    To  agree  to  ;  to  make 

an  arrangement  or  agreement  (Dev.). 
CONK,  sb.     A  collection  of  people  (Som.). 
CONSTANCE,  sb.     Conscience  (?)  (Abd.l. 
CONTERMONES,   Meaning  unknown 

CONTRA VESS,  adv.     Quite  the   reverse 

COOZELY,      adj.        Meaning      unknown 

COP,  sb.    A  spider  (Wm.). 
CORBOT,  sb.     A  cloth  or  material  of  some 

kind  (.')  (Wgt.). 
CORP,  sb.   Fig.    The  mouth,  lips  (Irel.). 
CORSING,  vbl.  sb.    Horse-deahng  (dial,  un- 
COSS,  sb.     A  mow,  heap  of  corn  (Som.). 
COTTONIAL,  acO'.    Cotton-like  (Ayn). 
COUNTER,  sb.  The  cutting-knife  o(  a  plough 




COURGE,  sb.    A  basket  hung  on  the  side 

of  a  boat,  used  to  keep  fish  aUve  in,  in 

sea-fishing  (Dev.  ?). 
COUTRIBAT,  sb.      A   confused   struggle, 

tumult  (Slk.). 
COVIE,  sb.     Meaning  unknown  (Lnk.)- 
COWK,  sb.    A  cow's  hoof  (Dev.?). 
COWN,  V.    To  whimper  (Cai.). 
COW-WIDDO WS,  ?    To  lead  cows  with  (?) 

COZE,  V.    To  carouse  (?)  (Lan.). 
CRACKEL,  sb.    A  cricket  (n.Cy.). 
CRADDOCK,  ?     Said  of  a  woman  when 

confined  (w.Yks.). 
CRAID,  sb.    Yellow  clover  (?)  fSc). 
CRAINIE,  sb.     A  sea-bird  (n.Yks.). 
CRAMMET,s6.    Meaning  unknown  (Hmp.). 
CRAMMOCK,  V.    To  hobble  (Yks.). 
CRANCRUMS,  sb.  pi.    Things  hard  to  be 

understood  (?)  (Rxb.). 
CRANKUM-BOSBERRY,    sb.       A    white 

badge  worn  on  the  hat  at  funerals  (Wor.). 
CRAP,  5*.     Assurance  (?)  (Wil.). 
CRAWS,  sb.  pi.     In  phr.  waes  my  craws.' 

an  e.xpression  of  great  sympathy  (Sc). 
CREAR,  V.    To  rear  (Lin.). 
CREASE,  adj.     Loving,  fond  (Lan.). 
CRECHE,  sb.    The  prong  or  fork  of  a  tree 


CREED,  adj.     Hard  (?)  (Yks.). 
CREELY,  5*.     A  nervous  child  (n.Yks.). 
CRKSSY,  adj.  Winding,  twisting,  turning  (?) 

CREYSER,  5*.    The  kestrel,  Tinnunculus 

alaudarius  (Cor.). 
CRIEST,  V.      In    phr.   to    criest   his   head, 

meaning  unknown  (Sc). 
CROCK,  sb.     In  phr.  no  heed  of  smock  or  of 

crock,  meaning  unknown  (Oxf ). 
CROCKER,  sb.    A  species  of  boy's  marble 

CROFTING,  prp.     Walking  lame,   halting 

CROHEAD,  sb.     Part  of  a  boat  (Sh.I.). 
CROKER,  sb.  Cottage,  dwelling  (?)  (Suf). 
CROT,  sb.     A  very  small  part  ( w.Yks.). 
CROYL,   sb.      Clay  indurated   with   shells 

CRUDE,  V.    To  brood,  as  a  hen  (Pern.). 
CRUDEN,   sb.      A  partan    crab,    Carcinus 

Maenas  (Irel.). 
CRUMPETS,  sb.  pi.    News,  gossip  (n.Yks.). 
CRUMPTINS,    sb.   pi.       Small,    deformed 

apples  (Cor.). 
CRUPPLE,  V.    To  crouch  (Lan.). 
CRUPPOCKS,  sb.  pi.    Meaning  unknown 

CRUTTLE,  V.    To  curdle  (Nhb.). 

CUBALD,    adj.       Parti-coloured,    piebald 

(Nrf  ?). 
CUBIT-FAGOT  or  -WOOD,  sb.      Meaning 

unknown  (Suf,  Ken.). 
CUBBY-HOLE,  sb.     A  dog-hutch  (Gall.). 
CUCKLE,  V.    To  cuddle  (Oxf). 
CUD-BUSH,     sb.         An     esculent      plant 

CUDDIAN,  56.     The  wren.  Troglodytes  par- 

vuIhs  (Dev.). 
CUDGY,  sb.    The  hedge-sparrow.  Accentor 

modularis  (s.Not.). 
CUDRIDDEN,   sb.      An   excitement,  noise 

CUFFUFFLE,  sb.    A  squeeze,  hug  (Ant.). 
CUMFETHIS,  sb.  pi.     Sweetmeats,  comfits 

CUMPUS,    adj.      Clever,    'compos    tnentis' 

CUMSTRUM,    adj.      Dangerous,    quarrel- 
some (?)  (Sc). 
CUNNING,  sb.    The  lamprey  (n.Cy.). 
CUNNYFAVER,  v.    To  sneak,  curry  favour 

CUPPEEN,  sb.    A  spindle  (s.Ir.). 
CUYP,  V.     To  stick  up  (Nrf). 
CVZ,  adj.  zwA  adv.     Close  (Frf). 
CYPHER-MAN,    sb.      Meaning    unknown 





Al.  Apart  from  the  influence  of  neighbouring  sounds, 
•     the  normal  development  of  OE.  ae  in  closed  syllables 
is  as  follows  : — 

1.  a  in  Sc,  all  the  northern  and  midland  counties  to 
n.Hrf ,  Wor.,  n.Glo.,  n.Brks.,  Oxf ,  se.Hrt.,  s.Cmb.,  nw.Nrf., 

2.  The  sound  ae  has  remained  in  all  the  other  counties 
except  the  parts  of  counties  named  under  1,  and  the  parts 
of  the  country  named  under  3,  4. 

3.  It  has  become  a',  a  sound  closely  approaching  se,  in 
e.Suf,  ne.Nrf.  and  parts  of  Hrf,  Ess. 

4.  It  has  become  e  in  Mid.,  se.Bck.,  s.Hrt.,  and  sw.Ess. 

II.  The  normal  development  of  OE.  as  and  a  in  open 
Syllables  is  :  — 

1.  Long  close  e  in  Bnff,  Frf,  Lothian  and  Fif ,  se.Arg., 
s. Etc.,  n. Ayr.,  e.  and  s.Dmb.,  Lnk.,  Rnf,  m.Nhb.  (Whitting- 
ham),  s.Yks.,  Lan.  (see  4,  5,  7),  ne.Chs.,  Stf  (see  3,  4,  81, 
Der.  (see  2),  Not.,  Lei.,  ne.  and  sw.Nhp.,  e.VVar.,  sAVor., 
n.,  me.  and  se.Shr.,  nw.Brks.,  nw.Hrt.,  s.Cnib.,  nw.Nrf, 
e.Suf  (Orford),  w.Cor. 

2.  Long  open  f  in  Nai.,  Mry.,  Abd.,  Kcd.,  Per.,  S.Ayr., 
w.Dmf,  Kcb.,  Wgt.,  Dur.  (Berwick-upon-Tweed,  Lanches- 
ter),  se.Yks.,  w.Yks.  (Huddersfield,  Halifax),  nw.Den, 
Rut.,  m.Nhp.,  Hrf  (Ledbury),  Brks.  (Hainpstead  Norris), 
m.Cmb.,  ne.  and  s.Nrf ,  n.  and  w.Suf ,  e.Suf.  (Framlingham), 
Hmp.(Andover),e.Dor.,  s.Som.(Montacute),  n.Dev.  (North 
Molton),  s.Dev. 

3.  Long  1  in  nw.Fif,  Chs.  except  ne.,  Stf  (Stretton, 
Burton-under-Wood),  Shr.  (Market  Drayton). 

4.  63  in  e.Dur.,  m.Nhb.  (Rothbury,  Embleton),  w.Yks. 
(Dewsbury,  Leeds,  Bradford,  Keighley,  Skipton,  Craven, 
Upper  Craven  with  Upper  Nidderdale),  e.Yks.  (S.  Ainsty, 
Holderness),  n.Lan.  (P'urness  and  Cartmel),  s.Stf  (Dar- 
laston,  Willenhall),  Lin.,  sw.Nhp.  (Badby),  m.Nhp.  (see 
2),  War.  (see  1),  n.w.  and  e.Wor.,  n.Hrf,  s.Shr.,  se.Brks., 
Bck.,  m.Bdf,  Hrt.  (Arderley),  e.Suf,  nw.  and  e.Ken., 
ne.  and  s  Sun,  w.  and  e.Sus.,  n.  and  sw.Dev.,  w.Soni., 

5.  is  in  Rxb.,  Slk.,  e.  and  m.Dmf ,  s.  and  sw.Nhb.,  n.Cum., 
Dur.  (Weardale,Teesdale,  Stanhope),  n.  and  e.Yks.,  n.Lan. 
(Coniston),  Hrf  (Much  Cowarne,  Eggleton),  Glo.  (Vale  of 
Gloucester,  Shenington),  Oxf  (Banbury),  se.Hrt.,  n.Ken. 
(Faversham),  e.Sus.  (Selmeston),  I.W.,  vVil.,  e.Dor.  (Cran- 
borne,  Winterborne  Came),  e.Som. 

6.  ie  in  m.Nhb.  (Snitter,  Ilarbotlle,  Warkworth),  Dur. 
(Annfield  Plain),  Wm.  (Crosby  Ravensworth,  Temple 
Sowerby).     In  se.Nhb.  (Stamlordham,  Newcastle,  North 

VOL.  I. 

Shields),  Dur.  (South  Shields),  Cum.  (Carlisle),  the  diph- 
thong seems  to  be  i6  rather  than  ie. 
7-  ia  in  Dur.  (Sunderland),  \Vm.  (see  6),  Cum.  (see  5), 
n.Yks.  (Muker,  Hawes),  w.Yks.  (Howgill,  Dent),  n.Lan. 
(Lower  Holker-in-Cartniel). 

8.  ei  in  s.Stf  (Walsall,  Wednesbury),  m.Nhp.  (Lower 
Benefield),  e.Shr.  (Shitfnal),  Bck.  (Buckingham,  Chack- 
more,  see  4),  Bdf  (RidgmontJ,   Hrt.  (Hatfield,  Harpen- 

^en),  Hnt.  (Great  Stuckley). 

9.  asi  in  Mid.,  Ess.,  and  parts  of  Hrt.,  se.Bck. 
III.  The  normal  development  of  OE.  a  is  : — 

1.  Long  close  e  in  Abd.,  Bnff.,  Mry.,  Nai.,  w.Dmf,  Frf, 
Kcb.,  Wgt.,  se.Arg.,  s.Bte.,  Ayr,  e.  and  s.Dmb.,  Lnk.,  Rnf, 
Lothian  and  Fif 

2.  Long  open  f  in  Per.,  Frf  (Dundee),  Kcd.,  Cai.  (Wick). 

3.  Long  close  5  in  m.Nhb.  (Warkworth,  Alnwick,  Whit- 
tinghami,  se.Nhb.  (Stamfordhami,  Dur.  (Sunderland), 
se.Lan.  (Oldham,  Rochdale),  w.  and  m.Chs.,  nw.Der.,  Stf 
(see  5.),  Not.,  Lei.,  Rut.,  Shr.,  n.  and  e.Hrf ,  w.Oxf ,  m.  and 
s.Cmb.,  nw.  and  ne.Nrf,  n.  and  w.Suf,  n.Dev.  (Iddesleigh), 
s.Dev.,  w.Cor.,  e.Cor.  (St.  Columb  Major). 

4.  Long  open  9  in  m.Nhb.  (Rothbury,  Snitter,  Wooler), 
se.Nhb.  (North  Shields),  sw.Nhb.  (Hexham).  Dur.  (Lan- 
chester),  se.Yks.  (Sutton),  ne.  and  m.Nhp.,  s.Nrf 

5.  Long  u  in  s.Chs.  (Farndon),  wm.  and  e.Stf ,  Der.  (see 
3.),  e.Suf 

6.  ea  in  m.Yks.,  e.Yks.  (Holderness'),  w.Yks.  (Washburn 
river  district,  Skipton,  m. Craven,  Upper  Craven  and 
Upper  Nidderdale),  n.Lan.  (Broughton-m-Furness,  Lower 

7.  o3  in  se.Nhb.(Whalton),w.Yks.(IIurst),  I.  Ma., e. War., 
n.Wor.,  Hrt.  (Welwyn),  n.Cnib.,  e.Ken.  (Wingham),  e.  and 
w.Sus.,  s.Sur.,  I.W.,  e.Som. 

8.  93  in  Dur.  (see  3),  ne.Yks.  (Skelton),  se.Yks.  (Goole), 
n.Lin.,  m.Nhp.,  Wor.  (Hanbury),  Hrf  (Ledbury),  Glo. 
(Tetbury),  Oxf  (Banbury),  se.Brks.,  Bck.  (Chackmore), 
Ess.  (Great  Dunmow,  Maldon),  nw.Ken.,  ne.Sur.,  e.Dor. 
(Handfordi,  e.Cor.  (Camelford,  Cardynham). 

9.  ua  in  m.Nhb.  (Embleton),  sw.Nhb.  (Haltwhistle), 
ne.Yks.  (Danby,  S.  Ainsty),  se.Yks.  (East  Holderness), 
w.Yks.  (Giggleswick,  Doncaster,  Halifax,  Keighley,  Brad- 
ford, Leeds,  Dewsbury,  Sheffield),  Lan.  (see  3,  6, 10),  Chs. 
(Pott  Shrigley),  s.Stf  (Dudley),  n.  and  e.Der.,  m.  and  s.Lin., 
sw.Nhp.,  \v.  and  s.War.,  e.War.  (Atherstone),  Glo.  (Vale  of 
Gloucester,  Forest  of  Dean,  Shenington),  Bck.  (seeS),  Hrt. 
(see  7),  Hnt.,  n.Ken.  (Faversham),  e.Sus.  (Marklye),  Hnip. 



f  Andover),  Wil.,  e.Dor.  (Cranborne,  Winterborne  Came), 
w.iom  .  e.Som.  lAxe-Yartj'),  n.  and  svv.Dev. 

10.  ia  in  Cum.  (Langwatliby,  Ellonby,  Keswick,  Clifton), 
w.Cum..  \Vm.  (see  Ui,  n.Yks.  (Muker),  nw.Ylcs.  (Hawes, 
Dent,  Hovvgill,  Sedberg),  n.Lan.  (Coniston). 

11.  ie  in  svv.Nhb.  (Knaresdale),  Wm.  (Crosby  Ravens- 
worth,  Temple  Sowerby),  Cum.  (Bewcastle).  In  the 
Teviotdale,  Nhb.  (Newcastle),  Dur.  (South  Shields),  Cum. 
(Carlisle),  the  diphthong  seems  to  be  ie  rather  than  ie. 

12.  ia  in  Rxb.,  Slk.,  e.  and  ni.Dmf.,  s.Nhb.,  Cum.  (Bramp- 
ton, Holme  Cultram),  Dur.  (Weardale  and  Teesdale), 
ne.Yks.  (Whitby),  nm.Yks.  (Lower  Nidderdale,  South 
Cleveland),  nw.Yks.  (Upper  Swaledale,  The  Upper  Mining 

13.  9u  in  Stf.  (Darlaston,  Codsall,  Willenhall),  m.Nhp. 
(Lower  Benefield),  e.Ken.  (Folkestone). 

14.  aeus  in  Chs.  (Tarporley,  Middlewick),  s.Chs. 

For  further  details  see  The  Phonological  Introduction, 
and  Ellis,  E.  E.  Pi:,  v.  passim. 

A.  Although  the  following  examples  of  A  are  for  the 
most  part  merely  the  dialectic  pronunciation  of  common 
literary  words,  they  are  here  included  so  as  to  facilitate  the 
understanding  of  the  numerous  meanings  of  what  is  written 
a  in  the  quotations  throughout  the  Dictionary. 

[Pron.  I,  II,  V,  VIII,  IX  a;  III  stressed  form  a,  9,  un- 
stressed a;  IV  a;  VI  (1)  a,  (2,  3)  e.  a ;  VII  (1)  5,  £2)  a; 
X  a,  when  strongly  emphasized  e ;  XI  (1)  a,  e,  (2)  e.] 

I.  A,  indef.  art.     Van  dial. 

1.  Used  redundantly  with  sh.  or  adj. 

Sc.  Not  wortli  a  sixpence,  Monthly  Mag.  (1800)  I.  238.  Ken.^ 
A  bread  and  butter,  a  piece  of  bread  and  butter  ;  Ken.^  A  good 
hair,  good  hair.  w.Som.i  I  sh'll  be  back  about  of  a  dinner-time, 
Introd.  xxiv. 

2.  Used  in  place  of  an  before  a  vowel  or  h  mute. 

Nhb.'  Not  a  oonce.  n.Yks.i  Top  ov  a  awd  rain  watter  tub. 
w.Yks.2  A  idle,  ill-tempered  gossip.  Sur.^  Halt"  a  hour  agoo. 
Wil.'  The  article  an  is  never  used.  Gie  I  a  apple.  w.Som.i  He's 
same's  a  old  hen  avore  day. 

3.  Before  numerals,  and  nouns  of  multitude  and  quantity. 
Ir.  We'll  be  givin'  them  a  boil  in  a  one  of  the  little  saucepans, 

Barlow  Lisconnel  (1895)  61.  N.Cy.'  A  many,  a  great  number. 
Nhb.i  Thor's  amany  at  dissent  knaa.  Thor's  not  a-one  on  ye  dar 
come.  Yks.  Ye've  each  on  ye  gotten  a  two  or  three  childer, 
Taylor  .^//ssjl7(7^5  (1890)  i.  w.Yks.*  Amany.  sw.Lin.'  There's 
a  many  as  can't  raise  a  pie.  Nhp.'  A  many.  Sur.  There  be  a 
hundreds  of  'em,  Jennings  Field  Paths  (1884)  37  ;  There  be  a 
plenty  of  'em,  ib.  44.  Sur.'  w.Som.'  We  shall  have  a  plenty  o' 
gooseberries.  There  was  about  of  a  forty.  Purty  nigh  of  a  fifty. 
Som.  A  dree  or  fower  children,  Leith  Lemon  Verbena  (1895)  45. 
nw.Dev.'  'Bout  a  nine  o'clock.      'Bout  a  vower  or  vive  mile. 

[There's  not  a  one  of  them  but  in  his  house  I  keep  a 
servant  fee'd,  Shaks.  Macb.  iii.  iv.  131  ;  And  up  they 
rysen,  wel  a  ten  or  twelve,  Chaucer  C.  T.  f.  383.J 

4.  Used  with  nouns  in  />/.,  to  denote  quantity. 

Nhb.'  What  a  bairns  thor  is  [what  a  number  of  bairns].  What 
a  picturs  he  hcs  iv  his  hoose. 

II.  A,  num.  adj.  One,  when  standing  before  sb.,  but  not 
absolutely,  in  which  case  ane  or  yan  is  used.  In  Yks. 
Lan.  Som.,  and  occas.  so  written  in  other  dialects. 

ne.Yks.'  A,  one.  w.Yks.^  They're  just  about  a  size.  ne.Lan.' 
w.Som.'  Same's  the  crow  zaid  by  the  heap  o'  toads.  They  be  all  of 
a  sort. 

IW.  K,  adj.  K\\.  Chiefly  in  Sc.  and  n.Cy.  In  S:.,  when 
followed  by  a//,  sb.,  it  means  every  with  the  sensi  of  each 

Sc.  A'  folks,  every  body ;  a'  bairns,  each  child.  A'  body  sais 
sae,  everyone  says  so  (Jam.)  ;  I  thought  you  were  named  Robbie 
A'  Thing  from  the  fact  of  your  keeping  all  kinds  of  goods,  Ramsay 
Rcmin.  (1859)  11.  128.  Frf.  He  was  standin'  at  the  gate,  which, 
as  a'  body  kens,  is  but  sajf  steps  frae  the  hoose,  Barrie  Thrums 
(1889')  211,  ed.  1894.  Ayr.  The  man's  the  gowd  for  a'  that. 
Burns  For  a'  That  (1795).  Rxb.  Then  a'  the  wives  of  Teviotside 
Ken  there  will  be  a  (lood,  Swainson  Weather  Fl/j  Lore  1 18-]-^)  207. 
If.  Is  that  generally  believed/     It  is  by  a'  man  (^W.J.K.;.      Nhb. 

And  soon  fill  a'  our  creels,  Coquet  Dale  Sngs.  (1852)  46;  Aw've 
suppd  a'  the  milk  an'  wine,  Robson  Efangeline,  &c.  (1870)  6. 
Wra.'  Tha  were  a  there.  Lan.  There  is  na  a  fractious  choilt  i'  a' 
ar  yard.  Banks  Manch.  Man  (1876J  i.  Chs.  It's  worth  a'  the  brass 
to  yer  that.  Banks  Forbidden  (ed.  1885;  xiv. 

IV.  A,  pron.  I.  In  Ircl.  n.Cy.  and  some  of  the  midl. 

N.I.'  A'm  sayin'.  Dur.'  A'l,  I  will.  Cum.'  Wm.  A  caant  reetly 
tell  ya.  Specimens  Dial.  (1885)  pt.  iii.  i.  Yks.  A  wish  a'd  been 
theer!  Gaskell  5v/OTa  (18631  I.  v.  w.Yks.  A've  card  him  call  em 
legs,  Preston  Poems,  &c.  (1864)3.  e.Lan.'  w.Wor.  A  dunna 
think  it  (W.  B.). 

V.  A,  pron.  Used  for  the  third  pers.  pron.  in  sing.,  and 
occas.  in  pi. 

1.  He.  Very  widely  distributed  through  the  dialects  (see 
quot.),  but  not  found  in  those  n.Cy.  districts  where  the 
aspirate  is  retained. 

w.Yks.'  Lin.  The  amoighty's  a  taakin  o'  you  to  'issen,  my 
friend,  'a  said,  Tennyson  N.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (iS6.^)  st.  7.  Nhp.'^^ 
se.Wor.'  Shr.'  A  wuz  all  of  a  dither  ;  Shr.''  There  a  comes. 
Pern.'  A's  coming  tereckly,  a's  shoor  to  kum.  Brks.'  If  zo  be 
as  a  zes  a  wunt,  a  wunt  fif  he  says  he  won't,  he  won't].  Suf.' 
Hmp.  I  low  a  will  [expect  he  will|  i^H.C.W.B.)  LW.'^  n.Wil. 
A  do  veed  amang  th'  lilies.  Kite  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860)  ii.  16.  Som. 
Moi  zowel  vailed  when  a'  speaked,  Baynes  Sng.  Sol.  (i860)  v.  6. 
w.Som.'  The  doctor've  a-do'd  hot  a  can  [done  what  he  can].  Dev. 
In  a  com  [in  he  came],  Peter  Pindar  Roy.  Visit  E.veter{i']g^)  156. 

[A  fair  knyjt  a  was  to  see,  Sir  Feriimbras  (1380)  250.] 

2.  She.     In  a  few  midl.  and  sw.  counties. 

A  wanted  me  to  go  with  her,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.) 
Nhp.'2,  se.Wor.i  Shr.,  Hrf.  Did  a  do  it?  Bound  Piov.  (1876). 
Wil.'  A  zed  a  'oodden  bide  yer  no  longer,  fur  ef  a  did  her'd 
never  let  un  gwo.  Dor.  A's  getting  wambling  on  her  pins  [shaky 
on  her  legs],  Hardy  Tou'er  (1882)  124,  ed.  1895. 

3.  It.  Often  used  of  inanimate  objects,  when  it  probably 
represents  lie  applied  to  things  as  well  as  to  persons. 
Chiefly  in  w.  and  sw.  counties. 

w.Wor.'  W'ahr  bin  a'  ?  may  mean  either  Where  is  he,  she,  or  it? 
se.Wor.'  This  tree  a  got  a  good  crap  o'  opples  on  'im,  aant  a  ? 
Hrf.' 2,  Oxf.'.  w.Sora."  Dev.  He've  a  got  a  great  venture  on  hand, 
but  wliat  a  be  he  tcll'th  no  man,  Kingsley  IV.  IIo!  (1855)  120, 
ed.  1889. 

4.  T.'iey.     Lin.  Shr. 

Lin.  Doctors,  they  knaws  nowt,  fur  a  says  what's  nawwaystrue, 
Tennyson  TV.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (.1864)  st.  2.  Shr.'  Whad  wun  a 
doin'  theer?     Shr.^  Whire  bin  a  ? 

VI.  A,  V.  Occas.  used  for  are,  has,  hath  ;  very  general 
in  place  oi  liave,  sing,  and  pi. 

1.  Are. 

e.Yks.'  What  a  ya  a  deea-in  on  there?  [What  are  you  doing 
there  ?] 

2.  Hath,  has. 

Shr.^  He  a  got  none.  w.Wor.'  'Er  a  gon'  awaay.  Hrf.^  Hiin 
a'  gone  away. 

3.  Have. 

Sc.  Often  used,  in  vulgar  language,  as  an  abbreviation  of 'hae' 
(Jam.)  ;  For  they  were  a'  just  like  to  eat  their  thumb.  That  he  wi' 
her  sae  far  ben  should  a  come,  Ross  Helenore  {t'j6S)  11.  Cum. 
I  waddent  a  hed  sic  a  cloon  i^M.P.).  w.Yks.'  You  mud  as  weel 
a  dunt  as  nut.  ne.Lan.',  Chs.'  Lin.  I  moant  'a  naw  moor  aale, 
Tenuvson  N.  Farmer;  0/a'S/v/f(i864)  St.  i.  n.Lin.',  Nhp.'  w.Wor.' 
A  done,  ool  ee  !  Shr.'  We  mun  a  tliis  oven  fettled.  Now,  Polly, 
yo'n  a  to  g66.  Glo.  When  a  man's  owld  and  a-weered  out,  and 
begins  to  'a  a  summat  the  matter,  Buckman  Darkens  Sojourn 
(i8go)  7.  Sur.  Plagued  if  I  builded  a  house  if  I'd  'a  a  front  door 
to  'ee,  Bickley  Siir.  Hills  (1890)  II.  i.  Hmp.'  w.Soni.'  Have, 
when  followed  bj'  a  consonant,  sometimes  written  ha,  but  seldom 
aspirated.  This  is  the  commonest  of  all  the  forms,  and  it  is 
occasionally  heard  even  before  a  vowel.  Dev.^  Wull  yu  come  an' 
'a'  yer  brekzis,  Betty? 

VII.  A,  adz).  Seldom  found,  except  in  sense  1.  More 
usually  written  ae,  ah,  aw,  ay. 

1.  Aj',  always. 
N.Cy.i,  Cum.  Gl.  (1851). 

2.  How. 

w.Yks.  Wel  oz  a  wo  se(3)in,  -sud  tel  ja,  a,  wiar  an  wen  S3  fan 
d'rukij  and  at  sn  Uo.ilz  ar  uzbn  [Well,  as  I  was  saying,  she'd  tell 
you  huw,  where  and  when  she  found  the  drunken  hound  that  she 
calls  her  husband],  Wright  C)-.  JFJirfM.  (1892    172. 


VIII.  A,  frep.     In  very  general  use. 

1.  At,  denoting  place. 

w.Wor.'  'E  were  a  chu'ch  o'  Sund'y.  Hrf.*  Suf.'  'A  live  a'  hin 

2.  Of. 

Wm.  T'lass  hersel  war  i'  t'snamc  way  a  tliinkin',  Jack  RonisoN 
Aald  Tales  (1883)  3.  w.Yks.'  If  she  nobbud  could  git  a  bit 
a  naturable  rist.  n.Lan.  T'  beams  a  our  house  are  cedar,  Phizac- 
KF.RLEY  Sitg.  Sol.  (i860)  i.  17.  Lin.'  Out  a  work.  n.Lin.'  Th' 
fraame  a'  this  here  dOOr.  Nhp.^  Out  a  doors.  Suf.'.  I.W.' 
A  lig  a  mutton.  w.Som.'  What  manner  a  man.  The  tap  a  the  hilh 
Dev.  Lets  drink  drap  a  ale,  Nathan  Hogg  Poet.  Lei.  1,1847)  49. 

3.  On;  in. 

N.Cy.2  A  this  side.  Nhb.'  Wra.'  Et  wes  a  Monda  mornin. 
n.Yks.'  To'n  (turn)  doon  a  that  hand.  w.Yks.'  I'll  gang  wi  the 
a  Tuesday.  Lan.  I  don't  think  every  one  would  grieve  a  that 
way,  Gaskell  M.  Barton  11848"  v;  Lan.'  He  went  a-horseback. 
ne.Lan.'  Stf.'  I  shall  go  to  Litchfield  a  Tuesday.  Der.'^  Dow  it  a' 
tliissens.  He'sallys  a' thatens.  n.Lin.'  Lei.' A  the  toother  soide. 
Shr.'^  A  Wednesday.  Suf.'  We'll  go  *a  Sunday.  Sur.'  Croydon 
Fair  is  a'  Monday.  w.Som.'  They  be  all  a  pieces.  Let-n  vail  out 
a  thick  zide  [on  this  side]. 

4.  To. 

w.Som.i  Down  a  Minehead.     I  be  gwain  in  a  town. 

5.  With. 

•Wor.  I'm  goin'  a  Bill  Saunders  to  Redditch  tu-night  (J.'W.P.). 
Nhp.*  Cam  in  a  me  [came  in  with  me]. 
[Cf.  athin,  athout.] 

IX.  A,  co)xj.    Occas. 

1.  And  ;  also  when  used  in  the  sense  of  yC 

Sof.'  I'll  gi'  ye  a  dunt  i'  the  hid  'a  ye  dew  so  no  more.  Dev. 
Chem  a  laced  well-a-fine  aready  [well-a-fine«  well  and  fine,  i.e. 
finely]  E.xm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  81. 

2.  Or. 

Suf.'  Wutha  'a  wool  *a  nae  [whether  he  will  or  no]. 

X.  A,  affirm,  part,  in  comp.  A-bttt,  Aye-but.  In  n. 
counties  to  Lin.  and  Chs.  Also  Shr.  Not  in  niidl.  and 
s.  gloss. 

n.Yks.' A!  but.  that  was  a  big yan.  e.Yks.' Ahud.  w.Yks.  Ah'll 
bensil  him  !  A'  bud  he  happen  weant  let  theh,  Hanks  IVkfld.  IVds. 
(1865).  n.Lin.'  A!  But  Charlie  is  a  big  leear,  an  noa  raistaake. 
Shr.2  A  but. 

XI.  A,  int.     In  n.Cj'.  Chs.  Lin.  Lei. 

1.  Ejaculatory  ;   oh  !  ah  ! 

N.Cy.^  A  !  man  alive  !  n.Yks.'  A  !  man  t  that  was  a  yarker  ! 
w.Yks.  A'  tha  duz  lewk  bonny,  Binns  Wihden  Ong.  (1889)  I.  i. 
Lei.'  A,  moy  surs  ! 

2.  Interrogatory;  eh? 

N.Cy.'A!  what!  VVhatdoyousay?  Cum.  G/.  (1851).  w.Yks.2«, 

A,  pre/.^  Before  prp.  and  v!>/.  .•</>.,  repr.  OE.  an.  on.  So. 
Irel.  Not  found  in  Eng.  counties  n.  of  Peni.  Shr.  War. 
Nhp.  Rut.  n.Cam.  Nrf,  exc.  in  e.Lan.  n.Lin.  Lei.  (Belgrave 
and  Walthani);  also  not  found  in  Hnt.  nvv.Nrf.  e.Ken. 

1.  Before  pip.  or  vbl.  sb.  used  with  vb.  to  be  to  form  con- 
tinuous tense. 

Ir.  I'm  a-thinkin',  Barlow  Bog-land  (i8ga)  5a.  Lin.  Git  ma  my 
aale,  fur  I  beiint  a-gawin',  Tennyson  A'.  Farmer,  Old  .Style  (1864) 
St.  I.  n.Lin.'  A  consumptive  person  is  said  to  be  awearin'.  Rut.' 
I'm  a-goin'  whum.  Nhp.'  How  they  are  a-talking  !  s.War.'  W'c 
are  a-coming  directly.  Wor.  I  don't  know  how  they'm  a-going 
now  (H.K.).  se.'Wor.i  Sbr.'  Bin  yo  agwine?  [going].  GIo.' 
He'll  be  a  puggin'  all  as  he  can  ;  GIo.^,  Oxf.'  Brks.'  fhaay  be 
a-vightin.  Bdf.  '  Is  she  a-going? '  he  said,  Ward  Bessie  Coslrcll 
(1895)  8.  Ess.  Who  is  a  goin'  to  buy?  Downe  Ballads  (18951  7. 
Ken.'  She's  always  a  making  mischief  about  somebody  or  another. 
Sur.  I've  been  a-draining  this  forty  year.  Hoskyns  Talpa  (185a)  16. 
Sus.'  I  am  a-going.  L'W.'  n.Wil.  Who's  thus  a  comcn  out  o'  th' 
weaste  ?  Kite  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  i860)  iii,  6.  Wil.'  They  wasa  zaayin'. 
Dev.  Who'm  a-gwain  for  to  kill'e?  Blackmore  C/ira/oar// (1881) 
ii  ;  1  know  what  I'm  a-saj'ing  of.  O'Neill  Idylls  (1892)  23.  e.Cor. 
The  mutton  is  a  roasting.  Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  421. 

2.  Before  vbl.  sb. 

Sc.  They  hae  taen  Yule  before  it  comes,  and  are  gaun  aguisarding 
[mumming],  Scott  Ctty  Mannering  [i8i^)  xxxvi.  e.Lan.'  Gone 
a-working.  sw.Lin.'  The  birds,  they  start  a-whistling  of  a  morn- 
ing. Hrf.2  Measter's  got  seventeen  on  'cm  out  a  yacorning  [pigs 
feeding  on  acorns].  Glo.'  Achatting,  picking  up  chats  or  small 

A,prrf?  Before /;^  repr.OE.  ge-.  In  all  thesw.counties, 
including  Wil.  Dor.  Soni.  Dev.  Cor. ;  also  in  Pern,  and  parts 
of  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Sur.  Hmp. 

se.Wor.'  'I  was  a  dreamed'  for  'I  dreamt.'  Glo.  Ye  and 
Stretch  be  so  easy  a-gallowed  [frightened],  GissiSG  Both  0/ this 
Parish  (1889)  I.  117;  It  be  a-rooted  on  his  side  of  the  bruck, 
16.  287;  Me  and  Marj'  have  abin-a-doing  arl  us  can  for  'cr, 
Buckman  Darke's  Sujoitnt  (1890)  iv.  Oxf.  You  see.  ma'am,  all 
this  time  she  is  adreamt  between  sleeping  and  waking  'Halu). 
Brks.'  I've  a  zed  what  I've  a  got  to  zaay.  Sur.  Your  charity 
have  a  outrun  your  discretion.  Bickley  Sur.  Hills  (1890'  III.  vi. 
Hmp.  Ye  must  be  nigh  famished,  and  afrore  [frozen]  too,  Verney 
/..  Zii/ir  (1870)  xxiii ;  I'm  better  than  I  have  abeen  (H.C  M.B.). 
n.Wil.  You've  a  got  dove's  eyes.  Kite  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  i860)  i.  15. 
Dor.  The  zun  have  a-burnt  me  so  dark,  Barnes  Sng.  Sol. 
(1859)  i.  6;  I've  a  took.  Young  Pabin  Hill  (186-]')  3;  I  misdoubt 
if  the  hatches  be  a-hfven  [lifted]  down  yonder,  Hare  Ki'/.  Street 
(1895)  95.  Dor.'  Thy  new  frock's  tail  A-tore  by  hitchen  in 
a  nail.  How  you,  a-zot  bezide  the  bank.  Som.  Th'  cooin  o'  th' 
turtledoove  be  a-yeard  in  th'  lan',  Baynes  Sng.  Sol.  (i860)  ii. 
12;  My  vingers  be  all  a-vraur,  JrNNiNCS  Dial.  ivEng.  (1869  ; 
Avroze,  frozen,  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873.  w.Som.'  There's  a  good 
many  chores  [pieces  of  work]  I  'ant  a  put  down  at  all.  The 
gutter's  a  slapped  again.  Dev.  Swcel  out  thickec  glass  avorc 
'e's  a-Osed  again,  HEWETTPfn.s.S/1.  (1892).  n.Dev.A-slat,  cracked 
like  an  earthen  vessel,  Grose  (17901.  s.Dev.  My  bread's  a-clit 
[made  heavy]  (F.W.C.).     Dev.',  nw.Dev.' 

A,  pre/.^  Repr.  the  OE.  prep.  on.  It  is  very  common 
as  a  prefix  of  state  or  condition.  In  var.  dial,  of  Sc. 
Irel.  and  Eng.  (P'or  distribution,  &c.  of  some  of  the  most 
general  instances  of  words  having  this  pre/,  see  Aback, 
Aboon,  Agate,  Aneath,  Astead,  &.c.) 

Sc.  At  length  when  dancing  turn'd  adwang,  Beatties  Parings 
(1801)  14;  The  best-laid  schemes  o'  mice  an'  men  Gang  aft 
a-gley,  Burns  7"o  a  71/01(5^(1785)  1.  39;  A-grufe, 'flat  or  grovelling' 
(Jam.).  S.  &  Ork.'  He  fell  dead  asoond  [in  a  swoon].  Ir.  The 
air  was  a-flutther  wid  snow.  Barlow  Bogland  {i8g2)  70;  When 
th'ould  master  had  tore  it  wid  his  hands  all  a  shake,  ib.  14,  Ant. 
The  chimney's  alow  [on  fire]  (W.J.K.).  N.I.'  Abreard  [of  corn,  in 
the  blade].  Wxf.' Aveel.  abroad  [in  the  field\  Agether.  together. 
N.Cy.'  Acow,  acaw,  crooked.  Nhb.  Enough  to  rive  atwec  the 
heart,  Wilson  FiVmnH'sFrt)' (1843)  pt.  ii.  St.  17;  Nhb.' He  couldn't 
run  acas  on  his  bad  foot.  'Stan  aby  there'  is  a  familiar  shout 
in  a  crowd  when  a  way  is  to  be  cleared.  It  com  atwo  i'  me  hand. 
Dur.  Let's  see  ift  veyne  flurrish,  whcddcr  t'tender  grape's  aseat, 
Moore  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  vii.  la;  Whe's  this  'at  cums  up  frae 
t'wilderness,  leanen  atoppiv  hur  beluved  ?  ib.  viii.  5  ;  Dur.'  Tek  the 
cows  afield.  Cum.  He's  nut  been  varra  weel  lealely  an'  so  he's 
a  bed  i  E.W.P.)  ;  Nancy  sed  she  wad  set  ofl  for  Cockermuth  market 
afeiit.  Fa RRALL /?(•//)!  IF;7oth(i886)  145;  Cum.^  Acoase  tliey  think 
he  kens  me.  Wm.' Thoo  canna  gan  afeut.  n.Yks.  His  shoes  is 
trodden  a-cow.  Lift  it  up  a-height.  Old  John  gans  sair  astoop 
(I.  W.) ;  n.Yks.'  Marget  an'  her  man  hae  getlen  aquart  [at  variance] 
agen  ;  n.Yks.^  Acant,  leaning  to  one  side.  Apceak,  in  a  peak, 
e.Yks.  Ah's  varry  tired;  Ah've  been  afecat  all  d.Ty,  Nicholson 
Flk-Sp.  [i88g  8g;  e.Yks.' Is  kittle  aboil  d'ye  think  ?  w.Yks.' Our 
lad's  quite  bobberous,  an  aw  a  roav  [on  the  rove,  stirring  about]  ; 
w.Yks.5  He  wur  afront  an'  we  wur  aback  on  him.  Tak  t'umbrella 
wi'  thuh  achonce  it  r.'ians.  ne.Lan.'  It  went  awheels.  e.Lan.' 
Aback  o' th' hill.  s.Chs.' Get  atop  o' th' banks.  Not.' .Atwo.  in 
two.  n.Lin.'  It's  that  mucky  and  torn,  it's  abargens  what  becuins 
on  it.  Squire  Hcala  an'  him  got  atwisl.  Th'  wall's  nobut  a  brick 
abread.  Lei.'  [Work  is  done]  a-grcat,  by  the  piece.  Nhp.'  The 
house  isafire;  Nhp.^  Wheer's  macster? — Up  afield.  War. Afire. 
Afoot  (J.  R.  W.).  s.War.'  Abed.  Wor.  I  can't  sleep  anights 
(H.K.).  w.Wor.'  'Er's  a  bed  mighty  bad,  wi'  a  paaj'n  a  top  o'  'cr 
yud.  Shr.'  Fund  it  a-top  o'  the  cnbbert  shilf.  Glo.  Down  cr 
went  on  ers  back  arl  a-mullock,  Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn  (1890) 
vii;  Agig,  giggling,  excited  (F.H.).  Oxf.' Thcj'  be  come  afresh. 
If  thee  beginst  any  o'  thy  eggcrcvatin'  waj's  yer,  I'll  cut  tha 
clane  a-two-in-themiddle.  Brks.' A  copse  is  said  to  be  'amove 
wi'  gaaymc.'  Thee  get  on  avront  o'  I.  ther  j'ent  room  vor  us 
bwo-ath  in  the  paath.  e.An.'  I  saw  Mr.  Brown  a'top  of  his  new 
horse  yesterday.  Suf.' Ta  crumble  all  'apicces.  Ken.' The  pig- 
trade's  all  asprawl  now.  Sur.'  Abed.  Hmp.'  His  head  is  all 
agoggie  [i.  e.  of  a  person  with  palsy].  Wil.'  Put  the  door  ashard 
when  you  goes  out.  Som.  When  a  hen  is  sitting  on  her  eggs 
she  is  said  to  be  abrood,  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825). 
w.Som.'  The  primroses  be  all  ablow  up  our  way.  The  grass  is 
shockin  bad  to  cut,  tis  all  alie.     Thick  there  bisgy  stick's  a  put  in 

B  2 



all  atwist  Dev.  Zes  I  tu  a  chap,  'What  dee  cal  thic  a-head?' 
[overhead]  Nathan  Hogg  Poet.  Let.  (1847),  'Bout  tha  Bahine; 
Like  a  'ouze  avire,  Hewett  Pra5.  Sp.  (1892)  48;  Polly  ought  tu 
bring  out  'er  chicken  tu-day ;  her'tha  zot  a-brood  vur  dree  weeks, 
ib.  153.  nw.Dev.'  Alie,  in  a  recumbent  position.  Cor,'  She  rode 
ascrode  ;  Cor.'  The  door's  a-sam. 

A,  pref.'^  Equiv.  to  of.  In  a  few  words  retained  in  var. 
dial.     See  Alate,  iS;c. 

Sc.  Adoun,  adown,  down,  poet.  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) 
w.Yks.  Akin,  related  by  blood  (S.P.U.);  w.Yks.i  Alatt,  of  late, 
lately  ;  w.Yks.^  Pleaz  mother  may  I  goa  out  adoors  a  bit  ? 
ne.Lan.'  Alayat,  of  late,  lately.  n-Lin.'  You're  alus  clattin'  in 
and  oot  a-doors.  Nhp.^  He's  gone  out  a-doors;  Nhp.^  Athirst. 
se.Wor.i  A-hungry.  A-late,  lately.  Glo.  Affurst,  athirst,  thirsty, 
Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  Brks.'  I  be  a-veelin'  ahungerd. 
Cor.  Nor  drive  too  fast  adown  the  hills,  Tregellas  Farmer  Brown 
(1857^,  23. 

A,  pref.^     Equiv.  to  at. 

Sc.  I'll  hae  naething  ado  wi't,  Grose  (1790')  MS.  add.  (C)  Lanu 
There's  no  peace  i'  th'  world  iv  there's  no  peace  awhoam,  Waugh 
Sngs.  (1859)  Jamie's  Frolic.  Chs.'  Oo  made  much  adoo  abait  it. 
Stf.i  Is  the  doctor  a-whum  ?  War.^  Awum.  Nhp.'  They  always 
make  such  ado  with  me,  whenever  I  go  to  see  them. 

A,pyef.^  Repr.  OE.  a-,  earlier  ar-,orig.  implying  motion 
onward  ;  hence  used  as  an  intensive  pief.  See  Afeard, 
Agast,  Agone. 

Sc.  To  come  alist,  to  recover  from  faintness  or  decay  (Jam.'); 
But  well's  my  heart  that  ye  are  come  alist,  Ross //c/cHOif^  1768)  15. 
N.Cy.^  Agrote,  surfeit,  cloy,  saturate.  Nhb.^  *  Let  yorsel  alowse  ' 
[loose],  was  the  exhortation  of  a  pitman  to  a  friend  who  was 
batting  stiffly  at  a  cricket  match.  n.Yks.^  Akest,  cast  or  twisted 
to  one  side.  e.Yks.  It's  all  akest,  Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  50 ; 
e.Yks.'  It  was  agin  [given]  to  me.  Lan.  To  aright  a  boat  (F. H. ). 
Glo.  Very  many  years  agone,  Gissing  Vil.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  iv. 
Brks.'  Tliaay've  a-bin  agone  this  dree  hour.  n.Dev.  Agush'd  and 
Gush'd,  used  for  Agusted,  dismayed,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 
Dev.^  The  frost  agives.  w.Cor.  He  went  to  Africa  some  time 
agone  (M.A.C). 

A,  pre/.''  Repr.  OE.  and,  against,  opposite.  See  Along, 

A,  pref.^  Repr.  OE.  an,  one,  in  oblique  case.  See 

A,  /;(/.^     Repr.  an  inf.  A  ! 

Sc.  Aweel,  it's  the  worst  thing  I  ken  about,  Scott  Rob  Roy 
(1816)  vi.  S.  &  Ork.i  Alake  !  alas  !  Gall.  '  Aweel,  aweel,'  soli- 
loquised the  considerate  Baillie,  '  this  is  a  matter  that  requires 
management,'  Nicholson //is/.  Tales  (1843')  68.  w.Yks.*  Alack  ! 
Snf.i  Alawk,  alawkus  !  w.Som.'  Alack-a-day  !  [A-God-cheeld  ! 
E.xclamation,  God  shield  you!  God  forbid!  Grose  (1790)  MS. 
add  (P.)] 

A,  pref}°  Of  uncertain  origin  ;  in  many  cases  due  to 
analogy  with  one  or  other  of  the  above  prefixes. 

Sc.  Await  sheep,  one  that  has  fallen  down,  so  as  not  to 
be  able  to  recover  itself  (Jam.).  S.  &  Ork.i  To  go  a-gaairy,  to 
leave  one's  service  before  the  term  day.  Ir.  Poor  Mick  grabbed 
a-hould  of  me.  Barlow  Idylls  (1892)  214.  N.Cy.i  Amackally, 
in  a  manner,  as  well  as  one  can.  Wm.  T'poor  fello's  pluck 
he  amackily  roosed,  Bowness  Studies  (1868)  80.  n.Yks.  God 
a-rest  you,  merry  gintlemen,  Tweddell  Clcvel.  Rhymes  (1875)  6; 
n.Yks.2  A-craz'd,  wrong-headed.  Black-aviz'd,  dark  complexioned. 
ne.Lan.'  A-warrant,  to  assure,  to  warrant.  n.Lin.'  John'll  cum  hoam 
drunk  agcan  to  neet  I'll  awarrant  it.  Wor.  It  be  a  lot  nigher  this 
away  [way]  (H.  K.).  se.Wor.i  Be  yer  'onds  acaowd  ?  come  ether 
an'  warm  um.  I  sh'll  come  afrawl  [a  +  for  all]  thee.  Shr.'  An  old 
man  .  .  .  speaking  of  his  schoolmaster,  said,  '  'E  used  to  amaister 
me.  Sir.'  Glo.'^  Adry,  thirsty.  Brks.'  I  be  a-veelin  acawld. 
Ess.  John  was  adry,  Clark  J.  Noakes  (1839")  18.  Sur.  I'd  like  to 
know,  not  awishful  to  be  prying,  Bicklev  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III. 
vi.  I.W.i  Goo  whooam  wi'  the  wagon  aleer  [empty].  Goo  into 
the  ground  and  cut  the  wheeat  adwine  [clear  away]  right  drow. 
Dor.  To  be  amest,  to  lose  one's  way,  N.  &  Q.  (,1883')  6th  S.  vii.  366. 
w.Som.i  I  was  most  aready  to  drop.  They  wadn  a  wo'th  iiort. 
Dev.  '  Giggling  akethcr  ! '  shrieked  the  old  woman.  Madox-Brown 
Duale  Bhith  (1876)  bk.  I.  1.  n.Dev.  Azoon,  anon,  presently,  Grose 
(1790).     Cor.^Aketha!   Forsooth! 

A,  stiff.  Occas.  used  redundantly  after  a  word  ;  merely 
euphonic.  'A  is  sometimes  used  in  songs  and  burlesque 
poetry  to  lengthen  out  a  line,  without  adding  to  the  sense ' 

Ir.  Is  it  that-a-wa3'  he  went,  did  you  notice?  Barlow  Liscounel 
(1895)207.  w.Som.i  You  never  ded-n  ought  to  a  went-a.  It  is  very 
commonly  heard  after  proper  names  when  shouted  .  .  .  [or]  when 
calling  out  to  urge  on  horses  or  oxen  by  their  names.  Dev.  The 
Devonians  often  introduce  a  vowel  into  words,  as  Black-a-hook, 
for  Blackhook,  Bray  Tamar  and  Tavy,  I.  121;  Grose  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (M.) 

A,  mtiii.  adj.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Lan.  Written  ae  in  Sc. : 
this  spelling  also  occurs  in  n.Cy.  Nhb.'  Cum.  n.Yks.^ 
Also  written  ya  Cum.'  Wm.  Yks.  w.Yks.'  Lan.' ;  yah 
Wm.  n.Yks.^ ;  yaa  Wm.     See  below,    [e.] 

1.  One. 

Sc.  Ae  swallow  disna  mak  a  simmer  (Jam.)  ;  Ae  good  turn 
may  meet  anither,  if  it  were  at  the  brigg  o'  London,  Ramsay 
Prov.  (1737);  And  no  ae  half  hour  to  the  gospel  testimony, 
Scott  Midlothian  (1818)  xi.  Gall.  The  ae  legged  chuckle  wull  be 
clocking,  Crockett  Moss  Hags  (1895)  217.  Bwk.  Till  said  to 
Tweed,  Though  ye  rin  wi'  speed,  and  I  rin  slaw,  Where  ye 
drown  ae  man,  I  drown  twa,  Henderson  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  27. 
n.Cy.  Ae,  one,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (D.  A.).  Nhb.'  Cum.  Fra 
ya  week  end  till  anudder,  Farrel  Betty  IVilson  (1886)  41.  Wm. 
Let  us  alaan  yaw  wee  bit,  Hutton  Bran  New  IVark  (1785)  1.  242. 
n.Yks.'  Ae,  Yah,  one.  e.Yks.  Yaa,  one,  with  the  subs,  expressed  : 
as  yaa  man,  yaa  horse,  Marshall/?;;?",  ^coh.  (1788).  w.Yks.  Price 
a  penny,  Dewsbre  Olm.  (cover)  ;  Ea,  one,  Lucas  Stud.  Nidderdale 
(c.  1882)  ;  w.Yks.'  He  didn't  knaw  his  awn  mind  fray  ya  minute 
to  another,  ii.  294.  Lan.'  Sooa  ya  day,  ther'  wos  sich  a  noration 
as  nivver  wos  seen,  M.0RRIS  Invasion  o'  U'slon  (1867)  4.  ne.Lan.' 
Aa  cow  (s.v.  An). 

2.  Only. 

Sc.  Thou  kill'd  my  brethren  three,  Whilk  brak  the  heart  o'  my 
ae  sister  I  loved  as  the  light  o'  my  ee,  Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  II.  33. 
Ayr.  I  am  my  mammie's  ae  bairn,  Burns  fm  Owre  Young. 

3.  Used  with  superlatives  in  an  intensive  sense  (Jam.). 
Ayr.  The  ae  best  fellow  e'er  was  born,  Burns  Elegy  on  Capt. 

Matthew  Henderson. 

4.  Comp.  Ae-beast-tree ;  -fur,  -fur-land,  see  below ; 
-haunt,  single-handed  (Jam.)  ;  -pointit  gairss  [grass], 
sedge-grass,  a  species  of  Caie.i: 

Or.I.  Ae-beast-tree,  a  swingle  tree  by  which  only  one  horse 
draws  in  ploughing  (Jam.).  S.  &  Ork.'  Ae-beast-tree.  Clyd.,  Slk. 
Ae-fur,  having  all  the  soil  turned  over  by  the  plough  in  one 
direciion  ;  Ae-fur-land,  ground  which  admits  of  being  ploughed 
only  in  one  direction  (Jam.).  w.Sc.  They  wadna  be  a  jiffy 
o'  gripping  ye  like  a  gled,  they're  no  sae  ae-haunt,  Saint  Patrick 
(1819)  I.  220  (Jam.).  Sc.  Carex,  aepointit  gairss,  blue-grass 
(B.  &  H.).  Lnk.  Ae-pointit-gairss.  Sedge-grass,  a  species  of 
carex,  single-pointed  grass.  The  reason  why  this  tribe  of  plants 
is  denominated  Ae-pointit  Gairss,  is  because  the  points  of  its  blades 
are  sharper  and  much  more  stiff  than  those  of  rich  succulent 
grass  (Jam.). 

[In  Sc.  ae  is  used  before  a  5^.  whether  beginning  with  a 
cons,  or  a  vowel.  Occurring  absolutely  ane  is  the  form. 
OE.  an.] 

A,  sb.  Wil.  Som.  (?)  Apparently  obs.  except  in  comp. 
A-harrow  or  -drag. 

s.WU.  Ais  or  As,  harrows  or  drags,  Davis  Agric.  (18131,  quoted 
Archaol.  Rev.  (1888)  I.  34.  Wil.'  This  term  for  a  harrow  was  still 
occasionally  to  be  heard  some  thirty  years  ago,  in  both  Somerset 
and  Wilts,  but  is  now  disused. 

Hence  comp.  A-drag. 

Wil.  For  some  years  a  very  heavy  triangular  machine  was  used, 
called  an  A-drag,  with  its  tines  so  fixed  on  its  three  sides,  as  that 
when  drawn  by  one  point,  it  made  parallel  furrows  eight  or  nine 
inches  apart,  Davis  Gen.  Vieiv  Agric.  Wil.  (181 1)  vii.  52-3.  The 
late  Mr.  Jas.  Rawlence,  a  great  authority  on  agriculture,  told  me 
it  [word  A-drag]  was  still  in  use  in  s.Wilts,  though  no  doubt  it 
would  be  an  improved  form  of  the  machine  (G.E.D.);  Wil.^ 
A-Drag.  Still  used  in  s.Wilts  for  harrowing  turnips  before  the 
hoers  go  in. 

[This  term  is  derived  from  the  triangular  shape  of  the 
drag,  resembling  the  letter  A.] 

A,  AA,  see  Ea. 

AA,  see  Owe. 

AAM,  sb.  e.An.  Also  written  aim  e.An.'  The  chill ; 
only  found  in  phr.  to  take  the  aain  off. 

e.An.'  Just  set  the  mug  down  to  the  fire,  and  take  the  cold  aam 
off  the  beer.       Suf.  To  take  cold  aam  off  the  beer  is  occasionally 




heard  (J.  H. );  The  cold  aam  of  beer  is  cold  sharpness  or  sthig. 
Only  a  few  old  people  now  use  the  word  i,F.  H.). 

[This  is  prob.  a  Flem.  word;  cp.  w.FIem.  aam=adent, 
breath  (De  Bo);  so  in  Saxony  aaiit  =  a//iriii  (Berghausi. 
For  a  similar  expression  as  applied  to  beer  sec  Air,  sb.  4.] 

AAM,  see  Harm. 

AAN,  see  Own. 

AANDORN,  see  Undern. 

AAR,  sec  Arn. 

AARNIT,  see  Earth-nut. 

AARON'S  BEARD,  sb.  A  name  applied  to  several 
plants— (i)  Hypericum  calyciiium  (Bwk.  Rxb.  Nhb.  n.Dur. 
Shr.  Glo.  Ess.  Dev.) ;  (2)  Lmaria  Cymbalaria  (Edb.); 
(31  Orr/;;'s  ;;i(7sa//(i  ( Bwk.) ;  (4)  Saxi/rai^a  saniteii/osaiVlev.); 
(51  Spiraea  salicifolia  (Lin.  Lei.  n.Bks.).  [eranz-biad,  n. 

n.Lin.',  Lei.'  Aaron's  Beard,  Spiraea  salicifolia.  Shr.  Aaron's 
Beard,  St.  John's  wort  (G.  E.  D.). 

[The  name  contains  a  reference  to  Ps.  cxxxiii.  2.] 

AARON'S  ROD,  sb.  A  name  applied  to  several  plants — 
(1)  Solidago  I'irgaiirea  (Shr.  War.);  (2)  A  garden  species 
of  Solidago  (Hrt.) ;  (3)  Verbascuin  Thapsus  (Sc.  Lin.  Glo. 
and  the  midl.  counties),     [e'rsnz-rod.] 

Bnff.^  Aarons-rod,  mullein,  Veybascutn  Thapsus.  Lin.'  Aaron's 
Rod,  Verbasntm  Thapsus.  Shr.'  Aaron's-rod,  Solidago  Virgaitrea, 
common  golden  rod.  Glo.'  Aaron's  Rod,  Verbasaati  Thapsus. 
Var.  dial.  Aaron's  Rod.  from  the  tall  straight  stem,  and  connected 
with  Aaron  because  his  rod,  like  his  beard,  is  familiar  from  its 
mention  in  Scripture. 

[The  name  contains  a  reference  to  the  account  of  Aaron 
in  Numbers  xvii.  8.J 

AB,  sb.    Or.  L     [ab.] 

Or.I.  Ab,  check,  hindrance,  impediment  (Jam.  Suppl.).  Not  in 
S.  &  Ork.' 

AB,  V.    Or.  L 

Or.I.  To  Ab,  to  hinder,  keep  back,  place  at  a  disadvantage  ;  also 
to  pain,  cause  pain  iJam.  Suppl.).     Not  in  S.  &  Ork.' 

ABACK,  prep,  and  adv.  In  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties 
to  Lin.  and  Chs.,  Stf.  War.     [abak.] 

1.  prep.  Of  position :  behind,  to  the  rear  (usually  with 
prep.  of). 

Nhb.'  Howay  aback  o'  the  hoose  an'  aa'll  show  ye.  He  com' 
in  at  the  finish  just  aback  on  him.  Dur.'  Cum.^  Aback  o'  the 
fells.  Wm.  As  t'sun  sank  doon  aback  o'  t'hills.  Whitehead  Leg. 
(1859^  17,  1.  4.  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.'  It  popp'd  oot  aback  o'  t'  stee. 
e.Yks.  Up-stairs  a-back  o'  bed,  Sike  a  riot  as  nivver  was  led, 
Nicholson  Flk-Speech  iSSgl  40;  e.Yks.'  w.Yks.'  Think  o'  the 
divil  an'  he's  sure  to  be  aback  o'  yuh.  Lan.'  Just  as  aw  coom  up 
he  wur  hidin'  aback  o'  th'  hedge.  neXan.'  Chs.'  Aw  seed  him 
aback  o'  th'  edge.  s.Chs.'  [with  meaning  of  beyond]  Aback  o' 
Nantweych  (Nantwich).  \\nfig.  sense]  Owd  Dan  tells  some  awful 
lies,  bu'  yo  conna  ger  aback  on  him.  Stf.^  n.Lin.'  It's  aback  o'  the 
beer  barril.     War.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  adv.  Behind,  to  the  rear. 

Ayr.  The  third  that  gaed  a  wee  aback.  Was  in  the  fashion 
shining  Fu*  gay  that  day.  Burns  Hnly  Fair  (1785)  ver.  2. 

3.  Of  motion  :  back,  backwards. 

N.Cy.'  Nhb.'  Hadaway  aback,  aa  tell  ye.  Ye've  com'  owcr  far 
on  ;  gan  aback  ti  the  road  end. 

4.  Of  time:  ago,  since. 

Abd.  Eight  days  aback  a  post  came  frae  himscl,  Ross  Heletiore 
(176B!  37. 
6.  Aback  o'  Durham,  delayed,  thrown  back  from  the  be- 
ginning ;  aback  frae,  aloof  Irom  ;  lo  take  aback,  to  surprise, 
astonish  (in  gen.  use). 

ii.Yks.*  All  aback  o'  Durham  together.  Ayr.  O  would  they  stay 
aback  frae  courts,  An'  please  themsels  wi'  countra  sports.  It  wad 
for  cv'ry  ane  be  better.  Burns  Twa  Dogs  (1786).  Frf.  This  took 
Sam'l,  who  had  only  been  courting  Bell  for  a  year  or  two,  a  little 
aback,  Barrie  LichI  (1888)  159.  n.Yks.  Ah  wer  rayder  teean 
aback  when  it  com,  Tweddell  Cletiel.  Rhymes  (1875)  62.  n.Lln.' 
1  was  ta'en  clear  aback  when  she  tell'd  me  on  it. 

6.  Aback-o' -behind,  (i)  in  the  rear,  behind;  (2)  behind- 
hand ;  (3)  far  away,  remote. 

(i)  N.Cy.'  Aback-a-behint  where  the  grey  marc  fralcd  the  fiddler 
[that  is,  threw  him  off  in  the  dirt].  Nhb.'  Aback-a-behint  the 
set  [the  verj'  last  wagon].     Get  up  aback-a-behint  [get  up  over 

the  horse's  rear].  Cum.  Aback  o'  behint,  behind,  in  the  rear, 
Linton  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  295.  w.Yks.  Aback  o'  behind,  Hlf.r.  If'iis. 
ne.Lan.'  Aback-a-bchint,  very  far  behind  or  in  the  rear.  (2  Dur.' 
Behind  hand,  too  late.  (31  Lan.'  Whcer  does  he  live!— Eh!  aw 
know  no';  aback-a-bcheend.  whcer  nob'dy  comes. 
7.  Aback-o'-beyoiid,  (i)  'the  other  end  of  Nowhere,'  in  the 
far  distance  ;  (2I  of  work  :  behindhand,  delayed,  thrown 
back  ;  (3)  behind,  in  the  rear  of. 

(ll  Nhb.'  Aback-a-beyont,  far  awaj-  behind — out  of  ken.  Cum.' 
Nowhere,  lost  in  the  distance.  '  Whoar  t'meer  fwoal't  t'fiddlcr.' 
n.Yks. 2  They  live  aback  o'  beyont,  where  they  kessen  cawvs  and 
knee-band  lops  [christen  calves,  and  bind  the  fleas  by  the  legs]. 
ne.Yks.'  Ah  wadn't  mahnd  if  they  was  all  aback  o'  beyont  [at 
Jericho].  ne.Lan.'  Aback-o-beyont,  at  a  very  great  distance 
away.  n.Lin.'  {Jig.  use]  A  man  is  aback  o'  beyont  his  sen,  when 
he  is,  through  his  own  fault  or  ignorance,  unable  to  perform  what  he 
has  undertaken.  (2)  n.Yks.'  We  were  all  thrown  aback  o'  beyont 
the  dny  through  [could  never  recover  the  ground  lost  by  delay 
in  the  morning].  e.Yks.  That  slaw  beggar's  awlas  aback-o-beyont 
wiv  his  wahk,  Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  49.  (3)  e.Yks.'  Where's 
Jack  ? — He's  just  gccan  aback-o-beyont  there  [at  the  back  of  yonder 
house  or  stack]. 

[They  drcwe  abacke,  as  halfe  with  shame  confound, 
Spenser  Sh.  Cal.  June.  ME.  Thcrwith-al  a-bak  she  stertc, 
Chaucer  Leg.  G.  IV.  864.     OE.  on  bcrcc] 

ABACK,  adv.  n.Irel.  [abak.]  Of  the  position  of  a 
weight  or  load  :  contracted  form  of  on  the  back.' 

N.I.'  When  a  cart  is  loaded,  the  load  can  be  arranged  so  as  to 
press  very  lightly  on  the  horse,  this  is  having  it  '  light-a-back  "  ; 
when  the  chief  weight  is  towards  the  front  of  the  cart,  and 
therefore  presses  on  the  horse,  the  cart  is  '  hea\'y-a-back.' 

[A-,  on  +  hack.] 

ABARGAINS,/i/;r.  n.Lin.  [abaganz.]  Of  no  value  or 

Lin.  Among  Lincolnshire  phrases  one  may  hear,  '  It's  a  bargains 
on  it ! '  or  '  Oh,  a  bargains  on  or  ofj  him  !'  when  one  would 
depreciate  a  man  or  a  thing.  A'.  &  Q.  (1865^  3rd  S.  vii.  162. 
n.Lin.'  It's  that  mucky  and  torn,  it's  abargens  what  bccunis  on  it. 
It's  abargens  whether  he  cums  or  no  noo. 

[,-i-,  on  -I-  bargains,  q.v.] 

ABASING,  vbl.  sb.    w.  and  s.Sc.  (Jam.)     [abe-sin.] 

w.  &  S.Sc.  Abaising,  abaisin,  abasin,  abusing,  hurting,  ill-treating 
by  word  or  act. 

[Abais{s)e,  v.,  is  a  northern  form  of  AFr.  abaiss  (whence 
E.  abash),  prp.  stem  o(  abair,  OFr.  esbair  (mod.  e'bahir).] 

ABATE,  V.  Nhp.  [abet,  abeat]  To  uncover;  to 
clear  away  the  superincumbent  soil  preparatory  to 
working  stone  in  a  quarry.     See  Bate  and  Unbate. 

Nhp.'.  To  make  bare  ;  to  uncover.  [In  e.An.  '  uncallow  '  is  the 
corresponding  word.] 

[OFr.  aba  Ire,  to  beat  down.] 

ABATE,  adv.  n.Lin.  [abea't]  Accustomed  to,  in  the 
habit  of  doing  anything. 

n.Lin.'  He's  gotten  abate  o'  drinkiii'. 

ABAWE,  V.    n.Cy.     [ab?-.]    To  daunt,  astonish. 

N.Cy.',  Nhb.' 

I  ME.  aba-am.  Found  in  R.  Brunne  Handlyng  Synne 
and  Chaucer.  See  M.  &  S.,  IIai.l.  See  Hatzfeld,  and 
Skeat's  note  to  Chaucer  Duchesse,  614.] 

ABB,  sb.  Glo.  Wil.  Som.  n.Dev.  Also  written  ab 
Glo. ;  ob  Glo.  n.Dev.     [aeb  ;  Glo.  w.Som.  ob.] 

1.  "The  weft,  woof,  yarn  woven  across  the  warp. 

Glo.  Ab,  Ob,  trama,  substramen,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (IL) 
w.Som.'  Abb,  weaver's  weft. 

2.  In  wool-sorting,  one  of  two  qualities  of  wool  known 
as  coarse  abb  and  tine  abb  respectively  (CD.). 

w.Cy.  The  wool  of  the  sheep's  back  is  finer,  and  makes,  in 
druggets,  the  thread  called  abb.  Lisle  Husbandty  (■!■}$■}).  w.Som.' 
Abb,  the  name  of  a  particular  sort  or  quality  of  short-stapled  wool, 
as  sorted,  usually  from  the  belly  part  of  the  fleece. 

3.  Conip.  Abb-chain,  a  carded  warp  ;  -wool  (CD.). 
w.Som.'  The  abb  is  nearly  always  spun  from  carded  wool,  and 

hence  a  carded  warp,  such  as  that  used  in  weaving  blankets, 
is  called  an  abb-chain,  in  distinction  to  one  spun  from  combed 
wool,  such  as  that  used  in  weaving  serge,  which  is  a  worsted 

[OE.  dweb  (oweb,  ab).  A  cognate  OE.  form  was  auef, 
oii'ef,  whence  E.  it'oo/i] 




ABBAR,  ABBER,  see  Aye  but. 

ABBEY,  sb.  Som.  The  abele  or  great  white  poplar, 
Populus  alba. 

Som.  The  great  white  poplar:  one  of  the  varieties  of  the 
Populus  alba,  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eiig.  (iSas);  W.  &  J.  CI. 
(1873)  ;  Abbe3'-lug,  a  branch  of  the  abele  tree  (G.S.). 

ABBEY-LUBBER,  56.  Yks.  Som.,  also  naut.  [ae'bi-lBba, 
«.  a-b3-lub3(r).]     An  idle  person,  a  loafer. 

Yks.  A  term  of  reproach  for  idle  persons,  Wright.  Som.  A 
lazy,  idle  fellow,  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825I;  W.  &  J. 
G/.  (1873).  Naut.' Smyth  5«i7o^s  JFrf-B*.  (1867).  Colloq.  From 
deans  and  from  chapters  who  live  at  their  eases  .  .  .  And  lie  like 
abbey-lubbers  stew'd  in  their  own  greases,  Libera  nos,  Domine, 
Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  393. 

[Arc/iiinantiiloiierasliqne,  an  Abbey-lubber  or  arch-fre- 
quenter of  the  Cloyster  beefe-pot  or  beefe-boyler.  lis 
esloyent  a  table  aises  comme  Peres  (a  phrase  whose  author 
by  Peres  meant  Abbey-lubbers),  Cotgr.;  An  Abbey- 
lubber,  funis  ;  .  .  .  Fuciis,  a  Drone,  Sluggard,  an  Abby- 
lubber,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Abbey-Lubber,  a  slothful  loiterer 
in  a  religious  house  under  pretence  of  retirement  and 
austerity  ('This  is  no  Father  Dominic,  no  huge  over- 
grown abbey-lubber;  this  is  but  a  diminutive  sucking 
friar,'  Dryden  Sp.  Fr.),  Johnson.] 

ABBUD,  ABBUT,  see  Aye  but. 

ABBY,  sb.     S.  and  Ork.     [abi.] 

1.  The  sea-gilliflower. 

S.  &  Ork.l 

2.  Coinp.  Abby-root,  the  root  of  the  sea-gilliflower. 
s.  &  Ork.l 

ABC,  also  in  pi.     In  f^en.  colloq.  use. 

1.  The  English  alphabet ;  to  be  able  to  say  one's  A  B  C,  to 
be  able  to  read. 

w.Yks.  Can  he  say  his  A-B-C's?  Banks  IVkfld.  IVds.  (1865). 
nw.Der.^  w.Som.'  Dhee  urt  u  puur-tee  skau'lurd,  slioa'ur  nuuf ! 
wuy  kas-n  zai  dhee  ae-u.  bee,  see  [thou  art  a  pretty  scholar  sure 
enough,  why  thou  canst  not  say  thy  A  B  C].  Pop.  rhyme.  Dunce, 
dunce,  double  D,  Can't  say  his  ABC. 

2.  A  B  C  Book,  a  book  for  beginners  containing  the 
alphabet ;  in  A  B  C fashion. 

w.Som.i  ABC  Book,  the  book  from  which  infants  are  first 
taught.  ABC  Fashion,  perfectly  ;  applied  to  things  known,  as 
a  trade,  a  lesson,  &c.  A  man  would  be  said  to  know  his  business 
or  profession  a-b-c  faar -sheen— i.  e.   as  perfectly  as  his  alphabet. 

[1.  To  sigh,  like  a  school-boy  that  had  lost  his  ^  5  C 
(i.e.  his  book  containing  the  alphabet),  Shaks.  Tivo  Gent. 
II.  i.  23.  2.  And  then  comes  answer  like  an  Absey  book, 
ib.  K.  John,  I.  i.  196.] 

A-BE,  Sc.  Nhb.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Oxf.    See  below,    [sbr.] 

1.  In  phr.  to  let  a-be  (rarely,  to  leave  a-bc),  to  leave  undis- 
turbed, to  let  alone ;  let  a-be,  not  to  mention.    Cf.  let-alone. 

Sc.  A  wheen  kilted  loons  that  dinna  ken  the  name  o'  a  single 
herb  or  flower  in  braid  Scots,  let  abee  in  the  Latin  tongue,  Kob 
Roy  (1817)  xxvii ;  Get  up!  I  wadna  rise  out  of  my  chair  for 
King  George  himsell  let  abee  a  Whig  minister,  Ramsay  Reniin. 
(ed.    1859)    ist    S.    93.  Nhb.   Av'   let  a'   useless  sticks  abee, 

RoBSON  Et'ange/iite  (.1870)  363;  Nhb.'  Let's  away  and  he'  some 
yell,  and  let  sic  things  abee  man,  T/ie  Keelitmn's  reasons  for 
attending  church,  Allan's  Collection  11863).  Lan.  I  nivver  wanted 
to  sec  yore  face  again.  Leave  me  a-be,  Burnett  Lowries  (\^li) 
xxii ;  Aw  would  o  lett'n  it  obee  till  th'  weddin'  wur  o'er,  Ahnini 
o'  Flup's  Quotiin'  (1886)  8.  ne.Lan.'  Let  me  abe,  let  me  alone. 
Chs.'  Let  that  choilt  a-be,  wilt  ta.  s.Stf.  Let  him  a-be,  Pinnock 
BIk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  s.Oxf.  Let  'im  a-be,  'ee  'ave  made  'is  bed, 
an'  'ee'd  best  lie  on  it,  Rosemary  Chilterns  (1895)  112. 

2.  sb.    Forbearance. 

Sc.  I'll  gie  you  let-a  bee  for  let-a-bee,  like  the  bairns  o'  Kelty, 
Henderson  Prov.  (1832)  123 ;  I  am  for  let  a-be  for  let-a-be,  as  the 
boys  say,  Scott  Pirate  (1822)  xxxvii ;  Let-abe  for  let-abe,  mutual 
forbearance,  Let-abe  maks  mony  a  loon  [forbearance  increases 
the  number  of  rogiies]  ^Jam.,  s.v.  Let). 

[The  prefix  a-  is  difficult  to  explain.  N.E.D.  has  'prob. 
for  at  be,  earl}'  northern  infinitive  =  to  be,'  but  there  is  no 
evidence  of  the  existence  of  the  phrase,  or  of  the  con- 
struction of /(?/with  at  in  ME.] 

ABEAR,  V.  Widely  diffused  through  the  dialects.    Also 

written  abeear  e.Yks.  ne.  Lan.^;  abeare  ne.Lan.'  See 
below,  [abea-ir),  abia'(r).]  To  endure,  tolerate ;  usually 
with  the  verb  can  and  a  negative.    Cf.  abide. 

Nhb.i  She  couldn't  abeer  to  sit  aside  him.  Wm.'  A  cannot 
abeer  et.  n.Yks.'  ne.Yks.' Ah  can't  abeear  stooiyin'.  Lan.' 
I  conno'  abear  th'  seet  on  't.  s.Stf.  I  can't  abear  the  sight  on 
him,  Pinnock  BIk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  Not.'  s.Not.  Non  of  uz 
can't  abear  non  o'  them  (J.  P.  K.).  Lin.  I  couldn  abear  to  see  it, 
Tennyson  A'.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (^1860)  st.  16.  sw.Lin.'  I  hate 
smoke-reek'd  tea,  I  can't  abear  it.  They  could'nt  abear  her  ;  they 
rantanned  her  out  at  last.  Lei.'  Oi  cain't  abear  'er.  Nhp.' 
s.War.'  I  can't  abear  it.  w.Wor.'  E's  'ad  the  tuthache  that 
desprit  till  'e  couldn't  scahrcely  abar  it.  Shr.'  The  missis  toud 
me  I  wuz  to  sarve  them  pigs  an'  I  canna-d-abere  it.  Hrf.* 
GIo.  The  townsfolk  be  got  so  'nation  finnicking,  thaay  can't  abear 
a  bit  o'  nize,  Buckman  Z)(iMi«'s  Soyo»)-K  (,1890)  vi.  Oxf.'  Brks.* 
I  can't  abear  zuch  a  vool  as  he  be.  n.Bck.  Abear  or  abeer,  to 
tolerate  (A.  C).  Mid.  I  can't  abear  it,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add .{M.) 
Hnt.  (T.  P.  F. )  Ess.  I  earn  abear  it  when  the  sarmon's  done,  Downe 
Ballads  (1895')  9.  Sur.'  I  can't  a-bear  their  goings  on.  Sus.l 
I  never  could  a  bear  that  chap.  Hnip.'  Wil.'  I  can't  abear  to 
see  the  poor  Iheng  killed.  w.Som.'  I  can  abear  to  see  a  righir  fair 
stand-up  fight,  but  I  can't  never  abear  to  zee  boys  always  a  naggin 
and  a  quardlin.  Uur  keod-n  ubae'ur  vtir  tu  pae'urt  wai  ur 
bwuuy  [she  could  not  bear  to  part  with  her  boy].  Dev.  Get  thee 
gone  out  o'  my  sight,  Noll  !  —  1  can't  abear  the  daps  o'  thee, 
Madox-Brown  Dwale  Blulh  (1876)  Introd.  v.  Cor.'  I  caan't 
abear  what  I  caan't  abide;  Cor.^ Abear,  not  always  used  nega- 
tively :  I  don't  knaw  how  thee  cust  abear  un. 

[OE.  aberan,  to  endure,  suffer.  Although  the  word  is  so 
widely  diffused  in  the  dialects,  it  apparently  was  of  rare 
occurrence  in  the  literary  language  at  a  very  early  date. 
The  latest  quotation  for  the  word  in  Matzner  is  from  the 
Ancren  Riivle  (c.  1230).] 

ABED,  adv.  Widely  diffused  throughout  the  midland 
and  southern  counties,  [abed.]  In  bed  ;  confined  to  bed 
by  illness,  &c.     Cf.  slug-abed. 

Cum.  If  I  is  abed,  its  better  nor  being  in  bed-lam,  Caine 
Hagar  (1887)  I.  31.  s.War.'  se.Wor.' 'Er's  a  bed  mighty  bad, 
uv  a  bwile  a  top  uv  'er  yud.  Brks.'  If  a  lez  abed  o'  marnins  a 
wunt  never  gravv  rich.  Ken.',  Sur.',  Sus.',  Hnip.'  Dev.  I  were 
forced  to  lie  abed,  O'Neill  Idylls  (1892)  87. 

[You  have  not  been  abed  then?  Shaks.  Ort.  hi.  i.  33  ; 
I  would  have  been  abed  an  hour  ago,  ib.  R.  Sr^J.  m.  iv.  7. 
ME.  Some  wolde  mouche  hir  mete  alone  Ligging  a-bedde, 
Chaucer  TV.  6-=  Cr.  1.  915.  The  word  occurs  in  P.  Plow- 
man B.  v.  395,  417.     OE.  on  bedde,  Luke  xvii.  34.] 

ABEFOIR,  adv.    Obs.    Sc.  (Jam.)     Formerly,  before. 
Sc.  Abefoir  is  frequently  used    in  this  sense  in  .  .  .  Pitscottie, 
i.e.  Lindsay's  (of  Pitscottie)  Chronicles  of  Scotland,  1768. 
[A-,  on  +  before.] 

ABEIGH,  adv.  Obs.  w.Sc.  Also  written  abeech  (Jam.). 
Away,  aside,  aloof. 

Sc.  The  wise  auld  man  was  biythe  to  stand  abeigh,  Auld  Gray 
Mare  (c.  1707)  in  Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  I.  69.  Ayr.  Town's  bodies 
ran,  an'  stood  abeigh,  An'  ca't  thee  mad.  Burns  To  Ms  Auld 
Mare.  Kcb.  The  lasses  turned  skiegh  man,  Thej'  hid  themselves 
amang  the  corn  To  keep  the  lads  abeigh,  man,  Davidson  Seasons 
(1789)  90. 

[Pref.  A-,  on  -f  -beigh,  the  etym.  of  which  is  uncertain  ; 
it  may  possibly  be  identical  with  Norse  beig  tbeyg)  fear. 
(So  N.E.D.)  Cp.  ON.  beygr  fear,  beygja  to  bend,  bow,  cogn. 
of  OE.  bfigan  to  bend,  to  yield,  to  flee.] 

ABEIS,  prep.  Fif.  Also  written  abies.  [abrs.]  In 
comparison  with  (Jam.). 

Fif.  London  is  a  big  town  abeis  Edinburgh. 
[Prob.  Abeis  =  al-,  &\\  +  beis,  be  as,  to  be  as;  see  Beis.] 
ABER,   adj.      S,  &  Ork.     Also  written   aaber,   abir. 
[a'bar.]     Eager,  anxious. 

S.  &  Ork.'  Anxious  to  obtain  a  thing.       Sh.L  Abir,  eager  {Coll. 
L.L.B.).     Aabcr(jAM.). 
ABERZAND,  see  Ampersand. 
ABEUN(E,  see  Aboon. 

ABIDE,  V.  In  grn.  use  in  Gt.  Brit,  and  Irel.  Not  in 
glossaries  of  e.An.  (Forby,  Nall,  Moor,  Charnock)  or  Cor. 
Also  written  aboide  Der.^  Freq.  by  aphaeresis  bide,  q.v. 




1.  To  stay,  remain,  tarry. 

Sc.  Abaid,  abade;  abode,  stayed,  Grose  (1790')  AfS.  add.  (C") 
Gall.  He  abode  to  see  what  should  happen,  Crockett  Bog-Myrtle 
(1895)  45.  e.Dev.  Yeiie,  mai  dove,  that  abaid'th  in  th'  gaps  o'  th' 
rocks,  PuLMAN  Sng.  Sol.  (^1860)  ii.  14. 

2.  To  wait  for. 

Sc.  I  wad  e'en  streek  mysell  out  here,  and  abide  my  removal. 
Scott  ^/i//^«rtrv  (1816)  xxi.    [Abide,  [to]  expect  or  wait  for  (K.).] 

3.  To  endure,  tolerate.  (Used  nearly  always  with  the 

Per.  The  stour  is  mair  than  onybody  can  abide,  Ian  Maclaren 
Drier  Bush  (1895^  117.  Ir.  My  belief  is  it's  left  sometliing  at  the 
bottom  of  his  mind  that  he  can't  abide  the  looks  of.  Barlow  AVm]f aw 
(1894)  125.  Nhb.'  Aa  canna  abide  him.  It  is  generally  shortened 
to  Bide.  Cum.'  I  caa-n't  abide  sec  wark.  Yks.  Vo'  have  a'  the 
cow's  hair  in.  Mother's  very  particular,  and  cannot  abide  a  hair, 
Gaskell  Sylvia  (1863)  II.  i.  n.Yks.'  e.Yks.  Ah  can't  abide  to  see 
yo'  like  that,  Wray  Nestleton  (1876)  5a.  Lan.  I  can't  abide  the  chap, 
FoTHERGiLL  ProbalioH  (18791  vi  ;  Lan.'  He  wur  soa  ill  he  cudn't 
abide,  ne  Lan.' Abode,  Abidden,  endured.  s.CUs.' It's  noo  use, 
we  shan  ha'  to  abide  it.  s.Stf.  Her  could  never  abide  red-haired 
chaps,  PiNNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Aim.  (i895\  Der.'  I  conna'  aboidc 
hur.  Not.'  s.Not.  There's  not  many  folk  1  can't  abide,  but  her 
I  can't.  Werkin'  a  Satdy's  what  ah  niver  could  abide  (J.P.K.). 
n.Lin.'  I  can't  abide  no  bairns  nobut  my  awn.  Lei.',  s.War.' 
w.Wor.'  Mother,  'er  never  could  abide  that  thalir  mon.  Hrf.2,  GI0.2 
Brks.' I  can't  abide  such  me-un  waays.     Ken.',  Sus.',  Hrap.'     Wil.' 

1  can't  abide  un  nohow.  w.Som.'  I  never  can't  abide  they  there 
fine  stickt-up  hussies.  Dev.  I  can't  abide  the  notion  of  lying  in 
my  coffin  in  thiccy  coarse  black  stockings,  O'Neill /(/v/Zi  U8921  11; 
Dev.'  I  coud'n  abide  her  vather, — a  shoul-a-mouth'd,  hatchet-faced, 
bandy-legg'd  wink-a-puss. 

[Falstaflf  says,  'Never,  never,  she  would  alwaj'S  say  she 
could  not  abide  Master  Shallow,'  Shaks.  2  Hen.  IV,  iii.  ii. 
215;  Ye  cannot  abyde  the  hearj-nge  oft'niy  wordes,  Tib  dale 
Joint  viii.  43.     OE.  abldati,  to  abide,  tarry.] 

ABIER,  adj.    w.Som.     [abisT.]     Dead,  but  unburied. 

w.Sora.'  Poour  saul !  uur  mae'un  duyd  uun'ee  biit  tuudh'ur  dai, 
un  naew  uur  luyth  ubee-ur  [poor  soul!  her  man  (husband;  died 
only  the  other  day,  and  now  she  lies  dead]. 

[^-,  on +  /)/(■/-.] 

ABILITY,  s6.     Sc.  Oxf.     [abiliti.]    Wealth. 

Sc.  Nobility  without  ability  is  like  a  pudding  without  suet, 
Ramsay  Pnn'.  (1737').  Oxf.'  Gentility  without  ability  is  likeapud'n 
■without  fat,  MS.  add. 

ABIN,  conj.    Hmp.    [abi'n.]     Because. 


\A-  pref.  (OE.  ^e)  +  bin,  been,  pp.  of  be.  Cp. :  You  loiter 
here  too  long,  being  you  are  to  take  soldiers  up,  Shaks. 

2  Hen.  IV,  II.  i.  199.J 
ABIN,  V.     S.  &  Ork. 

S.&Ork.'  Or.  I.  Abin(G.  P.);  Aabin  is  to  halve  the  sheaf  between 
man  and  beast  (Jam.  Stippl.');  Aabin,  abin,  to  halfthrash  a  sheaf 
before  giving  it  to  horses.  The  sheaf  being  held  in  the  hands  is 
raised  upwards ;  then,  by  a  sudden  downward  stroke,  against 
some  fixture,  the  bulk  of  the  best  grain  is  knocked  off  l.<4.). 

ABIN,  see  Aboon. 

ABIR,  sb.     S.  &  Ork. ;  cf.  abin. 

S.&Ork.'  Or.I.Abir,  a  sheaf  thrashed  for  giving  to  horses  (G.P.); 
Aabir,  aabcr,  abir,  a  sheaf  of  grain  half  thrashed  (Jam.  Suppl.). 

ABITED,/>/>.  Obs.  Ken.  Of  linen:  mildewed;  of  wood: 
rotten,  decayed. 

Ken.  Abited,  mildewed,  Lewis  /.  Tenet  (1736);  Abited,  Grose 
(1790) ;  Ken.' 

ABLACH,  sb.     Obs.     Sc.  (Jam.)     Sec  Aploch. 

1.  A  dwarf;  an  expression  of  contempt. 

2.  The  remains  of  any  animal  that  has  become  the  prey 
of  a  dog,  fox,  polecat,  &c.  (Abd.) 

3.  A  particle,  a  fragment  (Rnf.). 

Sc.  An'  a'  the  ablachs  glowr'd  to  see  A  bonny  kind  of  tulyie 
Atweish  them  twa,  Skinner  Chrishiias  Ba'ing  (1805V 

[Gael,  ablach,  a  mangled  carcase,  carrion,  the  remains  of 
a  creature  destroyed  by  ravenous  beasts  (M.  &  D.).  Gael. 
abhac,  a  dwarf  (M.  &  D.).  Ir.  abhhicli,  a  carcase  ;  tib/iac,  a 
dwarf,  pigmy,  manikin,  a  sprite;  ab/iai/i,  the  entrails  of 
a  beast  (O'Reilly).] 

ABLE,  adj.  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  Yks.  and  Lan. 
Also  in  Lin.  Lei.  War.  Hrf.   Rdn.  Som.      Also  written 

aiablene.Lan.' ;  abablen.Yks.';  yable  Dur.'Cum."  Wm.; 
yabble  Cum.^  Wm.  n.Yks.'  m.  and  e.Yks.  Lan. ;  yabbable 
n.Yks.^     See  below,     [ebl,  esbl,  yebl,  yeabl.] 

1.  Of  sufiicient  means,  well-to-do,  rich. 

N.Cy.*  Able,  wealthy :  an  able  man.  Nhb.  It  was  plain  as 
a  pike-staff,  that  he  wad  syun  be  won  (one")  o'  the  yebbiiist  men 
i'  tile  country  side,  Keehnin's  Annewal  (1869)  11;  Nhb.'  Obs. 
Dur.'  Able,  possessed  of  large  pecuniary  means.  Cum.^  Van  o' 
t'yablest  men  i'  thur  parts.  Wm.  A  varra  yabble  man  i  heeh  life, 
Clarke  Spec.  Dial.  (1868)  Jonny  Shippards  Junta.  n.Yks.^ 
Nanny  B.  is  nane  sae  needful ;  she's  a  yabble  body  encugh. 
e.Yks.'  Yabble,  somewhat  wealthy,  '  Bob's  a  yabble  chap ;  he  can 
live  wl'oot  wahkin  (working),' A/5,  add.  (T.H.)  w. Yks.  Able, 
wealthy,  an  able  man,  HlJ.x.  IVds.  ne.Lan.'  Aiable.  wealthy. 
ne.Der.'  War.  (J.R.W.)  Hrf.  Able,  a  Herefordshire  word 
meaning  wealthy,  as  'An  able  man.'  Bound  Prov.  (1876);  Hrf.'; 
Hrf.^  Able,  well-to-do  in  money  matters.  Rdn.  Able,  rich,  well- 
to-do,  Morgan  Rdn.  H'ds.  (1881). 

2.  Of  objects:  substantial. 

n.Yks.2  A  yabble  pie-crust,  one  of  substantial  construction. 

3.  Able  for,  fit  to  cope  with. 

Ir.  Ah.  he'd  never  be  able  for  the  attornies,  Paddiana  (1848) 
I.  28:  (G.M.H.) 

4.  Fit,  subject,  liable. 

Sc.  If  found  hable  or  fit  for  being  received  at  a  college,  Parish  of 
Morilach  Statist.  Ace.  xvii.  433  (Jam.),  Cum.  [He]  is  noo  j-eble  to  be 
beggared  if  folks  hev  a  mind,  Linton  Ai3£ifZ.o//oH   1866    III.  116. 

5.  To  spell  able,  to  perform  a  difficult  task  in  fulfilment 
of  a  boast.     (Cf.  Amer.  to  spell  baker.) 

N.I.'  Can  you  spell  able  ?  [are  you  sure  you  can  do  what  you 
are  bragging  about?]  Cum.,  Wm.  A  defiant  rustic  jeer,  at  boast 
of  future  achievements,  was,  'Thou  mun  spell  yable,  furst'  ^M.P.). 

Hence  Ableless,  adj.  incompetent,  careless,  listless, 
awkward.  Ablement,  sb.  (1)  ability,  mental  power; 
(2)  bodily  strength.  Ableness,  sb.  strength,  agility.  Able- 
some,  adj.  wealthy,  well-to-do.  Ablisb,  adj.  somewhat  able. 

w.Yks.^  A    poor   abeless    thing.  Lin.  Abless,    careless    and 

negligent,  or  untidy,  or  slovenly  in  person  (Hall.).  n.Lin.' 
Abless.  w.Sora.'  A  plain'tee  u  ae'ublmunt  baewt  ee  [a  plenty  of 
ability  about  him].  [In  pi.  tools,  gear]  We  should  ha  finished 
avore  we  comed  away,  on'y  we  'ad-n  a-got  no  ablcmcnts  'long 
way  us.  I  'sure  ee,  mum,  I  bin  that  bad,  I  hant  no  more 
ae*ubhnunt-n  u  chee'ul  [slrengtli  than  a  child].  Saum'feen  luyk 
u  fuul'ur,  sm-ae*ubl-nees  baewt  ee  [something  like  a  fellow,  some 
strength  in  him].  n.Yks.''  They're  varry  yabblesome.  Ayabblish 
lot,  people  of  wealth.  ne.Lan.'  Rather  at>Ie,  of  tolerable  pecuniary 
means.  n.Liu.'  He's  an  ablish  chap  for  a  little  un,  but  he  can't 
hug  a  seek  o'  wheat  aboard   a  vessil.  Lei.'  Ablish,  tolerably 

strong.  -w.Som.'  U  aeubleesh  soa'urt  u  yuung  chaap  [an  active, 
industrious  kind  of  young  fellow]. 

[1.  Able  (wealthy),  opulentiis,  Coles  (1679);  To  be  able 
or  rich,  Esire  riclie,  avoir  de  qiioi,  Sherwood  (1672) ;  It  was 
the  child  of  a  very  able  citizen  in  Gracious  Street,  Pepys 
(N.E.D.).  3.  Be  able  for  thine  enemy,  Shaks.  Alts  IVell 
I.  i.  74.  4.  A  sowe,  er  [before]  she  be  able  to  kyl,  Fitziier- 
BERT//«s/«J«(/r>'(i534)75;  To  fortune  both  and  to  infortune 
hable.  King's  Quair,  I.  xiv.    OFr.  able,  Lat. habilis.  fit,  able.] 

ABYJE.,  V.  m.Yks.  Written  yabble.  [yea'bl.]  To  enable. 

m.Yks.'  Yabble,  to  enable. 

[ME.  God  tokncth  and  assigneth  the  tymes  ablynge  hem 
to  hir  propres  oflices,  Chaucer  Boelliiiis  1.  m.  vi.J 

ABLET,  sb.  Obs.  Wm.  (Hall.)  The  bleak,  Leuciscus 

Wm.  On  the  auth.  of  Hall. ,  but  not  found  in  any  Wm.  books,  and 
according  to  our  correspondents  unknown. 

[Ablet  (a  local  word),  the  bleak,  a  small  river  fish,  Ash 
(1795).  Fr.  Ablette,  a  little  blay  or  bleak  ;  .  .  .  Able,  a  blay 
or  bleak  fish,  Cotgr.  Ablette  occurs  in  a  Fr.  text  dated 
1317;  see  Hatzfeld,  and  Godefroy  Suppl.  Fr.  able,  Rom. 
albiduin,  means  'the  little  white  (fish)';  so  Hatzfeld.] 

ABLINS,  adv.  In  Sc.  n.Irel.  and  all  the  n.  of  Eng.  to 
n. Yks.  and  n.Lin. ;  not  in  gloss,  of  Lan.  Chs.  Also  written 
aiblins  Sc.  N.I.'  Nhb.'  Lin. ;  able,  ablis  Sc.  (Jam.)  ;  aeblins 
Wm.&Cum.'  See  below,  [e'blinz,  ye'blinz.]  Possibly, 

Sc.  She  may  aiblins  hae  been  his  honour's  Squire  Thomcliff's 
in  her  day,  Scott  Rob  Roy  (,1817)  xviii;  Kippletringan  was  dis- 
tant at  first  '  a  gey  bit ' ;  then  the  'gey  bit'  was  more  accurately 




described  as  '  ablins  three  mile,'  Scott  Guy  M.  (1815)  i.  Abd.  We'll 
ablins  get  a  flyte,  and  ablins  nane,  Ross  Hdenore  (1768)  14a, 
Ayr.  O  wad  ye  tak  a  thought  an'  men'  Ye  aiblins  might,  Burns 
Address  to  the  Deil  (1785).  Gall.  Ye  may  aiblins  come  to  a 
mishap,  Crockett  Moss  Hags  (1895)  386.  N.I.i  N.  Cy.i  Yables, 
yeblins,  yeablesae,  yebblesee  ;  N.Cy.^  Yeable  sea.  Nhb.»  Wey, 
aa  aiblins  hed  twee,  or  aiblins  hed  three  glasses  o'  whisky.  Cum. 
Aiblins  I  wool,  and  aiblins  1  woonot,  Linton  Lahe  Cy.  (1864)  295. 
Wm.  Whya  thuU  aiblin  ma  ha  forgitten,  Gibson  Leg.  and  Notes 
(1877)66.  n.Yks.12  I  ablins  might.  ne.Yks.^  He'll  aablins  man- 
nish. n.Lin.  Aiblins  I  shall  do  it,  bud  belike  I  shan't,  I  really 
doant   knaw  (M.  P.)  ;  n.Lin.' 

[Abk  +  -/mgs  (suff.).] 

ABLOVf,prep.     Sc.     [ablou-.]     Below. 

Sc.  A  troot  ablow  the  big  stane,  Ian  Maclaren  Brier  Bush 
(lags)  141.  Gall.  I  pat  it  ablow  the  clock,  Crockett  Siickil  Mi'ii. 
C189.3)  67. 

[A-,  on  + be/ou'.] 

ABLOW,  adv.    w.Som.     [ablou-.]  Blooming,  in  flower. 

w.Som.'  The  primroses  be  all  ablow  up  our  way. 

[A-,  on  (the  prefix  of  state  or  condition)  +  Moiv ;  cp.  blow, 
v.,  to  bloom.] 

ABOARD,  adv.     Lin.  Dev.     [abua'd.] 

1.  Drunk. 

n.Lin.i  He's  sum'uts  aboard  to-daay ;  he  could  nobud  just  sit  e' 
his  gig  as  he  cum'd  fra  Brigg  market. 

2.  Aboard  on,  up  against,  in  contact  with  ;  /o  be  aboard, 
to  be  in  confusion  ;  /o  fall  aboard,  to  attack,  assault. 

n.Lin. •  He  runned  aboard  on  me  as  I  druv  doon  Ranthrup  Hill, 
an'  I  thoht  he'd  a'  lekken  a  wheal  off.  Her  things  is  ail-aboard. 
Dev.  'Tez  a  giide  job  yii  coined  when  yii  did,  or  I  shiide  a-valled 
aboard  aw'n  in  quick-sticks,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892). 

[1.  Aboard,  drunk.  This  means  he  has  got  more  than  he 
can  carry  in  the  way  of  drink.  The  phrase  was  used  to 
me  by  a  Bottesford  labouring  man  who  had  just  seen  a 
neighbouring  farmer  drive  by,  coming  from  market,  who 
had  great  difficulty  in  sitting  in  his  gig.  It  may  originally 
have  been  a  sailor's  term,  but  is  widespread  now.  I  have 
very  often  heard  it,  and  there  is  no  sign  of  its  dying  out 
(E.  P.).  2.  Antiochus  Epiphanes  would  often  .  .  .  fall 
aboord  with  any  tinker,  clowne  ...  or  whomsoever  he 
met  first,  Burton  Anal.  Mel.  (1621)  351  (ed.  1836}.  A-, 
on  +  hoard.] 

ABOIL,  adv.  Sc.  Yks.  [aboil.]  Boiling,  in  or  into  a 
boiling  state. 

Sc.  Aboil,  to  come  aboil,  to  begin  to  boil.  By  the  time  it  [the 
pot]  comes  aboil,  Agr.  Surv.  Kincard.  432  (Jam.).  n.Yks."  Com- 
ing aboil,  bubbling  up.     e.Yks.'  Is  kittle  aboil  d'ye  think? 

[A-,  on  + boiL] 

ABOK,  sb.    w.  &  s  Sc.  (Jam.) 

w.  &  s.Sc.  Abok,  Yabok,  a  name  given  to  a  gabbing,  talkative,  or 
impudent  child. 

ABOON,  adv.  and  prep.  In  Sh.  and  Or.  I.  Sc.  n.Irel.  and 
the  n.  counties  to  Chs.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  In  Wxf.  and 
sw.Irel.  Dev.  and  Cor.  the  -n  has  not  survived.  Also 
written  abun  e.Cum.;  aboun  Nhb.';  abune  S.  &Ork.'  Sc. 
Dur.';  abeun  Cum.  n.Yks. ;  beun  Nhb.';  abeune  Cum.^; 
abeyun,  abyun,  byun  Nhb.*;  abuonWm.&;  Cum.';  oboon 
w.Lan.;  abouDev.;  aboo  Wxf  w.Som.' Dev.  Cor. ;  abew 
Dev.  Cor.     See  below,     [abiin,  abu'.] 

1.  adv.  Of  position  :  overhead ;  in  the  sky,  aloft ;  up- 
stairs.   Alsoyfg-. 

Sc.  Aboon, above,  Mackay.  N.L'Abin,  aboon,  above.  w.Ir.  He 
was  murthered  .  .  .  and  thrcwn  into  the  lake  abow.  Lover  Leg. 
(1848)  I.  40.  Wxf.'  Aboo,  above.  N.Cy.'  Aboon,  abuin,  above, 
overhead.  Nhb.  She  a'ways  keeps  maw  heart  abuin,  Wilson 
Pitman's  Pay  (1843)  13;  Nhb.'  Dur.'  Abune.  Cum.'  Abeunn,  c.  ; 
Abooan,szf. ;  Aboon,  ;/c.  s.Wm.  Lord  aboon  knaws,  Hutton /)/«. 
Storth  and  Arnside  (1760)  1.  47.  n.Yks.  She's  aboon  ith  Chawm- 
ber,  Meriton  Praise  Ale  (1684)  '•  252  ;  n.Yks.3  Gang  I'll  aboon 
[go  upstairs].  w.Yks.  T'lark  aboon  an'  them  below,  Bairns/a  Ann. 
(1862)7;  w.Yks.^  The  Man  aboon.  ne.Lan.  Th'Almeety's  name 
is  spoken  more  daan  i'  th'  hoile  than  it  is  up  aboon,  Mather  Idylls 
('895)  '5-  Chs.',  Der.2  Dev.  A  dwalin  drumble-drone  i'  th' 
rewts.  An  apple-dreane  aboo,  Madox-Brown  Dwale  Bliith  (1876) 
bk.  IV.  ii.       Cor.2  Abew,  above,  MS.  add. 

2.  prep.  Of  position  :  beyond  ;  above,  superior  to,  higher 
than  ;  fig.  exceeding,  higher  than,  superior  to,  beyond. 

Sc.  A  mile  aboon  Dundee,  Scott  Redg.  (1824)  ii.  (Old  Song); 
As  lang  as  our  heads  are  abune  the  grund,  ib.  Midlothian  (1818)  xi. 
Gal.  Some  bulks  o'  Tammas  Carlyle  .  .  .  hae  garred  ...  a  farmer 
body  lift  his  een  abune  the  nowt  an'  the  shairn,  Crockett 
Stickit  Min.  (1893)  Trials  for  License.  Kcb.  Wis  bonnet  trigg 
aboon  his  ear,  Davidson  Sctsoms  (1789)  15.  Nhb.  His  flag  abeun 
us  wis  love,  RoESoN  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  ii.  4.  Dur.'  Cum.  A 
girt  flag  flappen  abeiin  his  heed,  Dickinson  Cuntbr,  (1875)  5. 
Wm.'  It's  clean  away  abooan  Kendal.  n.Yks.'  The  Queen's 
aboon  us  all.  e.Yks.  *  Nay,  bayn,  that's  aboon  me,'  said  a  mother  to 
her  child,  who  had  asked  a  question  the  mother  could  not  answer, 
Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889).  w.Yks.  A  deal  better  nor  some 
'at  reckons  to  be  aboon  me,  Bronte  Shirley  (1849)  v.  Lan.  Set 
hee  aboon  want  or  danger,  Clegg  David's  Loom  (1894)  xxiv. 
e.Lan.'  n.Lin.'  If  he  duzn't  feal  paain  o'  th'  turpe'tine  aboon  paain 
o'  th'  inflammaation  it'll  be  to  no  ewse.  Dev.'  O  dear  me  ! 
the  bread  and  butter  that  many  a  poor  soul  woud  a  jump'd  abou 
ground  vor,  lied  smeeching  and  frizzing  in  the  vire,  pt.  i.  4 ; 
I  told  en,  but  that  whether  a  know  et  or  no,  that  my  dame  was 
abu  doing  ort  in  hugger-mugger,  ib.  pt.  ii.  13. 

3.  More  than,  exceeding  in  quantity  or  number. 

Sc.  He  canna  get  it  wrought  in  abune  twa  days  in  the  week  at 
no  rate  whatever,  Scott  IFrti'i'r/(^v(i8i4)  ix.  Nhb.'An'ower  abyun 
this  band  o'  men,  Horsley  The  Cuddies  an'  the  Horses  (1881). 
Wm.  &Cum.'.  Wm.  For  aboon  twenty  years  I  hev  duly  tented 
the  flock  of  my  allotment,  Hutton  Bran  New  Wark  (1785) 
1.  20.  n.Yks.  All's  aboon  eighty  year  awd,  Tweddell  Ctevel. 
Rhymes  {1815)  ^g.  ne.Yks.' There'll  be  aboon  a  scoore.  w.Yks.' 
He's  gaan  aboon  two  howers  sin.  Lan.  Mark  an'  oi,  an'  aboon 
twenty  moor'uU  be  nigh  yo,  Kay-Shuttleworth  Scarsdale  (i860) 
I.  168  ;  Lan.'  Wheer  hasto  bin  wortchin  at  ? — I've  druvven  for 
Owd  Copper  Nob  aboon  nine  year,  Waugh  Sancho's  IVallet  in 
the  Sphin.v  {iSjo)  III.  90.  sw.Lin.'  They'll  not  get  aboun  two 

loads  offen  it.  It's  aboun  a  twelvemonth  sin'.  Not.^The  ramper 
is  not  aboon  a  mile  off.  w.Som.'  Dhur  waud-n  beo'  zab'm  u-laf 
[there  were  not  above  seven  left]. 

4.  In  phr.  Abune  a',  beyond  reason  ;  aboon-a-bit.  exces- 
sively; «6oo«/A(?6;rrt//;, across  the  forehead;  aboiie-broe,  see 
quot. ;  aboon  grecs,  upstairs ;  to  get  aboon  hands,  to  become 
supreme,  get  the  '  upper  hand ' ;  aboon  wilh  oneself  j  aboon 
plum,  drunk ;  oiver  (over)  and  aboon,  (1)  entirely,  alto- 
gether, (2)  into  the  bargain. 

S.  &  Ork.'  Abune  a'.  Sh.  &  Or.L  &  Sc.  Abune  a'  (Jam.  Siippl.). 
w.Yks.  That  pleased  me  aboon  a  bit,  Treddlehoyle  Trip  ta 
Litnnan  {1851)  "].  ne.Lan.' T'meer  dud  kick  aboon  a  bit.  n.Lin.' 
It  raain'd  aboon  a  bit  last  Brigg  fair.  Sur.  Poor  chap,  thee  do 
look  abon  a  bit  hot,  Bickley  S:ir.  Hi/Is  (i8go)  I.  i.  11.  w.Som.'  Ee 
gid  ut  tile  un  ubeo'  u  beet  [he  gave  it  him  above  a  bit].  Bwk. 
Some  o'  thae  hags  they  burn'd  to  dead — And  some  aboon  the  breeth 
did  bleed,  Henderson  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  59.  Sc.  Abone-broe, 
aboon-bree.  above  water.  Of  a  person  in  difficulty,  or  one  who  has 
a  very  small  income,  it  is  commonly  said,  '  He  can  hardly  keep  his 
head  abone-broe'  (Jam.  Siippl.).  n.Yks.2  Aboon  grees  [upstairs]. 
They've  gitten  sair  aboon  hands  [much  beyond  control].  He's 
varry  far  aboon  hands  [he  has  abilities  beyond  his  teacher]. 
Cummer  gat  aboon  hands  on  'em  [debt  became  their  master]. 
Cum.'  Abeunn  wid  hissel,  rejoicing  beyond  reasonable  control. 
n.Lin.'  Aboon  plum,  drunken.  Yks.  I  isn't  ower  an'  aboon  satisfied, 
Wray  Nestleton  (1876)  50.  Cor.  Over  and  aboo,  into  the  bargain, 
Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  421. 

5.  Cow/.  Aboon-head,  (i)  upper,  (2)  of  the  weather,  &c. : 
up  above,  overhead. 

n.Yks.'  It  wets  aboon-heead  ;  n.Yks. 2  They  live  in  a  boon-heead 
spot  [an  upper  room].  n.Lin.'  It's  do'ty  under  foot,  but  dry  aboon- 

[ME.  abuven  (aboven),  .^-,  on  -1- buven,  OE. btfan  (above)  = 
be  +  if  an,  cp.  G.  o6e«.] 

A-BOOT,  adv.     Sc.     Into  the  bargain. 

Rxb.  Aboot,toboot,  the  odds  paid  in  a  bargain  orexchange (Jam.). 

\_A-,  at +  bool,  q.v.] 

ABOUT,  prep.,  conj.  and  adv.  In  gen.  use.  See  below, 
[abut,  aba t,  abet,  abeu't.] 

L  />/•<'/>.  Without ;  lo  get  about  a  person,  see  hfiiow.  Also 
co)tj.  unless :  usually  by  aphaeresis  Bout,  q.v. 

w.Yks.  Ah  wor  rairly  off  abaght  it,  Treddlehoyle  Bairnsla 
Ann.  (i860)  39;  'E's  tekken  t'dthrink  w'ile  'e  can't  do  about  it 
(F.  P.  T.).  Lan.  Aw  cannot  tell  lies  abeawt  aw  say  'at  he's  a 
pratty  un,  Waugh  Ozvd  Bodle  255.  Chs.^  To  get  about  a  person, 
is  to  get  without  him,  to  get  rid  of  him.     Stf.'  Abawt. 




2.  Near!}',  almost;  of  number,  quantity:  near  to,  ap- 

e.An.'  Isllie  horse  worth /'40? — Nothing  about  it.  Is  he  a  mile 
ofl? — No,  nor  about  it.     Nrf.'     Nrf.,  Suf.,  Sus.  Holloway. 

3.  L'pon  (the  person). 

w.Som.'  Aay  aa  n  u-gau  t  u  vaardn  ubacwt  mcc  [I  have  not  a 
fai  thing  ab  ut  me].  Dhee-s  airrt  ii  ae'u  dhu  stik  ubaewt  dim  baak 
u  dhee  [thou  oughtest  to  liave  the  stick  (beaten)  upon  thy  back]. 

4.  For  the  purpose  of. 

w.Som.'  Dhush  j'uur  haar-ti-fccsh  ul,  ud'n  neet  u  beet  lik  geo'd 
oal  raat'ud  diumg,  ubaewt  gifcen  voar  uv  u  kraap  wai  [this  new- 
fangled artificial  (manure"!  is  not  nearly  as  cfl'cctual  as  good  old 
rotten  dung,  for  the  purpose  of  securing  a  crop].  That  there's 
a  capical  sort  of  a  maunger  'bout  savin'  o'  corn. 

5.  adv.  Unfinished,  in  process,  on  hand  ;  to  be  about,  to 
be  engaged  upon,  occupied  witli. 

Nhb.  And  what  the  de'il  folks  war  aboot.  Wilson  Pitman's  Pay 
(1843)  113.  n.Yks.  About,  in  hand,  in  tlie  doing,  on  hand  (I.W.I. 
n  Lin.*  We'd  a  three-wcaks'  westi  aboot  that  daay.  Chs.*  What's 
Mary  doin'  ?  —  Oh  !  oo's  about  th'  butter.  About  th'  beds  [making 
the  beds].  Nhp.*  Applied  to  the  domestic  and  other  culinary 
etceteras  resulting  from  a  pig  being  killed  for  family  use:  We've 
got  a  pig  about  this  week.  War.  (J.R.W.'i  w.Som.'  While  the 
harvest  is  about.  Shockin  hand  vor  to  keep  work  about.  Cor.^ 
What  are  you  about  now  ? 

6.  Moving,  esp.  applied  to  the  resuming  of  bodily  activity 
on  recovery  from  an  illness. 

Lin.'  He  will  soon  be  about  again.  Not.'  Mester's  a  nice  bit 
better,  he's  getting  abaoiit  agcn.  Wil.  Before  the  second  child 
died,  two  more  tell  ill  on  the  same  day.  Only  Abel  and  Jan  were 
still  about.  EvviNcyd)/  0/  IViiuliiiill  (1876)  xxv.  Wil.'  M.v  missus 
were  bad  aal  last  wick  wi'  rheumatiz,  but  she  be  about  agen  now. 

7.  Near  at  hand. 

r.'ot.'    Lei.' An'  a  shillinswuth  o'arringcs,  if  yo've  got  any  abaout. 

8.  I  ntensive  or  otiose  in  about  iiuw,  about  right,  about  what, 
and  jii.'it  about. 

Wm.  You're  aboot  right  there,  sir,  Ward  Elsmere  (1888")  bk.  i. 
vii.  e.Yks.'  It's  tahm  ti  set  taties  aboot  noo,  MS.  add.  {T.  H.) 
w.Yks.  Abaht  reight.  Banks  Wkjld.  Jfrfs.  (18651.  n.Lin.'  He's  a 
straange  good  hand  at  tellin'  taales  an'  hinderin'  uthcr  foaks  vvalkin' 
wi'  listenin'  to  him,  an'  that's  aboot  what  he's  fit  for.  Hmp.'  She 
war  just  about  mad.  Wil.' 'Twer  just  about  cold  s'marnin.  [Amer. 
To  do  a  thing  about  right  is  to  do  it  well.  I  fell  foul  of  the  old  mare, 
and  if  I  didn't  give  it  to  her  about  right,  then  there's  none  o'  me, 
that's  all,] 

9.  About  iioivt,  good  for  nothing ;  about  of,  'bout  house, 
sec  below  ;  almut  H'hat.  the  upsliot  of  an  afl'air  ;  alt  about, 
(i)  nearly,  (2)  in  confusion,  disorder,  (3)  lightheaded  ;  all 
about  it,  the  whole  matter;  to  be  at>oul,  to  stroll  idly;  to 
have  iwlhiitg  about  one,  to  be  useless ;  to  put  about,  to  upset, 

n.Yks.  He's    aboot    nowt   (I.W.).  Glo.'  About    of    zixteen. 

I.W.2  Bout  house,  on  the  fioor  or  on  the  ground.  Don't  dro  the 
things  bout  house.  He  up  vist  and  I  vound  myself  bout  house. 
Cum.'  They  bodder't  t'poor  lad.  for  they  wantit  to  git  shot  on  him, 
and  that's  about  what,  and  nowder  mair  nor  less.  e.Yks.'  Maisther 
bullyragg'd  ma  aboot  nowt  at  all ;  bud  he  wants  te  be  shut  o'  ma, 
an  that's  aboot  what.  ( i  i  w.Yks.  Ah've  all  abaht  eniff  apple-trees 
i'  t'gardin  (jE.B.'i.  (21  n.Yks.  All  about,  scattered,  in  disorder 
(I.W.).  w.Wor.'  To  think  as  the  missis  should  come  to  see  me, 
an'  my  'ouse  ahl-about  like  this  !  Hrf.^  Our  'ouse  be  all  about  just 
now.  Glo.' All  about,  in  a  state  of  confusion.  Hmp.  I'm  all  about 
the  place  [my  house  is  untidy]  (H.C.M.B.).  w.Som.'  Dhai  bee 
ugoo'  un  laf  dhur  dhingz  au'l  ubaewt  [they  are  gone  and  have) 
left  their  things  (i.e.  tools i  scattered  about].  (3"!  War.  (J.R.W.) 
Hrf.'  To  get  all  about  in  his  head,  to  become  light-headed  ;  Hrf.* 
n.Lin.'  I  weant  gie  the  anutherfarden.  so  that's  all  aboot  it.  w.Wor.' 
Thee  canna  go  to-daay  ;  thee  mun  stop  at  oaQm,  an'  that's  ahl- 
about-it.  Hrf.'  That's  all  about  it.  w.Som.''uzee  fuuhur,  ee-z 
au-vees  ubaewt  [lazy  fellow,  he  is  always  idly  strolling].  Neef 
uun-ee  aay  kud  j-iiez  mce  an-,  aa^'  sheod-n  bee  ubaewt  [if  only  I 
could  use  my  hand,  1  should  not  be  walking  about  idly].  sw.Lin.' 
When  a  woman  has  nothing  about  her,  it's  a  bad  job  for  a  man. 
Not.'  I  wor  that  put  abaout  I  didn't  know  what  way  to  turn. 

10.  Bide-about,  (1)  to  loiter.  (21  to  be  given  to  drinking  ; 
lie-about,  drunken;  run-atmut,  (i)  adj.  wandering,  rest- 
less, (2)  sb.  a  pedlar,  itinerant  trader,  a  gossip,  {3)  v.  to  go 

1,11  w.Som.'  Leok  shaarp-n  ncct  buyd  ubaewt !  [make  haste,  and 
VOL.  I. 

do  not  loiter].  (2)  Ee  du  buyd  ubaewt  mans  aul  dhu  wik  laung 
[he  stays  drinking  in  public-houses  nearly  all  the  week  long]. 
Dhai  du  zai  aewe  e-z  u  tuurubl  luy-ubaewt  fuul  ur  [they  say 
how  he  is  a  terribly  drunken  fellow],  (i)  Aay-v  u-yuurd  aew 
ee-z  u  tuurubl  urn-ubacwt  fuulur  [I  have  heard  that  he  is  a  very 
roving  fellow].  (2)  A.iy  niiv  ur  doaun  dac'ul  wai'  noa  urn-ubaewts 
[I  never  deal  with  pedlars].  We  be  ter'ble  a-pestered  way  urn- 
alxiuts.  Uur-z  u  rig  lur  urn-ubaewt  [she  is  a  thorough  gossip]. 
(3)  Her  do  urn-about  most  all  her  time. 

ABOUTEN,  adv.  and  fief>.  Ircl.  e.Yks.  Suf.  Sus.  Hmp. 
[abetan,  abeutan.]     About,  in  its  various  lit.  senses. 

Wxf.' Abut,  Abouten,  about  e.Yks.' Abootan,  around,  round 
about,  MS.  add.  (T.  H.)  Suf.  Ohsnl.  Only  in  phr.  as  'Abouten  ten' 
(F.H.).  Sus.'  I  was  abouten  going  out,  when  Master  Noakes  he 
happened  along,  and  he  kep' me;  Sus.*  Hmp.' Abouten,  about, 
near  to. 

[ME.  abouten,  abuten,  OE.  a-,  oii-butan.  Hence  E.  about, 
which  is  merely  a  contracted  form.  Abouten  occurs  in 
Chaucer  and  P.  Plon'iiiaii  (see  Skeat's  Glossaries).] 

ABOVE,  prep.  Van  dial,  uses  in  So.  and  Eng.  [abu'v, 

1.  In  addition  to,  after;  too  much  for,  beyond. 

Edb.  Couple  above  couple  dating  the  day  of  their  happiness,  MoiR 
Maiisie  U'aiich  1828  11.  Lin.  She  had  a  sleeping-draught,  but 
the  pain  was  above  it  (R. E.G.). 

2.  Above  of. 

Som.  The  urd  rhoofs  .  .  .  pecpcn'  above  the  apple  orchards,  an' 
a  bit  o'  the  grey  church  tow'r  rhiscn'  above  o'  them,  Leiih  Lemon 
Vtrbciia  ( 1895  '  92. 

3.  Above-a-bit,  more  than  a  little,  exceedingly,  to  a  great 

Lan.  I'm  above  a  bit  behind  h.and.  Gaskell  M.  Barton  C1848) 
V.  Chs.'  Eh,  Polly!  aw  do  love  thee  above  a  bit.  s.Chs.', 
Stf.',War.2  Wor.  When  we  came  out  of  church,  it  peppered 
down  above  a  bit,  I  fancy  it  rained  all  church-while  (H.K.). 
w.Wor.' These  'ere  bad  times  werrits  me  above-a-bit,  thaay  do; 
I  dunno  w'at  to  do,  no  more  than  the  dyud.  se.Wor.',  s.Wor.' 
Shr.''E  fund  as  'e'd  got  all  the  work  to  do  'isself,  so  'e  off  wuth 
'is  smock  an' went  into  it  above-a-bit.  Hrf.'  I  like  that  man  above 
a  bit.  Glo.',  Oxf.',  Brks.'  Sur.  You  do  look  above  a  bit  better, 
BiCKLEY  Stn:  Hills  (1890I  III.  xvi.  w.Som.'  Maister  let-n  'ave  it 
s-morning  'bove  a  bit,  but  I  widn  bide  to  hear  it ;  I  baint  no  ways 
fond  o'  the  vulgar  tongue.  [Aus.,  N.S.W.  He  could  handle  the 
ribbons  above  a  bit,  Boldrewood  Robbery  (1888)  II.  xvi.] 

4.  Above  bank. 

Nhb.,  Dur.  Above  bank — the  surface,  Nicholson  Coal  Tr.  Gl. 

[ME.  above[n),  abuven;  OE.  Sbufan  =  on  i  be ■¥  ufan  (cf. 
G.  obcn).] 

ABRAHAM,  ISAAC,  AND  JACOB.  Lin.  A  name 
of  Syiitphvtuin  offwiuale  (N.O.  Boraiiiiiaeeae],  as  well  as  of 
other  plants  having  dilVcrcnt  shades  of  colour  among  the 
flowers  on  the  same  stem. 

n.Lin.  Abraham.  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  Borago  orirntalis;  n.Lin.1 
Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  (i)  the  Garden  Comfrey.  Symphyliim 
officinale,  12")  J'lilmonaria  nfficinalis,  (3)  Borago  oiirnlalis. 

ABRAID,  z\'    [abred.]    To  reprove,  upbraid. 


[I  abrayde  one,  I  caste  one  in  the  tethe  of  a  matter, 
Palsg.  415.     The  same  word  as  below.] 

ABRAID,  J'.*  Cum.  Vks.  Lin.  [abred.abrea'd, abria'd.] 
To  rise  nauseously  in  the  stomach. 

N.Cy.'  Abraid,  to  rise  on  the  stom.-ich.  Cum.  Abraide,  to  have 
the  acid,  Linton  Lair  Cv.  (1864  295.  Yks.  The  grossncss  of  the 
food,  as  some  say,  upbraids  him:  properly  it  abraids.  Hamilton 
IViigae  Lit.  (1841'!  340.  w.Yks.  This  term  is  applied  to  articles 
of  diet,  which  prove  disagreeable  to  the  taste,  and  difficult  of 
digestion,  Willan  Liil  ll'ds.  (,i8il).       Lin.' 

[ME.  abreydeit,  to  wrench,  to  start;  OE.  abregdan,  to 
twist,  to  draw  a  sword.  Tiie  dialect  sense  is  found  in 
Ei.yot's  Caslel  of  Ilelth  :  An  appetite  to  cate  or  drynke 
mylke,  to  the  extent  that  it  shal  not  arise  or  abraied  in  the 
stomake  (N.E.D.l.j 

ABREARD,  n(/>'.     n.Irel.     [abriad.] 

N.I.'  Abreard.  the  condition  of  a  field  when  the  crop  appears. 

\A-,  on  -f  braird,  q.v.| 

ABREDE,  adv.  Sc.  and  the  n.  counties  to  Yks.  and 
Lin.     [abred,  abrrd,  abriad.J 





1.  In  breadth  ;  to  spread  abrede,  to  expand. 

Ayr.  Spread  abreed  thy  well-fiU'd  brisket.  Wi'  pith  an'  power. 
BuRNSii787)7b/i<i^H/rfA/a/r.  N.Cy.i  Abrede,  in  breadth.  Nhb.> 
n.Yks.2  Quite  full  abrede  [sufficient  in  breadth].  The  wall  was  only 
a  brick  abrede  [a  single  brick  in  thickness].  ne.Yks.i  Twall  was 
nobbut  a  brick  a-brede  (s.v.  Brede).  e.Yks.i  Abreed.  n.Lin.'  Th' 
wall's  nobut  a  brick  abread. 
2    In  a  loose  or  scattered  manner ;  spread  or  cast  about. 

N.Cy.i  Abrede,  spread  out.  Dur.'  Cum.  Sad  wedder,  an' 
sea  mickle  hay  liggan  abreed  (M.P.).  Wm.*  T'rain  hes  catch'd 
t'hay  abreed.  Tha  mun  scale  that  muck  abreead.  n.Yks.'  [Of 
corn  not  yet  shocked]  When  Ah  passed  i'  t'moorn.  'tvvur  liggin' 
abreead  ;  but  'twur  led  afoore  neeght.  w.Yks.'  T'hay's  abreed. 
ne.Lan.^  His  hay  is  o  abrede. 
3.  Apart ;  in  pieces,  asunder. 

Rxb.  Haud  your  legs  abreid  till  I  creep  through  (Jam.).  Cum, 
T'pj'e-dish  is  flown  abreed  i'  t'yubbem  'M.P.). 

[ME.  a  brede,  on  brede  (Chaucerj  ;  OE.  on  bnvdc,  in 

ABREDE,  V.     Sc.  Cum.     To  publish  widely. 

Sc.  Abrede,  to  spread  abroad  (Jam.).  Cura.^  Abreed,  to  spread 
or  extend. 

[ME.  abreden,  OE.  abrcedan,  to  broaden,  expand.] 

ABRICOCK,  s6.  Chs.  Som.  [eabrikok.]  The  apricot. 
See  Apricock. 

Chs.i3  Abrecock,  an  apricot  Som.  (B.  &  H.)  ;  w.Som.'  Our 
abricocks  'ont  be  fit  to  pick  vor  another  fortnight. 

{Mains  anncniaca  is  called  in  Greeke,  Melca  armeniace. 
in  highe  duche  Land  ein  amarel  baunie.  in  the  dioses  of 
Colo  Kardiinielker  baiinie,  in  frech  Vug  abricottier,  & 
some  englishe  me  cal  the  fruite  an  Abricok,  W.  Turner 
Names  of  Herbes  (1548),  52;  The  fruit  is  named  ...  in 
English,  Abrecoke.  Aprecock,  and  Aprecox,  Gerard 
(1636)  1449.  Port,  albricoque,  Sp.  albaricoqne,  It.  albercocca, 
albicocca,  Arab.  al-biirqTiq,  Gr.  TvpMKOKiuv  (Byzantine  ;3epi- 
KOKKi'i.  pi.),  Lat.  praecoqimm,  early  ripe.] 

ABROACH,  V.    Yks.     [abruatj] 

n.Yks.  Commonly  used  in  Cleveland  (R.  H.  H.)  ;  n.Yks.^ 
Abroach'd,  set  afloat  as  a  report. 

[ME.  abrochcn.  to  pierce  a  cask  so  as  to  let  the  liquor 
flow  out ;  also,  to  give  utterance  to.  So  in  Allit.  Poems, 
i.  1122:  Then  glory  and  gle  watz  newe  abroched.  OFr. 
abrocher.  to  broach  a  cask.] 

ABROAD,  adv.  Sc.  Irel.,  gen.  throughout  the  rnidl. 
and  s.  counties,  but  not  in  gloss,  of  n.Cy.  [abroa'd, 

1.  Out  of  doors,  out  in  the  air,  away  from  home  ;  tip  and 
about ;  out  to  sea. 

Frf.  He  was  seldom  seen  abroad  in  corduro'ys,  Barrie  Thtiiiiis 
(i8go)   no.  Gall.  He  went  less  frequently  abroad,  Crockett 

Bog-Myrlle  {iQg$'\  2^6.  Ir.  God  save  you,  Mrs.  M'Gurk ;  you're 
abroad  in  great  ould  polthers,  Barlow  Idylls  (tSga)  95.  War.^ 
Drive  them  chickens  abroad.  Shr.'  That  peckled  'en's  al'ays  about 
the  door  6uth  'er  chickens ;  I  wish  'cr'd  tak'  'em  abroad  awilde. 
Glo.  When  a  man's  owld,  .  .  .  and  can't  get  abroad  as  er'd  used  to, 
BucKMAN  Darke's  Sojount  (1890)  ii.  Brks.'  A  farmer  is  sometimes 
described  as  gone  abro-ad  when  walking  in  the  fields.  e.An.' 
Abroad,  out  to  sea,  outside  the  house.  Suf.  There's  a  rare  waterpot 
abroad  [it  was  raining  heavily]  (C.T.).  Sur.^  We  wants  a  torn 
turkey  very  bad  ;  perhaps  when  you're  abroad  you  may  hear  of 
one.  Dev.  You  don't  mean,  carrier,  that  3'ou  surmise  it's  the  '  old 
gentleman'  abroad,  O'Neill  7oW  xi -D///(/>Sf5  (1893)  43.  Slang. 
When  a  boy  returned  to  school  work  after  sick  leave,  he  was  said 
to  'come  abroad,'  IVinchestcr  Sch.  (L.L.S.) 

2.  Lying  scattered,  spread  about ;  in  different  directions, 
dispersed  ;  ail-abroad,  in  great  confusion. 

Brks.i  Corn  or  hay  is  said  to  be  layin'  abro-ad  ^vhen  scattered 
about,  and  neither  in  cocks  nor  zwaths.  Sur.*  Sus.*  Abroad,  in 
all  directions,  all  about,  (s.v.  AbusefuUy)  He  thre\v  abroad  all  her 
shop-good.s.  Hmp.i  Scattered.  w.Som.'  Dee'ur,  dee-ur !  dhu 
raayn-z  u  kaum-ecn,  un  aul  dh-aay-z  ubroa-ud  [dear,  dear!  the 
rain  is  coming  and  all  the  hay  is  lying  loose  and  scattered]. 
Dev.  Now  tha  rain's  awver  yii'd  better  draw  they  haj'pooks 
abroad,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  87. 
a.  In  pieces,  asunder. 
Hrf.2  The  carriage  has  gone  abroad.  Glo.  The  brim's  broke 
abroad  in  a  please  or  two,  look'ec  .  .  .  but  wliat  I  says  is.  Never 
buy  no  new  un !  wear  th'owld  un  till  the  crownd  draps  out  on 

un;  wear  un  till  the  zides  vail  abroad,  Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn 
(^1890)  iii.  Dor.^  The  vu'st  time  he  [a  wagon]  's  a  hauled  out 
in  the  zun,  he'll  come  all  abroad.  w.Som.^  V-uur  u-teokt  dhu 
klauk  ubroa'ud?  [has  he  taken  the  clock  to  pieces?]  Ees  !  keodn 
due  noart  tiie  un,  voar  u  wuz  u-teokt  aul  ubroa-ud  [yes,  (he)  could 
not  do  anj'thing  to  it,  until  it  was  taken  all  to  pieces],  Shauk'een 
bwuuy  vur  braik  ubroa*ud-z  kloa'uz  [shocking  boy  for  tearing  his 
clothes  to  pieces].  Dev.  'Tez  a  bit  ov  mutton  ;  I've  a  bowled  it 
an'  I've  a  bowled  et,  I've  a  chowed  et  an'  I've  a  chowed  et,  me  an' 
my  ole  man  tu,  an'  us  cudden  git  et  abroad,  chow  za  hard's  us 
ciide,  Hewett  Peas,  Sp.  (1892)  62  ;  Jelly  so  stiff  that  if  you  were 
to  throw  it  over  the  house  'twouldn't  fail  abroad,  Sharland 
ZJt-w.  Fi7/«^c(i885)  54.  nw.Dev.' Abroad,  in  pieces.  w.Cor.  I  ca-ant 
mend  this  '  umberella'  afore  its  taken  abroad  (^M. A. C.) ;  I'll  tear  it 
abroad.  Monthly  Mag.  (^1808)  II.  421. 

4.  Open,  apart. 

w.Som.i  My  head's  splittin  abroad.  I.aur  Jiin  !  dhee  frauk-s 
aul  ubroa'ud  [law,  Jane  !  thy  frock  is  all  unfastened].  Dev,  Yu 
mid  be  zartin  Brownie  want  val  coming  down  hill.  Dreckly  'er 
veel'th  'erzel  a-slipping,  'er  spraddlcth  'er  legs  abroad  and  stapp'th 
dead-still!  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  126.  nw.Dev.' Abroad,  un- 
fastened, open.  Cor.  Why  I  never  heard  et  at  all,  but  I  kept  my 
eyes  abroard,  Forfar  Kynance  Cove  (1865)  43  ;  Cor.i  The  door  is 
all  abrawd. 

5.  Confused,  mistaken,  '  astray,'  wide  of  the  mark,  esp.  in 
all  abroad. 

Ntip.'  All  abroad,  an  expression  used  when  any  undertaking  has 
failed,  and  the  person  is  at  a  loss  what  fresh  steps  to  pursue  ; 
equivalent  to  'all  at  sea.'  Mid.  He  isn't  off  his  head,  exactly,  but 
— you  know  that  we  all  get  a  little  abroad,  when  we  lie  on  our 
backs  so  long  as  not  to  know  our  legs.  Blackmore  Kit  (1890')  II.  ii. 
Cor.2  He's  all  abroad  there.  Colloq.  All  abroad,  wide  of  the  mark 
(Farmer).     [Amer.  Abroad,  confused,  staggered  (Farmer).] 

6.  Boiled,  cooked,  or  squeezed  to  pieces,  to  a  mash,  or 
liquid  condition. 

w.Som.'  Skwaut  ubroa'ud  dhu  ving'ur  oa  un  [squeezed  his  finger 
quite  flat].  Dhai  bee  fac'umus  tae'udees.dhai-ul  bwuuyul  ubroa'ud 
sae"um-z  u  dust  u  flaaw'ur  [those  are  splendid  potatoes,  they  will 
boil  to  a  mash  like  a  dust  of  flour].  Dev. '  Be  they  tatties  a  ciiked 
'et?'  ''Ess.'  'Well,  than,  drain  um  off  or  they'll  be  bowled  all 
abroad,'  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (18921  55:  Ef  theyse  yer  tatties  du 
bowl  inny  longer  they'll  val  awl  abroad,  ib.  45.  w.Cor.  The  sugar 
is  gone  abroad  (M.A.C.). 

[1.  Abroad  (in  the  open  air,  from  home,  or  not  within), 
foris,  sub  dio,  in  publico  or  aperto.  As,  they  often  sup 
abroad. /o;-/s  saepe  coenani.  There  must  be  a  fit  place  taken 
abroad,  Idoneus  sub  dio  siimcndtis  locus.  He  lay  abroad 
all  night,  pernoctavit  in  publico.  Coles  (1679)  ;  I  atn  glad 
to  see  your  lordship  abroad  (not  confined  to  your  sick- 
chamberi,  Shaks.  2  Hen.  11^,  \.  ii.  108.  ME.  For  thorw  his 
broth  bestes  wexen  and  abrode  jeden,  P.  Ploivman  (b.)  xiv. 
60.    3.  ME.  His  brayne  fyl  alle  abrode,  Caxton  G.  Leg.  165.] 

ABROADY,  arfi/.  Nhp.  Oxf.  A  child's  word  for  abroad, 
out  of  doors. 

Nlip.'  Come,  let's  go  abroadey,  or  '  all  abroadey.'  Ox£t  [Said  to 
children]  Come  an'  go  abroady  along  o'  I. 

ABRON,  adj.    Obs.    Shr.     Auburn. 

Shr.'  'Er  wuz  a  sweet  pretty  babby,  66th  nice  abron  ar,  but  too 
cute  to  live. 

[This  is  a  i6th-cent.  form.  Cp.  -A.  lustie  courtier,  whose 
curled  head  With  abron  locks  was  fairly  furnished.  Hall 
Viigidemariiim  (1597)  111.  Sat.  v.  8.  ME.  aborne,  OFr. 
auborne,  Lat.  alhurnus.\ 

ABROOD,  adj.  w.Som.  Dev.  [abrded.]  In  the  act  of 

w.Som.'  Uur  zaut  ubrco'd  uur  vcol  tuym  [she  sat  on  her  eggs 
her  full  time].  Dh-oa'l  ain-z  ubreo'd  tu  laas  [the  old  hen  is  silting 
at  last].  Still  the  common  word  used.  Dev.  Wlien  tha  ducks  a 
brood  wis  zot,  Nathan  Hogg  Poet.  Let.  (1847)  52,  ed.  1865;  Polly 
ought  tu  bring  out  'er  chicken  tu-day  ;  her'th  a  zot  a-brood  vur 
dree  weeks,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  153. 

yA-,  on  -f  brood.] 

ABSENT,  adj.     Stf     Obsol.     Intoxicated. 

Stf.  Mouthly  Mag.  (1816;  I.  494. 
ABUD,  see  Aye  but. 

ABUNDATION,  sb.  In  Chs.  Shr.  Stf.  Wor.  Hrf. 
Glo.  Also  written  bundation,  Glo.'  Hrf.*  [abunde-Jan, 
abendejan.]     Abundance. 




Chs.'  Abundation,  in  frequent  use  at  Middlcwicli  tliirtj'-five 
years  ago.  s.Chs. 'There'll  be  very  fyow  few)  tunnits  this  'ear, 
bu'  we  shan  have  abundation  o'  teetocs.  Shr.'  Stf.'  Abundation. 
a  large  quantity.     Wor.  Porson  Oiioiiil  /(''f/.'.'.  (1875X      Hrf.',  GIo.' 

[A  late  dialect  formation,  composed  of  abiiiiif-  (in  a/iiiii- 
dance)  +  the  suffix  -a/ion.  The  word  docs  not  seem  to  liave 
been  used  at  any  time  in  the  literary  language,  although 
the  formation  has  the  perfect  analogy  of  iitiiii(/<itioii.] 

ABUSEFUL,  adj.  Yks.  Lin.  War.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo. 
[abiusful,  abiusfalj.     Abusive. 

n.Yks.=  Abuscful,  insolent.  m.Yks.',  n.Lin.',  War.  (J.  R.W.), 
Shr.'     Hrt'^Abuseful,  abusive.     Glo.' Abuseful,  abusive. 

Hence  Abusefully,  ad'o.  in  an  abusive  manner. 

Sus.'  As  mj'  missus  was  a-going  home  a  Saddaday  night,  she  met 
Master  Chawbery  a-coming  out  of  the  Red  Lion,  and  he  treated 
her  most  abusefully,  and  threw  abroad  all  her  shop-goods. 

[A  late  formation.  Abuse,  sb.-\ full.  The  word  was  not 
uncommon  in  17th  cent,  literature  ;  for  instance,  it  occurs  in 
Barlow's  Reinaiiis  (1693)  397  :  He  scurrilously  reviles  the 
King  and  Parliament  by  the  abuseful  names  of  Hereticks 
and'Schismaticks  (N.E.D.).  It  must  have  been  but  rarely 
used  by  later  writers,  for  it  does  not  appear  in  Gouldman, 
Coles,  Bailey,  or  Johnson.] 

ABY,  V.  Obs.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Also  written  abie,  N.Cy.'  To 
pay  (dearly)  for  an  offence,  to  expiate,  atone. 

Sc.  I  trust  he  should  dearly  abye  his  outrecuidance,  Scott 
IVavrrliy    1814)  I.  58.       N.Cy.'  Ye  shall  dearly  abie  it 

[If  I  catch  him  in  this  company ...  he  dearly  shall  abye, 
Spenser  F.  O.  hi.  vi.  24  ;  Lest  to  thy  peril  thou  aby  it  dear, 
SiiAKS.  M.N.D.  111.  ii.  175-  ME.  abyen,  to  buy,  purchase ; 
OE.  abycgatt.] 

ABY,  adv.    Nhb.  \Vm.    [abai-.]    On  one  side. 

Nbb. '  Aby,  aside,  that  is,  a-by  or  a-oncside.  '  Stan'  aby  there  ' 
is  a  familiar  shout  in  a  crowd  when  a  way  is  to  be  cleared.     Wm.' 

[A-,  on-hiv.] 

ACABO,  phr.    Nrf  Suf     fakebS.] 

Nrf.  That  would  puzzle  Acabo,  Cozens-Hardv  Broad  Nrf.  {ligz) 
68.  Suf.  It  would  puzzle  Acabo  (F.  H.).  Slang.  He  beats 
Akeybo,  and  Akeybo  beat  the  devil,  Hotten  Slang  Did. ^186$). 

ACAMY,  sb.  adj.  Sh.  &  Or.  I.  and  w.  &  s.Sc.  A  diminu- 
tive thing;  also  a//nb.  diminutive. 

Sh.I.  Often  used  for  a  weakly  young  creature  of  any  kind  (K.I.). 
Or.  I.I  G  P.)  S.  &  Ork.'  Or.  I.,  w.&  s.Sc.  Acamy,  applied  to  any 
small,  diminutive  person  or  animal.  Acamy,  acamie,  small,  diminu- 
tive (Jam.  5k/>/>/.). 

[Prob.  the  same  word  as  atomy,  a  diminutive  being;  so 
in  SiiAKS. :  Drawn  with  a  team  of  little  atomies  Athwart 
men's  noses,  R.  Sr'J.  i.  iv.  57.] 

ACANT,  adv.     n.Yks.     [ska'nt] 

n.Yks.  A  box  is  acant  when  it  is  not  level  with  the  ground 
(G.W.W.);  n-Yks.^Acant,  leaning  to  one  side. 

[A-,  on  +  cant,  edge,  slope.] 

ACAST,  adv.  Yks.  [akast,  ake'st]  Crooked,  twisted, 

n.  Yks.  2  Akest.  cast  or  twisted  to  one  side.  e.Yks.  It's  all  akest, 
Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  50;  e.Yks.'  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[A-,  on  -f  cast.] 

ACAUSE,  conj.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Den  Not.  Lin. 
Lei.  Brks.  Sus.  Dev.  [akos.]  Because.  Also  in  phr. 
acnuse  on,  because  of. 

Nhb  '  He  wadn't  gan  acas  he  wis  flaid.  He  couldn't  run  acas  on 
his  bad  foot.  Cuin.3  For  noute  at  o'  else  but  acoase  they  think  he 
kens  me.  n.Yks.  Akaws  t'sup  o'  milk's  getten  scattcrt,  Twed- 
DELL  C/cir/.  yW_)'m«  (1875)  36.  ne.Yks.' Acoz.  ne-Lan.' Acos. 
e.Lan.'  Ocose.  Der.  Happen  I'm  slow  acos  it's  an  owd,  owd  tale 
wi'  me,  and  you're  quick  acos  it's  a  new  story  to  you.  Gushing 
Kof  (1888)  I.  ix.  Not'  n.Lin.' Acos.  Lei.' Acoz.  Brks.'Awunt 
come  acause  thee  bist  yer.  Sus.  Acus  all  de  family  be  troubled 
wud  sich  bad  eyes,  Lower  Tom  CUidf'ole  { 1831)  pt.  iv.  Dev.  Her's 
a  pining  acause  you  be  so  long  away,  Baring-Gould/.  Herring 
(1888)  325. 

[A-,  on  +  caiisei\ 

ACCABE,//;/.  s.Pem.  [a'kabi.]  An  expression  of  disgust. 

s.Pem.  Accabe !  there's  a  doorty  owld  shanty  Maary  keeps 

[Prob.  of  LG.  origin,  the  expression  being  due  to 
the  Flemish  colonists  in  Pembroke.     Schuermans  gives 

(s.v.  Aak]  akf-puu  !  The  Holstein  Idiotikon  (s.v.  Akkeit) 
has  iikke/i .'  ai-kifa  .'  an  expression  of  disgust  employed 
by  nurses  to  dirty  little  children.  So  akkc  pii!  in  the 
Bremen  \\'tbch.\ 

ACCASPIRE,  see  Acrospire. 

ACCESS,  .sZi.  Sc.  Nhb.  Ken.  Sus.  Also  written  aixies, 
exies  .Sc.  N.Cy.' ;  axes  S.  iJc  Ork.'  Ken. ;  axey  Sus. 

1.  An  ague  fit. 

Sc.  The  cookmaid  in  the  trembling  exies,  Scorr  Br,  of  Lam. 
(18191  xi ;  Shiverin  an'  shakin  wi'  the  Irem'lin  aixies,  Hunter 
/ /(/iwcA  11895)  xvi.  S.&  Ork.',  N.Cy.'  Ntib.  Grose  1790  .  Ken. 
A'.  <&-  Q.  (1885)  6th  S.  xi.  308.     Sus.' 

2.  Hysterics. 

Sc.  Jenny  Rintherout  has  ta'en  the  exies,  and  done  nothing  but 
laugh  and  greet,  Scott  Aiilii}uary    1816    xxxv. 

[The  access  of  an  ague  is  the  approach  or  coming  of 
the  fit.  .  .  .  In  Lancashire  they  call  the  ague  itself  the 
access,  as  'such  a  one  is  sick  of  the  access,"  Blount  (1670I. 
The  word  occurs  as  early  as  Chaucer  in  the  sense  of  an 
ague  fit :  A  charme  .  .  .  The  whichc  can  helen  the  of  thyn 
accesse,  Tr.  (S^"  Cr.  11.  1316.  Fr.  acces,  cp.  un  acces  defievre 

ACCOMIE,  sh.  Obs.  Sc.  (Jam.)  Also  written  accumie. 
A  species  of  mixed  metal. 

Sc.  Mis  writing  pen  did  seem  to  me  to  be  Of  harden'd  metal,  like 
steil  or  accumie,  Scot  (of  Satchcll:.  Hist.  Naint  0/ Scot  ',1776!  34. 

[This  word  is  a  form  of  atc/niiiy,  used  in  the  sense  of  a 
metallic  composition  imitating  gold,  as  if  bj'  the  art  of  the 
alchemist.  In  byrnist  gold  and  finest  alcomye,  Doi-glas 
Aeiteis  XII ;  Alkamye,  mctallc,  alkainia.  Prompt.;  Alca- 
namy,  coriittliiiiin,  Cath.  Aiml.  The  form  ockamy  (or 
occamy)  was  also  once  in  use.  Skinner  says  :  Ockamy, 
Metallum  quoddani  iiu'stuiii,  colore  argenti  acniiiluni,  sed 
vilissiinuni,  corriiptiim  a  nostra  Alchyiny.  Steele  mentions 
'an  occamy  spoon,'  Guardian,  No.  26;  see  Nares.] 

ACCOR'AEARTH,  sb.  n.Cy.  w.Yks.  ne.Lan.  Also 
written  accorah-  n.Cy.  w.Yks.  ne.Lan.;  acora-  w.Yks. 
[a'kara-iaf).]     Green  arable  earth  ;  a  field. 

n.Cy.  Accorah-earth,  green  arable  earth,  Grose  (1790^  ;  Hollo- 
WAV.  w.Yks.  Hutton  Tour  to  Caves  (,i-j8i y,  Lvcas  Stud.  A,'idderda/e 
(c.  1882    228.     neXan  ' 

ACCORD,  ji.  Sc.  Wor.  Hrf.  [akord,  akad.]  To  agree, 
come  to  an  agreement. 

Sc,  Proceed  as  we  accorded  before  dinner,  Scott  JVaverfn'iiSi^) 
xix  ;  The  Queen  accorded  with  this  view  of  the  matter,  Cablvi.e 
Fted.  Gt.  (1865,  X.  57.  w.Wor.'Im  an'  'er  can't  accard  together 
no  waaj'.     s.Wor.'     Hrf.^ 

[My  consent  and  fair  according  voice,  Shaks.  li.dr'J. 
I.  ii.  19.  ME.  acorden,  to  agree:  If  evesong  and  morwe- 
song  acordc,  Chaucer  C.T.  a.  830.    OFr.  acorder.] 

ACCORDING,  adv.  Wor.  Glo.  Som.  and  var.  dial, 
[akoa-din,  aka'din.]  Comparatively,  in  proportion  to; 
dependent  upon  lin  gen.  use). 

se.Wor.'  It's  as  much  bigger  accardin'  as  my  fut  is  nur  that 
there  young  un's  [it  is  as  much  larger  comparatively,  as  my  foot 
is  than  that  child's].  Glo.'  He's  the  biggest  according  [i.  e.  in 
proportion  to  his  age].  w.Som.'  D-ee  dliingk  ee-ul  bee  acubl  vur 
kau-m?  Wuul,  kaa'n  tuul  ee  nuz.iaklce,  t-acz  koa-rdecn  wuur 
aayv  u-fiineesh  ur  noa  [Do  you  think  you  will  be  able  to  come  ? 
Well,  (I)  cannot  tell  you  exactly;  it  is  dependent  upon  whether  I 
have  finished  or  not]. 

ACCORDINGLY,  adv.  Yks.  Lin.  [akoadinlai.]  In  pro- 
portion.    See  According. 

n.Yks^.  e.Yks.'  Thoos  dcean  varry  lahtle  (little),  an'  thoo  may 
expect  to  be  paid  accoadinlyc.  This  word  is  hardly  ever  heard  in 
the  sense  of  consequently.  w.Yks.  Jack's  tallest,  but  Tom's  taller 
accordinglye  to  his  age,  Leeds  Merc.  Siippl.  (.Apr.  1 1,  1891).  n.Lin. 
He's  gotten  a  sixty-aacre  farm  an'  stock  an'  things  accordin'-ly 
(M.P.) ;  n.Lin.'  sw.L'n.'  I  don't  think  it's  dear— not  accordingly. 
Oh.  they're  a  lot  cheaper  accordingly.    It's  accordingly  as  they  do  it. 

ACCOUNT, in //;r.  Sc.  Brks. Sus. Wil. Dev.  [Sc.akunt; 

To  lay  one's  account  n'ilh,  to  assure  one's  self  of,  make 
up  one's  mind  to,  to  reckon  on  ;  to  make  account  of,  to 
value,  esteem ;  to  set  account  by,  to  value ;  to  take  account 
of,  to  pay  attention  to,  value. 

Sc.  I  counsel  you  to  lay  your  account  with  suflTering.  Walker 

C  2 




Peden.  {1827)  56  (Jam.);  You  may  lay  your  account  with  oppo- 
sition, Scotk.  (1787)  51.  Brks.  'Most  young  men  would  have 
been  crippled  for  life  by  it.'  '  Zo  'em  would,  the  young  wosbirds  ; 
I  dwon't  make  no  account  on  'em.'  said  Simon,  Hughes  T.  Brozvii 
Ox/.  (18611  x.x.xiii.  Sus.  Thej'  don't  seem  to  make  much  account 
of  parsons  up  here,  sir,  Egerton  Flhs.  niid  IFays  (1884)  ic6. 
Dev.^  I  dawnt  zit  no  account  by  'n,  'e  idden  vit  vor  much.  n.Wil. 
She  do  take  a  turrible  deal  o'  'count  o  that  viower  as  you  give  her 
(E.H.G.).  nw.Dev.'  Doan  ee  take  no  'count  o'  'n,  my  dear;  he 
waan't  aurt  ee.  I  caan't  tell  ee  'ow  many  there  waz  ;  I  did'n  take 
no  count  o'  min  [i.  e.  I  did  not  observe  them  closely]. 

[I  must  lay  my  account  with  such  interruption  every 
morning,  S.mollett  R.  Random,  I.  176;  To  make  great 
(little)  account  of,  magiiifacio,  parvi  ant  itihili peiido.  Coles 
(1679) ;  Estinier,  to  set  by,  make  much  account  of,  Cotgr.  ; 
Or  the  son  of  man,  that  thou  makest  account  of  him, 
Bible  Ps.  cxliv.  3;  A  Icon  in  his  rage  Which  of  no  drede 
set  accompt,GowER  C.A.  m.  267 ;  I  set  it  at  no  more  accompt 
Than  wolde  a  bare  straw  amount,  ib.  11.  286.] 

ACCOUTREMENTS,  sb.  pi.  w.Cor.  [aku'taments.] 
Things  strewn  about. 

w.Cor.  Pick  up  your  accouterments  (M.A.C.). 
[In  Shaks.  accoutrements  is  used  of  a  person's  dress, 
apparel :  Point-device  in  your  accoutrements,  As  Yoii,  \u. 
ii.  402;    In  habit  and  device,  exterior  form,  outward  ac- 
coutrements, K.  John,  1.  i.  211.] 

ACCROSHAY,  s6.  Cor.  A  kind  of  leap-frog. 
Cor.^  A  cap  or  small  article  is  placed  on  the  back  of  the  stooping 
person  by  each  boy  as  he  jumps  over  him  ;  the  one  who  knocks 
either  of  the' things  off  has  to  lake  the  place  of  the  stooper  :  the 
first  time  he  jumps  over  the  boy  says  'Accroshay,'  the  second 
'Ashotay,'  the  third  '  Assheflaj','  and  lastly  'Lament,  lament 
Leleemau's  (or  Lelena's)  war' ;   Cor.^  MS.  add. 

[On  inquiry  of  some  of  our  Board  School  boys  I  learn 
that  here  (at  Redruth)  they  occasionally  play  leap-frog 
with  the  'pillar  boys'  arranged  in  two  lines,  boys  starting 
on  each  line  simultaneously,  and  this  they  call  '  Crossy,' 
as  my  informants  the  boys  say,  from  crossing  each  other 
continually  (T.  C.  P.).] 

ACCUSE,  11.  w.Som.  [akiiz.]  To  appoint,  invite, inform. 
w.Som.^  Uvoar  uur  duyd  uur  ukeo'Z  dhai  uur  weesh  vur  tu  kaar 
ur  [before  she  died  she  appointed  those  she  wished  to  carry  her]. 
Ee  wuz  maa-yn  jul'ees  kuz  ce  waud-n  iikeo'z  tu  dhu  suup'ur  [he 
was  very  jealous  because  he  was  not  invited  to  the  supper].  Dhai 
wu  zukeo'z  uvoar  an",  un  zoa  dhai  wuz  u-prai-pae'ur  [they  were 
informed  beforehand,  and  so  they  were  prepared]. 

[Cf  Fr.  accuser,  '  sigiia/er,  rendre  manifested  'J' accuse  la 
reception  de  vnfre  lettre.'     See  Hatzfeld.] 
ACCUSSING,  see  Hackaz. 

ACE,  s6.    Nrf.    |e's.]    In  ocf  (y^f/rtb/^i-f,  wholly,  entirely. 
Nrf.  He   baat   the  'Merricans   ace   and   douce,  Spilling    Giles  s 
Trip  (1872)  23.      w.Nrf.  Bate  it  ace  an'  douce  if  yow  can  find  it, 
Okton  Bce&ton  Gliost  1 18841  9. 
ACELET,  see  Harslet. 
ACH,  int.     s.Pem.     In  phr.  ach  upon  you. 
s.Pem.  Ach  upon  you.  Laws  LUtle  Eiig.  (1888)  419. 
ACHANCE,  conj.    w.Yks.     [atjcns.]     In  case  that,  for 
fear  that,  lest. 

w.Yks.  Achonce,    in   case   that,    Leeds  (F.M.L.);     w.Yks.5  Let 
me  tak  care  on't  achance  tuh  loises  it.'     Tak  t'umbrella  wi'  thuh 
achonce  it  raans. 
[A-,  on  +  c/iance.] 

ACHE,  si.'  Chs.  Shr.  Written  aitch.  [etj.]  A  sudden 
pain  or  attack  of  illness  ;  paroxysms  in  an  intermittent 
disorder.     Cf  access. 

Chs.'  Plot  aitches  are  flushings  in  the  face ;  fainty  aitches  are 
fainting  fits.  [Also]  Fainty  haitches.  slight  indisposition;  Chs.^; 
Chs.^  Used  to  express  a  paroxysm  of  an  intermitting  disorder. 
s.Chs.'  I've  had  some  despert  bad  fcenty  (fainting)  aitches  leet- 
whciles  (lately).  Hot  aitches  are  flushings  of  heat.  Shr.'  '  They 
tcll'n  me  as  poor  owd  Matty  Roberts  is  mighty  bad.'  '  Aye  'er's 
"set  to  these  aitches  every  spring  an'  fall.'  I  dunna  like  these 

[OE.  (Tce,  ache,  pain.] 

ACHE,  sb.'  Cor.  [ek,  eak.]  A  large  and  comfortless 
place;  used  of  a  room  or  house. 

Cor.2  MS.  add.  [Perhaps  a  special  sense  of  Ache'  (T.C.P.).] 

ACHE,  sb.^    Cor.    [etJ,  eatJL]     A  plant-name.  Bryony. 

Cor.2  Ache,  bryony.    Ache-mor,  bryony  root,  MS.  add. 

[In  Britten  &.  Holland's  Englis/i  Plant-names  ache  ap- 
pears as  the  name  of  the  three  following  plants  :  (i)  Apiiim 
graveolens,  L.  (2)  lianuucuhis  sceU-ratus,  L.;  in  Turn.,  Lib  , 
from  its  celery-like  leaves.  (3)  Fra.xiniis  e.xcelsior,  L.  ('This 
seems  to  be  its  meaning  in  the  Plumpton  correspondence, 
p.  188,'  Hall.)  The  application  of  the  name  to  bryony 
seems  to  be  peculiar  to  Cornwall.  Coles  (1679)  has  aclie 
for  smallage  (herb),  apiiim.  ME.  ache,  smallage ;  OFr. 
aclie,  celery  ;  Rom.  apia  (for  Lat.  apiiim).} 

ACHE,  V.     Ken.  Sus. 

1.  To  be  weary,  tired. 

Sus.'  I  am  afraid  you'll  ache  waiting  so  long. 

2.  To  long  for,  desire  anything. 

Sus.'  Nancy  just  will  be  pleased,  she  has  ached  after  a  dole  I 
don't  know  the  time  when. 

Hence  Aching-tooth,  camp. 

Ken.'  To  have  an  aching-tooth  for  anything,  is  to  wish  for  it  very 
much.  Muster  Moppett's  man's  got  a  ten'ble  aching-tooth  for  our 
old  sow. 

[To  have  an  aking  tooth  at  one,  Indignor,  infensum  esse 
aliciii,  Coles.] 

ACHE-BONE,  see  Aitch-bone. 

ACHER,  see  Icker. 

ACK,  V.     A  mistaken  form  for  Rack,  q.v. 

ACKADUR,  V.    S.  &  Ork.    To  persevere,  endeavour. 

Sh.  or  Or.  I.  Akkadur,  to  persevere  i^Coll.  L.L.B,}.  S.  &  Ork.' 
Ackadur,  to  endeavour. 

ACKER,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Yks.  e.An.  Also  written  aiker,  Sc. 

1.  A  ripple  or  dark  streak  on  the  surface  of  water,  a 
'  cat's  paw  '  or  '  curl.' 

n.Cy.  Sailors  at  sea  name  it  when  seen  on  a  larger  scale  by  the 
expressive  term  'cat's-paw.'  The  North-country  peasant,  how- 
ever, knows  it  by  the  name  '  acker,'  implying,  as  it  were,  a  space 
ploughed  up  by  the  wind,  Comb.  Mag.  (July  1865)  34;  N.Cy.', 
Nhb.',  m.Yks.',  w.Yks.'  e.An.'  Aker,  a  turbulent  current,  a  com- 
motion of  a  river. 

2.  The  break  or  movement  made  by  a  fish  in  the  water 

[This  word  occurs  in  ME.  in  the  sense  of  a  strong  cur- 
rent in  the  sea  :  Akyr  of  tlie  see  flowynge,  impetus  maris, 
Prompt. ;  An  aker  is  it  clcpt  I  understonde  Whos  myght 
there  may  no  shippe  or  wynd  wyt  stonde,  MS.  poem 
(c.  1500),  quoted  by  Way  ;  Aker  of  the  sea  whiche  pre- 
venteth  the  flowde  or  flowj'nge,  impetus  maris,  Huloet.J 

ACKER,  V.     Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.     [e-kar,  a-ka(r).] 

1.  To  ripple,  curl,  as  water  ruffled  from  wind. 
N.Cy.',  Nhb.'     Cum.  Linton  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  295. 

2.  Of  the  hair. 

m.Yks.'  The  hair  is  said  to  acker  when  in  wavy  outline. 

[See  Acker,  sb.'\ 

ACKER,  see  Acre. 

ACKEREL,  sb.    w.Yks.  Not.     An  acorn. 

w.Yks.  ////v.  IFds.  ;  Ackerils  [in  Calder  Vale],  Yks.  TV.  &  Q. 
(1888)  If.  13;  Ackeril  was  in  general  use  when  I  was  a  lad,  in 
Halifax  and  district.  .  .  .  Not  very  often  used  now  {Letters,  per 
S.K.C.).      Not.  This  word  is  still  used  ^S.O.A.). 

ACKERMETUT,  sb.     w.Yks.     Liquid  manure. 

w.Yks. 2  Ackermetut,  Ackermetoota.  Ackermantut :  the  word  is 
well  known  to  old  farmers  about  Sheffield. 

ACKERSPRIT,  see  Acrospire. 

ACKNOW,  V.    Obs.    n.Cy.    To  acknowledge,  confess. 

n.Cy.  Acknown,  acknowledged,  Grose  (1790)  ;  N.Cy.'     Nhb.' 

[ME.  a!;noiven,  OE.  oicmiivan.^ 

ACKNO'WLEDGE,  v.  e.An.  [aknolid?.]  To  give  a 

e.An.'  Acknowledge,  to  tip.  Nrf.,  Suf.  I  hope  you  will  acknow- 
ledge me    F.H.). 

Hence  Acknowledgement,  pecuniary  gift,  without  re- 
ference to  services  rendered  (I'.H.). 

ACK'WARDS,  see  Awkward. 

ACLITE,  adv.  Rxb.  Nhb.  [aklai't.]  Out  of  joint, 

Rxb.  Aclite,  ackleyt,  awry  to  one  side  (Jam.).  Nhb.'  Newcastle's 
now  a  dowly  place,  all  things  seems  sore  aclite,  For  here  at  last 




Blind  Willie  lies,  an  honest,  harmless  wight,  Gilchrist  Blind 
Willie's  Epil,tt>h  1  c.  1844). 

[^/-,  on  +  clile,  q.v.] 

ACOCK,  nth'}     Yks.  Lan.  Clo.     [akok.] 

Astride;  fii;.  elated,  triumphant. 

w.Yks.5  Acock  o'  t'liorse.  Acock  o'  t'berom.  Acock'n  a  riial. 
Glo.  To  get  a-cock  of  the  house,  and  sit  a-cock,  Grose  (1790)  MS. 
add.  I  M.)  Colloq.  Ride  acock  lioise  To  Banbury  Cross.  Ntuseiy 
Rhviiu:     All-a-cock,  highly  elated,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.) 

Hence  A-cock-horse,  adj.  triumphant. 


[A-,  on  +  cock,  a  heap,  a  hay-cock.] 

ACOCK,  ailv.'^  Colloq.  To  knock  (a  person)  -a  bit  acock, 
to  disable  him;  hence, Jii;.  to  surprise,  discomfit. 

War.*  Colloq.  I  can  remember  axin'  my  feyther  how  it  was  as 
some  folks  was  rich  an'  some  was  poor.  It  Icnockcd  him  a  bit  acock, 
my  axin'  him  that,  Murray  Nov.  h'ole-bk.  (1887;  259. 

{A-,  on  +  cock.  Cp.  cock  used  in  the  sense  of  an  upward 
turn,  as  in  a  cock  of  the  eye,  a  cock  of  the  nose,  a  cock  of 
a  hat.  I 

ACOLD,  adj.  Won  Brks.  Cmb.  I.W.  Som.  [akou-ld, 
skoud.]     Cold. 

se.Wor.'  Be  yer  'cods  acaowd  ?  come  ether  an'  warm  um. 
Brks.'  I  be  a-veelin  acawld.  Cmb.  ( M.  J.B.)  I.W.'  Acoolde,  very 
cold.      w.Som.^  I  be  a-cold  sure  'nongh  z-mornin. 

[A-  {prcf.'^°)  +  cold.  This  word  is  sometimes  used  as  a 
quasi-archaic  word  by  the  poets  of  the  19th  cent. :  The 
owl  for  all  his  feathers  was  a-coid,  Keats  St.  Ai^nvs'  Eve. 
The  word  is  best  known  (rom  its  occurrence  in  Shaks., 
Tom's  a-cold,  A'.  Lccii;  in.  iv. 59.  ME.  Tlnis  lay  this  pouer 
in  great  distrcsse  Acolde  and  hongry  at  the  gate,  Gower 
C.  A.  III.  35.  Perhaps  the  rcpr.  of  OE.  acolod,  pp.  oiacoliait, 
to  cool.) 

ACORN,  sb.     Lan.  Chs.  Lin.  Lei.  War.  Wor.  Hrf  Hmp. 

1.  In  phr.  rii^lit  as  an  acorn,  honest,  fair;  sound  as  an 
fffo/'«,  without  a  flaw,  free  from  imperfection;  a  red  pig 
for  an  acorn  ;  a  horse  foaled  by  an  acorn,  the  gallows. 

Lan.  Come,  aw  think  o's  reet  an'  square.  Reet  as  a  hatch-horn, 
Waugh  jy«o;ii /Jfii  (,1865)  i ;  Lan.^  Lan.  An' seaundas  an  achurn, 
Brierley  Jingo  (1878)  9.  Chs.'  As  sound  as  a  atchern.  w.Wor.' 
*  As  sound  as  an  ackern  '  is  a  local  proverb,  applied  to  everything 
from  a  horse  to  a  nut.  Hrf.2  Chs.'  A  red  pig  for  a  atchern. 
Slang.  A  horse  foaled  by  an  acorn,  the  gallows,  Grose  Diet.  Vnlg. 
Tang.  (181 1),  (Farmer^;  As  pretty  a  Tyburn  blossom  as  ever  was 
brought  up  to  ride  a  horse  foaled  by  an  acorn,  Lytton  Pdlmui  (^1827) 

Hence,  of  pigs,  Yackery,  adj.,  q.v. 

2.  Coinp.  Acorn-mast,  acorns,  or  acorns  mixed  with  inast ; 
Acorn-tree,  the  oak. 

Hmp.  Akermast,  a  collective  name  for  acorns  and  mast,  'Wise 
A'<K'  Forest  ( 1883 1  82  ;  Hmp.'  n.Lin.  Acorn-tree,  Qiiercus  Robur; 
n.Lin.',  Lei.',  War.^ 

ACORN,  t/.  Chs.  War.  Shr.  Hrf  Brks.  Sur.  Hmp.  Wil. 
Also  written  ackern  War. ;  yacorn,  atcliorn  Hrf  ;  see  be- 
low. To  pick  up  acorns ;  to  feed  on  acorns.   Usually  in  prp. 

Chs.';  Chs. 2  The  pigs  are  gone  o'  aitchorning;  Chs.^  To  go 
atchOrning  is  to  go  picking  up  acorns.  s.Chs.'  I've  sent  the 
children  a-alchernin.  War.  (J.R.W.)  Shr.'  The  childcrn  bin 
gwun  achernin;  Shr.^The  pigs  gwcen  a  akkering  [or  o'  aitchorn- 
ing). Hrf.'  ;  Hrf.2  Measter's  got  17  on  'em  out  a  3'acorning  [i.e. 
pigs  in  the  woods].  Brks.' When  the  acorns  fall  pigs  are  turned 
into  the  woods  a.nykernin.  Sur.'  Pigs  when  turned  out  in  the 
autumn  are  said  to  be  akyring.  Hmp.'  The  children  be  all  gone 
akering.  Wil.  The  old  country  proverb,  '  Ah,  well,  we  shall  live 
till  we  die,  if  the  pigs  don't  eat  us,  and  then  we  shall  go  acorning,' 
Jefferies  Hdgiow.  1  18891  65. 

Hence  Akering-tinie. 

Hmp.'  Akering-time,  the  autumn,  when  acorns  fall,  and  ar'e 

ACO'W,  adv.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Also  written  acaw  N.Cy.' 
[akau.]     Crooked,  askew,  awry  ;  alsoy?4f. 

N.Cy.'  n.Yks.  Hisshoes  is  trodden  a-cow  J.  W.);  n.Yks.*  A-cow, 
on  one  side,  twisted.     His  mind's  a-cow,  he  is  crotchety. 

[A-,  on  4  cozv;  see  Cow,  v.] 

ACQUAINT,  ppl.  adj.  Sc.  n.Irel.  LMa.  [akwe'nt.] 

Sc.  He  is  wcel  acquent  wi'  a'  the  smugglers,  thieves,  and  banditti, 
Scott  Midlothian  (,1818)  xv.      Inv.  Acquent,  acquainted  (H.E.F.). 

Ayr.  John  Anderson  my  jo,  John,  When  we  were  first  acquent, 
BuRNsyo/iH  AttdersoH.  Gall.  The  lassie  micht  no  be  acquant  wi' 
the  name,CROCKEn\6i)jf-M'i//f  I  1895, 173.  N  I.'  I'm  well  acquant 
with  all  his  people.  LMa.  But  James  and  me  Was  well  acquent, 
Browne  Doctor  {i9&-[ ]  28. 

(ME.  aqneynt.  With  such  love  be  no  more  aqueynt,  Rom. 
Rose,  5200.    AFr.  aijueynt.    OEr.  acoint.  personally  known.] 

ACQUAINTANCE,  sb.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo. 
[akwentsns.J     A  sweetheart. 

War.2,  s.Wor.'  Shr.'  •  Molly,  do  you  know  that  Miss  F —  is 
going  to  be  married  ? '  '  Well,  sir,  1  thought  i  sid  'er  00th  an 
acc|ualntance.'     Hrf.^,  Glo.' 

ACQUAINTED,  ppl.  adj.  Rut.  Hrf  Nrf  [akwentid, 
-ad.]     To  be  ac(}iiai>ited,  to  be  '  keeping  compan)-.' 

Rut.'  Acquaijited,  in  the  first  stage  of  courting.  Hrf.'  They've 
been  acquauited  a  good  while.  Nrf.  Acquented  with,  engaged 
to  be  marrie<l  1  K.  M.). 

ACRAZED,//.    n.Yks.     [skrezd.] 

n.Yks.2  A-craz"d.  wrong-headed. 

[From  OFr.  acraser  (mod.  e'crascr'),  to  break  in  pieces. 
The  E.  craze  is  probably  an  aphetic  form  of  rtc/w^c] 

ACRE,  sb.  Various  tlial.  uses  in  Great  Britain  and  Irel. 
See  below,     [ekafr),  ea'kalrl,  yakair).] 

1.  Any  piece  of  land,  arable  or  tilled,  a  field  ;  chiefly  con- 
fined to  names  of  fields,  whatever  their  extent  may  be. 

w.Yks.'  .'\cker,  flnemould.  Nhp.^  Fields  of  much  larger  extent 
than  an  acre  are  called  by  this  name.asGreen's-yacker,  Rush-yacre. 
Nrf.  Acre,  a  field,  as  Castle  Acre  in  Norfolk    K.). 

2.  A  measure  of  land,  ditVcring  in  various  parts  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  from  the  normal  statutable  piece  of 
40  poles  long  by  4  broad  =  4840  sq.  yds.  This  variation 
sometimes  coincides  with  the  ditfcrent  nature  of  the  crop, 
lie,  which  the  land  yields. 

Sc  A  Scotch  acre  commonly  =  6084  square  yards.  Robertson 
Agric.  ill  Per.  (1799)  (N.E.D.);  The  Scotch  acre  was  nearly  one 
acre,  one  rood,  two  perches  of  Eng.  measure,  Libr.  Agric,  (1830). 
Ir.  121  Irish  acres  do  make  196  English  statute  acres.  Petty  Pol. 
Anal.  (1691)  52.  Wm.  The  acre  [has]  6760  jards  vC.  D.).  s.Lan. 
Chs.'  The  acre  is  10.240  sq.  yards,  and  is  still  in  constant  use 
amongst  farmers,  especially  in  the  northern  half  of  the  county, 
and  in  s.  Lan.  Chs.  land  measure  is  as  follows  : — 64  square  yards 
=  I  rood  (i.e.  rod),  40  roods  =  i  quarter.  4  quarters  =  i  acre.  Lin. 
Among  the  customary  English  acres  are  found  .  .  .  200  [perches] 
for  copj'hold  land  (CD.).  Lei.  The  acre  has  2308 j  yards  i,C. D.\ 
Wales.  A  Welsh  acre  is  usually  two  English  acres.  Wohlidgk 
Syst.  Agric.  (1681);  In  Wales  difterent  measures,  the  crw.  the 
stang,  the  p.iladr,  are  called  acres  vC.D.).  Cor.  [5760  yards]  l.ibr. 
Agric-,  (,1830).  Var.  dial.  An  acre  sometimes  is  estimated  by  the 
proportion  of  seed  used  on  it  ;  and  so  varies  according  to  the 
richness  or  sterility  of  the  land,  Worliuge  Syst.  Agric.  (1681) 
321.  Among  the  customary  English  acres  are  found  measures 
of  the  following  numbers  of  perches  — 80  or  90  (of  hops\  107,  no, 
120  (shut  acre),  130,  132,  134,  141,  t8o  (forest  acre),  aia,  256  lof 
wood    (;C.  D.). 

3.  A  lineal  measure. 

Not.  Acre  is  28  yards  running  measure  (W.W.S."!. ;  Not.'  The 
word  *  acre '  is  occasionally  usetl  by  elderly  men  here  instead  of 
'  chain' — 22  yards— for  the  measurement  of  hedging  and  ditching, 
but  it  is  not  in  common  use,  nor  is  it  known  as  a  lineal  measure 
by  the  majority  of  country  people  in  this  district.  n.Lin.'  Acre,  a 
measure  of  length.  An  acre-length.  40  poles  or  a  furlong.  An 
acre-breadth.  4  poles  or  22  yards.  Midi.  Acre,  a  species  of  long 
measure,  consisting  of  32  yards;  four  roods.  Marshall  Rur. 
Ecoii  1 1790)  II.  Lei.  Acre  is  24  yds.  running  measure  (W.W.S.) ; 
Lei.'  In  addition  to  ils  ordinary  meaning,  [acre]  is  used  as  a 
measure  of  length  in  two  distinct  senses.  In  one  it  is  equal  to 
220  yards  :  in  the  other  it  is  equal  to  four  rods  of  8  yards,  or  3a 
yards.  In  measurements  of  hedging,  ditching,  and  draining  it  is 
.  .  .  used  in  the  latter  sense. 

4.  In  Ins  acres. 

Cor.'  In  his  acres,  in  his  glory. 

5.  Coinp.  Acre-breadth,  sec  3 ;  Acker-dale,  applied  to 
land  apportioned  in  acre  strips  ;  Acre-length,  see  3 ; 
-mould,  finely  tilled  earth,  see  1 ;  -painting,  easy  paint- 
ing of  which  a  great  quantity  can  be  quickly  done; 
-stones,  field  stones,  see  1 ;   -tax,  see  below. 

Sc.  Wad  Phillis  loo  me.  Phillis  soud  possess  Sax  acre-braid  o' 
richest  pasture  grass. /V</r»i  Poems  (1788)  104  (Jam.);  Gillmer- 
toune  .  .  .  being  all  of  it  acker-dale  land,  Somervills  Mem.  (1815) 




I,  i68  fjAM.).  N.Cy.'  Acker-dale  lands,  common  fields  in  which 
different  proprietors  liold  portions  of  greater  or  less  extent. 
Nhb.'  Acre-dale  or  acre-deal  lands,  land  apportioned  in  acre  strips. 
n.Lin.' Acre-length.  w.Yks.' A  nice  birk-at  grew  atop  o'  th' 
Ealand,  on  some  acker  moud ;  w.Yks.  Ah'm  dewin'  a  bit  o'  acre- 
paintin'  (,iE.B.").  nw.Dev.'  Acre-stones,  loose  stones,  such  as  are 
picked  up  in  fields.  n.Lin.'  Acre-tax,  a  draining  tax  on  the  An- 
cholme  Level  [for  maintaining  sea-banks]. 

Hence  Ackery,  adj.  abounding  in  finely  tilled  earth. 

■w.Yks.'  Ackery,  abounding  with  fine  mould. 

[OE.  cfcer,  field -K/(t7,  a  portion,  share.] 

ACRE,  V.  So.  To  make  payment  at  a  fixed  rate  per 
acre  the  basis  of  any  transaction,  esp.  to  pay  labourers 
at  this  rate  to  gather  the  harvest  in.  Of  a  labourer:  to 
work  under  these  conditions. 

Sc.  Acre,  Ackre,  Aikur.  to  buy,  sell,  let.  deal,  or  work  ...  at  a 
fixed  rate  per  acre  (Jam.  Suppl.X  Bnfif.'  Ma  ain  servan's  are  nae 
t'wirk  at  the  hairst  wark  this  hairst :  a'm  gain'  t'ackre  'ta'.  A'm 
nae  gain  t'fee  this  hairst:  a'm  t'ackre. 

Hence  Acrer,  one  who  acres ;  Acreing,  the  act  of 
harvesting  grain-crops  at  a  stated  sum  per  acre. 

Bnff.'  Ackrer,  one  who  undertakes  to  harvest  crops  at  a  fixed 
sum  per  acre.      Sc.  Acrein',  Ackrin' (Jaivi.  5k/>/>/.).     Bn£f.' Ackran. 

ACRE,  see  Icker. 

ACRE-A-BUNG,  sh.    S.  or  Ork. 

S.  or  Ork.  Acre-a-bung,  fog  grass,  holciis  mollis  (Coll.  L.  L. B.). 

ACRER,  sb.     s.Sc.     A  very  small  proprietor  (Jam.). 

s.Sc.  The  provincial  name  of  acrerers,  portioners,  and  feuars, 
Agr.  Skit.  R.rb.  15  (Jam."). 

ACRIMONY,  sb.  Lei.  War.  [akrimoni.]  The  deli- 
quescence of  putrefying  animal  matter. 

Lei.'  The  acrimony  run  out  o'  the  jintes  o'  the  coffin  all  down  me. 

[The  effect  of  the  acrimony  of  the  putrid  blood,  Aber- 
NETHV  (N.E.D.).] 

ACROOKED,  adj.  Yks.  Lan.  Also  written  acreeak't 
n.Yks. ;  acreak'd  ne.Lan.'  [skriukt,  akrukt.j  Crooked, 
twisted,  awry,  askew. 

n.Yks.2  A-crewk"d.  e.Yks.' Acrevvkt,  askew.  w.Yks.  Thi  billy- 
cock's akrewkt !  (^.B.");  w.Yks.'  Acrook'd,  awry.       neian.' 

[A-  {pref}°)  -f  crooked^ 

ACROSPIRE,  sb}  w.Yks.  Also  written  accaspire.  A 
kind  of  stone. 

w.Yks.  Accaspire,  a  sort  of  hard  stone  containing  particles  of 
flint,  Hlfx.  Wds. ;  Accaspire,  Acrospire,  Acklespire,  Ochrcspire, 
used  in  Halifax  district,  to  denote  hard  nodules  of  unworkable 
stone,  occasionally  met  with  in  the  rock  of  the  lower  coal-measures 
from  which  the  Yorkshire  stone  is  quarried.  Called  Iron-stone 
round  Bradford  <  W.H.V.). 

[Etym.  unknown.] 

ACROSPIRE,  sb?-  Sc.  n.Cy.  Lan.  Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Nhp. 
e.An.  Also  in  the  form  ackerspritN.Cy.'Der.'Lan.';  acre- 
spire  n.Lin.' Nhp.' Nrf.'Suf.'  [a'kr3spaie(r),a'k3spai3(r).] 

1.  The  sprouting  of  corn  ;  esp.  of  barley  in  the  process  of 

Sc.  When  [barley]  shoots  at  the  higher  extremity  of  the  grain 
...  it  is  the  acherspyre  that  forms  the  stalk  (Jam.).  N.Cy.'  Der.' 
Corn  shooting  at  both  ends  ;  Der.''  nXin.'  The  sprout  of  corn 
before  the  ears  come  forth.  Nlip.'  We  restrict  the  use  of  this 
word  to  the  germ  of  barley  in  the  process  of  malting — the  chitting 
or  sprouting  at  that  end  of  the  grain  from  which  the  stalk  rises. 
e.An.'  Acre-spire,  or  Acre-spit,  the  sprouting  or  'chicking'  of  barley 
in  malting.  Nrf.'  The  sprouting  of  barley.  Suf.'  The  sprouting  or 
chicking  of  barley  in  the  process  of  germinating  into  malt. 

2.  Of  potatoes  or  turnips  :  premature  sprouting. 

n.Cy.  Ackersprit.a  potato  with  roots  at  both  ends,  Grose  (1790'); 
N.Cy.'  The  premature  sprouting  of  a  potato.  Lan.'  A  potato, 
turnip,  or  other  root,  with  roots  at  both  ends.  Stf.'  Akerspirl  [s(V], 
the  shoot  of  a  potato.  e.An.'  Acre-spire,  or  Acre-spit,  the  sprout- 
ing or  'chicking'  of .  .  .  stored  potatoes. 

[1.  Acherspyre,  in  making  of  Malt  . .  .  Dicitur  de  hordeo, 
ubi  in  praeparalione  \!>vvt]i  sen  Biasii  iiinitiaii,  Sr'  ab  ulraqne 
exirmiitate,  geniiinai,  Skinner  (167 i)  L  111  2.  Cp.  John- 
son :  Acrospire,  a  shoot  or  sprout  from  the  end  of  seeds 
before  they  are  put  in  the  groimd  ('  Many  corns  will  smilt 
or  have  their  pulp  turned  into  a  substance  like  thick  cream, 
and . . .  send  forth  their  substance  in  an  acrospire,'  Mortimer 

Hiisbanaty).    Etym.  doubtful.     Prob.  spire  repr.  OE.  spjr, 
a  spike,  blade. 

ACROSPIRE,  V.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Chs.  Wor.  Shr.  Suf.  Also 
written  ackerspier  N.Cy.'';  ackerspyre  Chs.';  ackerspire 

1.  Of  barley  in  the  process  of  malting :  to  send  out  the 
first  leaf-shoot. 

Sc.  Barley  is  said  to  acherepyre  when  it  shoots  at  the  higher 
extremity  of  the  grain,  from  which  the  stalk  springs  up  (see  Come). 
In  the  operation  of  malting,  ...  it  shoots  first  at  the  lower  end,  a 
considerable  time  before  it  achetspyres  (Jam. V  N.Cy.'  For  want 
of  turning,  when  the  malt  is  spread  on  the  floor,  it  comes  and 
sprouts  at  both  ends,  which  is  called  to  acrospyre,  Mortimer 
Husbandly;  N.Cy.'^  Used  when  the  blade  in  mault  growes  out  at  the 
opposite  end  to  the  roote.  Nlib.'  Cum.'  When  the  malting  pro- 
cess is  too  long  continued  and  both  root  and  sprout  are  visible,  the 
barley  is  yakkerspired  and  injured  for  malting.      Chs.'^s 

2.  Of  potatoes :  to  sprout  or  put  forth  fresh  tubers  pre- 

w.Wor.'      Shr.'  I  doubt  the  tittoes'll  ackerspire  wuth  this  wet. 

Hence  Ackerspired,  Ackersprit, />/>/.  adj.  having  sprouts 
or  acrospires. 

Chs.'  Potatoes  are  said  to  be  ackersprit  when  the  axillary  buds 
on  the  stem  grow  into  small  green  tubers,  as  is  often  the  case  in 
wet  seasons ;  Chs.'^ ;  Chs.^  The  potatoes  were  very  generally 
ackersprit.  s.Clis.'  Shr.'  Potatoes  are  ackerspired,  when  after 
a  dry  season  heavy  rain  sets  in,  and  the  super-abundant  moisture 
causes  them  to  put  forth  new  tubers,  instead  of  increasing  them  in 
size,  thus  spoiling  the  growth.     Suf.'  Acre-sprit. 

ACROSS,  prep,  and  adv.  Yks.  Lin.  Brks.  Dev.  Also 
written  acrass  Brks.'     [akro's.] 

1.  prep.   Of  time  :  about. 

e.Yks.'  He  awlas  cums  across  tea  time. 

2.  adv.  On  bad  terms,  unfriendly,  at  variance. 

e.Yks.' Jim  an  rae's  rayther  across  just  noo,  MS.  add.  (T.  H.) 
sw.Lin.' They'd  gotten  a  little  bit  across.  Brks.' Gaarge  an' his 
brother  hev  a-bin  a  bit  acraas  laaytely. 

3.  Hence,  to  fall,  get  across,  to  disagree,  quarrel. 

Dev. '  Why.  pity  on  us ! '  said  a  little  cattle-jobber  with  a  squint, 
'  when  folks  who  look  straight  before  them  fall  across,  how  am 
I  to  keep  straight  with  my  eyes  askew  ? '  Baring-Gould  Spider 
(1887)  vii  :  The  two  who  have  got  across,  ib. 

ACROUPED, ppl.  adj.     Dor.     [akriipt]     Crouched. 

Dor.  [The  pheasants]  are  acroupied  down  nearly  at  the  end  of 
the  bough,  Hardy  IVoodlaiiders  (1887)  I.  ix. 

[OFr.  s'accroiipir,  to  crouch  :  Lcs  ponies  s' accroupissent 
pour  doniiir.] 

ACT,  sb.    w.Yks.    A  practical  joke  ;  cf.  act,  v.  2. 

w.Yks.  Thowt  he'd  bed  a  act,  Dewsbie  Olin   (1865")  4. 

ACT,  V.  Irel.  Yks.  Stf.  Der.  Not.  'Wor.  Oxf.  Brks.  Cmb. 
Suf  Ess.  Ken.  I.W.  Som.  Cor.     [akt,  aekt.] 

1.  To  do,  perform  (usually  the  action  is  of  a  reprehensible 

s.Stf.  Wot  bin  yer  actin'  at  wi  my  teuls !  (T.P.)  s.Wor. 
(F.W.M.W.)  w.Som.'  Haut  bee  aa-kteen  oa?  [What  are  you 

2.  Hence,  to  act  mischievously ;  to  tease,  play  tricks  ;  to 
act  OH  (?  of)  //,  to  do  wrong. 

s.Not.  Act,  to  behave  skittishly.  A  driver  will  say  to  a  skittish 
horse,  'Now  then,  what  are  yer  acting  at?'  (J.P.K.)  Brks.' 
2o  you  bwoys  hev  a-bin  actin  on't  agin,  hev  'e  ?  Suf.  Don't  act 
[of  a  person,  or  animal,  such  as  a  horse,  creating  a  disturbance 
or  acting  in  an  unusual  manner]  (C.T.);  Leave  off  acting  with  me 
(,F.H.).       I.W.2  Act,  to  play  tricks. 

3.  To  set  about  any  work. 

nw.Der.'  Act,  to  '  shape'  or  '  frame,'  either  (i)  at  a  particular  job 
of  work  ;  or  (,2)  at  the  duties  of  a  new  situation  or  calling.  How 
docs  he  act?  —  O,  very  weel.     Ess.  Gl.  (1851). 

4.  To  behave  in  an  affected  or  artificial  manner ;  to 
'  show  off.' 

Hrf.2  Acting  (of  children),  showing  off.  Oxf.'  Thar  Mary  do 
act,  sence  'er  'a  lived  at  Oxford.       LW.*  Dedn't  he  jest  about  act. 

5.  To  pretend,  simulate  ;  to  act  lame,  to  sham  lameness ; 
in  this  sense  in  gen.  use. 

Brks.'  w.Som.'  Ee  aa-k  bae'ud  un  zoa  dhai  lat  un  goo  [he  pre- 
tended to  be  ill,  and  so  they  let  him  go].  [Of  an  old  dog  which 
was  going  along  limping]  He  idn  on'y  acting  lame;  he  always 
do,  lion  he  reckonth  he've  ado'd  enough. 




6.  To  act  Dan' I,  to  keep  one's  own  counsel,  to  '  lie  low '; 
to  act  about,  to  act  oneself,  to  piny  tlie  fool. 

s.Stf.  He  could  liardly  help  lolliii'  out,  but  he  kep  on  actin  Dan'l 
all  thru,  PiNNOCK  Bli  Cv.  Aim.  (18951.  Ken.'  He  got  actingabout, 
and  fell  down  and  broke  his  leg.  w.Cor.  He  was  tipsy  and  acting 
himself  fine  iM.A.C). 

Hence  Acting,  vbl.  sb. ;  gossoons'  acting,  children's  play, 
or  'make-believe.'  Action,  sb.  unruly  or  'skittish'  be- 
haviour, pretence,  conceits,  see  2,  4. 

w.Yks.  Drop  your  acting,  and  come  here  (F.M.L.).  s.Not. 
A  mother  will  s.\v  to  a  wilful  child  '  .Slop  that  acting,  .Tnd  be  off 
to  bed  with  yer  like  a  good  gell '  J.P.K.V  Cmb.  None  of  your 
acting  [rough  behaviour]  (J.D.K.V  Oxf.' Na  then!  lens  'a  no 
actin'.  Ir.  It's  only  gossoons' actin'.  Suf.  None  of  your  actions 
(C.T.^.      Cor.  He's  like  a  merry  antic  full  of  his  actions  l,M.A.C.). 

ACTIONABLE,  ailj.  Cum.  [akjanabl.]  Of  a  horse  : 
having  good  action,  agile. 

Cum.  A  nice  actionable  pony  (M.P.). 

ACTION  SERMON,  sb.  Sc.  The  designation  com- 
monly given  in  Sc.  to  the  sermon  which  precedes  the 
celebration  of  the  ordinance  of  the  Supper  (Jam.). 

Sc.  I  returned  home  about  seven,  and  adtiressed  myself  to  write 
my  action  sermon.  Irving  1825)  in  Oliphant  Z.//f,  I.  .\i.  Per. 
About  the  middle  of  the  'action'  sermon,  Ian  Maclaren  BiierBush 
(1895)  57- 

AD,  see  Od. 

ADAM-AND-EVE,  sb.     [adsm-aniv.T 

1.  A  name  applied  to  several  plants:  (i)  Aconitiim  uapel- 
liis  (Nrf.) ;  (2)  Anim  maculatuin.  Cuckoo-pint  (Yks.  Lin. 
Lei.  Soni.);  (3)  Orchis  mascitla  iSom.  Dev.  Cor.};  (4)  Ptil- 
monaria  officinalis  (Cum.  Wm.  limp.). 

(i  Nrf.  Adam  and  Eve,  Acotiititui  ttaf>flhi$.  On  lifting  the  hood  of 
the  flower,  the  upper  petals  appear  as  two  little  figures.  :  21  n.Yks. 
Adam-and-Eve.  The  dark  spadices  represent  Adam,  and  the  light 
ones  Eve.  n.Lin.'  Lei.*  Adam  and  Eve,  lords  and  ladies,  the 
flower  of  the  Anint  ttiaculatiiiii.  w.Som.'  (3)  lb.  Adam  and  Eve, 
the  plant  wild  orchis—  O.  masrula.  Dev.  Adam  and  Eve,  the  male 
and  female-handed  orchis,  if  I  conceive  rightlj'.  Monthly  Mag. 
(1808)  II.  421.  Cor.  The  dark  flower-spikes  represent  Adam,  and 
the  pale  ones  Eve.  w.Cor.  iM.A.C.)  (4)  Cum.  Adam-and-Eve, 
Pulittottaria  officinalis:  from  the  tvvo-colouretl  flowers.  Wm.'  The 
flowers  are  red  and  blue,  and  the  country  folk  call  the  red  Adam 
and  the  blue  Eve.  Hmp.  Lungwort,  called  Adam-and-Eve  by  gipsies 
and  others  about  the  New  Forest,  no  doubt  from  the  two  colours 
in  its  flowers  (G.  E.  D.'). 

2.  The  tubers  of  Orchis  ntactilala  (Yks.  Lan.  LMa.  Nhp.) ; 
the  tubers  of  Orchis  masciila  (?)  (Nhb.). 

w.Yks.'  Adam  and  Eve,  the  bulbs  of  Oirhis  tnaciilafn,  which  have 
a  fancied  resemblance  to  the  human  figure.  One  uf  these  floats  in 
the  water,  which  nourishes  the  stem,  the  other  sinks  and  bears  the 
bud  for  the  ne.xt  year.  ne.Lan.'  I. Ma.  The  tubers  of  O.  tiiaatlatn 
(spotted  orchis).  Nhp.'  The  two  bulbs  of  the  O.  uiaculatn.  one  of 
which  nourishes  the  existing  plant,  the  other  the  succeeding  one. 
Nhb.'  Adam  and  Eve,  the  tubers  of  O.  lalifolia;  the  tuber  which  sinks 
being  Adam  and  that  which  swims  being  Eve.  Cain  and  Abel  is 
another  name  for  these  tubers,  Cain  being  the  heavy  one.  Johnston 
Bot.  e.  Boyd.  (1853)  193.     (Prob.  meant  for  O.  inascnla.  B.  &  H.) 

3.  A  particular  pair  of  legs  in  a  shrimp  (Lin.  Wor.  Ess.). 
n.Lin.'  Adam  and  Eve,  a  particular  pair  of  legs  in  a  shrimp,  so 

called  from  a  fancied  resemblance  to  two  human  figures  standing 
opposite  to  one  another.  Wor.  (J.  W.  P.)  Ess.  Tlicre's  an  Adam 
and  Eve  in  every  brown  shrimp,  BARiNt;-GouLD  iT/f/;rt/r/// 1^885)296. 

ADAM'S  ALE,  sb.  Dial,  slang  in  gen.  use.  [a-damz-el, 
-eal.]     Water. 

Var.  dial.  Holloway. 

[A  Rechabite  poor  Will  must  live,  And  drink  of  Adam's 
ale,  Pruik  Wandering  Pilgrim  (IIav.).J 

ADAMS  FLANNEL,  s6.  [adamz-flanil.]  A  plant- 
name  applied  to  (1)  Difisacus  sylncstris  (Lei.);  (2)  I'cr- 
basciim  thapsus  (Yks.  Chs.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.). 

Lei.  Adams  flannel,  teasel.  (2)  w.Yks.' Adam's  flannel,  white 
mullein,  Verhascuin  thapstts.  It  may  have  obtained  this  name  from 
the  soft  white  hairs  with  which  the  leaves  are  thickly  clothed  on 
both  sides.  Clis.'  ^,  n.Lin.'  Nhp.'  Adam's  flannel,  great  mullein. 
•War.  (J. R.W.I 

ADAM'S  NEEDLE,  sb.  Nhb.  [adamz-nldl.]  A  plant- 
name  ;  Scandi.x  peclen  veneris,  so  called  from  the  long 
needle-like  fruits. 

Nhb.'  Edom's  needle,  Adam's  needle,  or  Shepherd's  needle,  the 
Siandi.v  pectcn  venciis.  Called  also  Witch's  needle,  and  Dcil's 
darnin  needle. 

ADAM'S  WINE,  56.  Dial,  slang  in  ,ij-^«. use.  [adamz- 
wain.]  Water.  A  cant  phrase  for  water  as  abeveragel  Jam.). 

n.Lin.'     w.Som.' Adam's  wine,  water,  never  called  Adam's  ale. 

ADAPTED,  ppl.  adj.  Hmp.  [adaeptad.]  Accustomed 
to,  experienced. 

Hmp.'  A  man  adapted  to  pigs,  i.e.  experienced  in  the  breeding 

and  care  of  swine. 

ADASHED,  ppl.  adj.    Yks.    [ada-Jt.]     Put  to  shame. 

m.Yks.'  I  felt  fair  [quite]  adashcd. 

[Adashcd,  ashamed,  Coles  (1677).] 

ADAWDS,  (i(/f.  Obs.  Yks.  Also  written  adauds.  In 

Yks. '  To  rive  all  adauds,'  to  tear  all  in  pieces  (K.).  n.Yks.  Isc 
seaur  weese  rive  up  all  adawds,  Meriton  Praise  Ale  (.^i6ld^)  I.  104. 

[A-,  on  +daii'd,  q.v.] 

A-DAYS,  adv.  Obs.  e.An.  and  var.  dial.  At  present, 

e.An  '  Flour  sells  cheap  a-days.  I  seldom  see  Mr.  Smith  a-d.iys  ; 
e.An.2  I  never  heard  this  won!  used,  as  given  by  Forby,  in  either 
Norfolk  or  Suffolk.  Var.  dial.  A-days,  now,  abbreviation  of  now- 
a-days,  Hollowav. 

[In  TooNE  (1834)  s.v.  A,  the  word  adays  is  cited  among 
other  words  containing  the  pref.  a-,  in  which  it  is  stiU 
retained  by  the  vulgar.] 

ADBUT,  see  Headbut. 

ADDER,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Lin.  Shr. 
Wil.  Cor.  Also  written  ather,  edder,  ether;  see  below. 
[a-da(r),  also  e-da(r),  etSa(r).] 

1.  In  dial.,  besides  the  usual  meaning  of  adder,  the  use  of 
the  word  is  extended  to  any  kind  of  snake. 

Shr.'^  Edder,  ether,  of  general  application  for  any  kind  of  snake. 

Conip.  Adder-bead,  the  stone  supposed  to  be  formed  by 
adders  (Jam.)  ;  -broth,  brotli  made  from  the  flesh  of  an 
adder;  -pike,  the  fish  Tracliinus  vipera  (CD.);  -stone,  a 
perforated  stone  (see  below) ;  -stung,  bitten  by  an  adder ; 
-thing,  a  serpent. 

Dmf.  [Adders  are  said  to]  assemble  to  the  amount  of  some  hun- 
dreds in  a  certain  time  of  summer,  to  cast  off  their  sloughs  and 
renew  their  age.  They  cntwist  and  writhe  themselves  among 
each  other  until  they  throw  off  their  last  year's  sloughs,  half 
melted  by  their  exertions.  These  arc  collected  and  plastered  over 
with  frothy  saliva,  and  again  wrought  to  and  fro  till  they  are  con- 
densed and  shaped  into  an  adder  bead.  Rent.  Nithsdale  Sng.  iir 
(Jam.).  n.Lin.'  Helherd-broth,  a  broth  made  of  the  flesh  of  an 
adder  boiled  with  a  chicken.  A  specific  for  consumption.  It  was 
till  about  fifty  years  ago  the  custom  for  certain  wanderers  to  come 
yearly  during  the  hot  weather  of  summer  from  the  West  Country 
(q.v.)  to  search  on  the  sand-hills  for  hetherds  which  they  said  they 
sold  to  the  doctors  for  the  purpose  of  making  hetherd-broth.  Sc. 
Adder-stane,  the  same  as  adder-bead  (Jam.).  The  glass  amulets  or 
ornaments  are,  in  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland,  called  adder-stanes, 
ToLAND  Hist.  0/ Druids  (ed.  1814)  Lett.  I.  §  i6  Jam.).  Rnf.  [A 
family  was]  in  possession  of  a  so-called  adder-stone  and  four 
Druidical  beads,  some  of  which,  or  all  conjunctively,  had  been 
efficacious  in  curing  various  complaints,  but  more  particularly  those 
in  cattle.  .  .  .[The  adder-stone]  is  not  unlike,  in  form  and  size,  to 
the  whorls  which,  in  conjunction  with  the  distaff,  were,  only  a 
century  or  two  ago.  in  general  use  in  spinning  yarns,  A^.  &Q.  (187a) 
4th  S.  ix.  155.  N.Cy.' Adder-stone,  also  called  self-bored  stone; 
a  perforated  stone  —  the  perforation  imagined  by  the  vulgar  to  be 
made  by  the  sting  of  an  adder.  Nhb.  A  charm'd  sword  he  wears, 
Of  adderstone  the  hilt.  Richardson  Borderer's  Tabk-bk.  (1846) 
VII.  164  ;  Nhb.'  Adder-stjen,  a  stone  with  a  hole  through  it  [hung 
behind  doors  and  in  fishing  boats  as  a  charm].  And  vain  Lord 
Soulis's  sword  was  seen.  Though  the  hilt  was  adderstone.  The 
Colli  of  Kecldar.  n.Yks.^  Addcrstceans,  the  perforated  fragments 
of  grey  alum  shale,  the  round  holes  [of  which]  tradition  assigns  to 
the  sting  of  the  adder.  As  lucky  stones  they  are  hung  to  the 
street  door-key,  for  prosperity  to  the  house  and  its  inmates,  just 
as  the  horse-shoe  is  nailed  at  the  entrance  for  the  same  purpose. 
Suspended  in  the  stables,  as  are  also  the  holed  Hints  that  are  met 
with,  they  prevent  the  witches  riding  the  horses,  and  protect  the 
animals  from  illness.  n.Lin.'  Hetherd-stone,  that  is,  an  adder- 
stone, an  ancient  spindle  whorl.  It  is  still  believed  that  these 
objects  are  produced  by  adders,  and  that  if  one  of  them  be  sus- 
pended around  the  neck  it  will  cure  whooping-cough,  ague,  and 




adder  bites.  Iletlierd-stung,  bitten  by  an  adder.  When  a  swelling 
suddenly  arises  upon  any  animal  without  the  cause  being  known 
it  is  said  to  be  hethcrd-stung.  Hedgehogs  and  shrews  are  also 
said  to  bite  animals  and  produce  all  the  symptoms  of  the  '  sting  ' 
of  the  hetlierd.  Dur.  She  let  some  kind  ov  an  etherthing  venom 
'er,  Egglestone  Bclty  Podkius'  Let.  iiSTjj  8. 

[Adder-stung,  said  of  cattle  when  stung  with  venomous 
reptiles,  as  adders,  scorpions,  or  bit  by  a  hedge-hog  or 
shrew,  Bailey  (1721).] 

2.  A  slow-worm. 

Wil.  It  is  curious  that  in  places  where  blindworms  are  often  seen 
their  innocuous  nature  should  not  be  generally  known.  I'hey  are 
even  called  adders  sometimes,  Jefferies  Hdgrow.  (1889)  201. 

3.  A  newt. 

Cor.'  The  newt  is  so  called  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Mellion 
[e.Cor.]  ;  Cor.2  MS.  add. 

4.  A  dragon-fly,  or  large  fly ;  also  called  flying  adder,  &c. 

N.Cy.l  Tanging-naddcr.  Nllb.'  The  dragon-fly  is  called  Bull 
ether,  or  Fleein  ether,  flying  adder.  m.Yks.'  Ether,  a  large  light 
kind  of  fly.       e  Lan.'  Edtliei,  the  dragon-fly. 

Coiiip.  Ather-bill,  Adder-bolt,  -cap,  the  dragon-fly ; 
-feeder,  the  gad-fly  ;  -fly  (CD.),  -spear,  the  dragon-fly  ; 
Ether's  mon,  -nild,  a  large,  long-bodied  dragon-fly. 

CM.  Ather-bill  (Jam.).  Lan.  A  chapter  on  the  natural  history 
uv  cockroaches, edderbowts,  un  crickets,  Si  aton  B.  Sli utile Bowton^ 
64;  Lan. ^  It'll  sting  like  an  edder-bout.  Chs.'  Edther  Bowt,  the 
dragon-fly.  Fif.  Ather-,  or  natter-cap,  the  name  given  to  the  dragon- 
fly (Ja]\i.).  Chs.'  Edder  feeder,  a  common  name  for  the  gad-fly. 
[The  ploughboy  next  knocked  down  what  he  called  a  '  gurt  adder- 
spear,'  that  is,  a  dragon-fly,  Standard  (Aug.  23,  1887)  3.]  Shr.'  It 
is  believed  that  this  dragon-fly  \_Corditlegastcr  amiulatus]  indicates 
by  its  presence  the  vicinity  of  the  adder,  whence  its  local  names 
— Ether's-mon  and  Ether's-nild  [needle]. 

ADDER-AND-SNAKE  PLANT,  sb.  n.Dev.  Silme  ht- 
flata  (Bladder  Campion). 

ADDERCOP,  see  Attercop. 

ADDER'S  FERN,  sb.     Hmp.     Polypodium  viifgare. 

Hmp.  It  will  be  observed  that  most  of  the  plants  connected  with 
the  adder  appear  in  spring,  when  snakes  are  most  generally  seen  ; 
Hmp.'  Adder's-fern,  the  common  polypody  ;  so  called  from  its  rows 
of  briglit  spores. 

ADDER'S  FLOWER,  s5.  The  name  given  to  (i)Z,>'c/i«/s 
diiinia  (Hrt.)  ;  (2)  Orchis  tnascitla  (Hmp.). 

(2)  Hmp.  O.  mascula,  early  purple  orchis,  probably  from  the 
spotted  leaves  (G.  E.  D. ). 

ADDER'S  GRASS,  sb.  The  name  given  to  (i)  Orc/iis 
vinciila/a  (Nhb.)  ;  (2)  Oic/iis  iiiasciiia  (Nhb.  Chs.). 

Nhb.'  Adder-grass,  the  spotted  orchis,  O.  ttiaculata  ;  called  also 
Hens,  Hen's-kames,  and  Deed-man's  Hand.  (2]  Chs.' The  orchis 
which  Gerard  distinguishes  as  adder's  grass  is  O.  luasiiihi;  Chs.^ 

ADDER'S  MEAT,  sb.  A  name  given  to  several  plants, 
most  of  which  are  poisonous:  (1)  Aniin  iiiacnlatiiin  (Dev. 
Cor.);  (2)  Merciirialis pereiniis  (Wri.);  (3)  Stellaria  holostea 
(Cor.) ;  (4)  Tamils  coiiiinimis  (Som.  Dev.) ;  (5)  a  kind  of 
lern  (Som.). 

(i  Dev.*  Adder's  meat,  yfn(;;;»;rtf »/«/»»?,  applied,  not  to  the  spathe 
in  its  early  stages,  but  when  the  bright  red  colour  of  the  berries 
shows  itself.  The  same  name  is  applied  to  other  red  berries  .  .  . 
regarded,  whether  correctly  or  otherwise,  as  being  poisonous  ;  as 
for  example  the  fruit  of  Taunts  com  nntiits.  (5  1  Som.  Fern,  commonly 
known  as  Adder's  meat,  and  accordingly  feared  and  avoided  by 
country  children.  Pulman  Sketches  (1842). 

ADDER'S  POISON,  sb.     Dev.     Tamils  communis. 

n.Dev.  Adder's  poison,  Black  Briony.      Dev.* 

ADDER'S  SPEAR,  A'A.  Sur.  Sus.  OphiosrlossumTmlgaliiin. 

Sur.  &  Sus.  Adder's-spear  ointment  is  made  from  it  in  parts  of 
Sur.  and  Sus. 

ADDER'S  SPIT  or  ADDER-SPIT,  sb.  The  name  given 
to  ( I )  IViri.s  cujiiiliiia  (Sus.)  ;  (2)  Stellaria  holosica  (Cor.). 

ADDER'S  TONGUE,  si.  Also  written  edder- Cum.  The 
name  given  to  several  plants  :  (i)  Arum  maadatuni  (Som. 
Cor) ;  (2)  Geranium  Rubertianimi  (Ess.)  ;  (3)  Listera  ovata 
(Wil.) ;  (4)  Opitioglossimi  vulgalum  (Cum.  Dev.) ;  (5)  Orchis 
mascula  (Chs.);  (6)  Pleris  ai/iii/iiia  (Brks.)  ;  (7)  Sagittaria 
sagiWJolia  (Dev.) ;  (8)  Scolopendriiim  vul^are  (Dor.  Dev.). 

w.Som.'  Adder's  tongue,  wild  Mwm.A.  inaciilalum.  (,3  iWil.  The 
Tway-blade  is  at  Farley  Adder's  tongue.  Samm  Dioc.  Gas.  (Jan. 
iBgiJ  14,  col.  a;    Wil.'Adder's-tonguc,  Liiton  oj/a/a,  Twaybladc. 

(41  Cum.  Edder's-tongue,  Opliioglossitni  vtdgatuin.  Dev.*  (5")Chs.' 
(6)  Brks.'  The  leaf  of  the  common  bracken.  (^7)  Dev.*  The  old 
people  say  that  a  cupful  of  tea  every  day  made  of  nine  leaves  of 
this  plant  [^Sagiitayia  sagittifolia~\  ...  is  a  good  strengthening 
medicine.  (8)  Dor.  Adder's  tongue,  Scolopciidriuin  vulgare,  Hart's- 
tongue  (.G.E.D. ).      Dev.* 

ADDERWORT,  sA.    'Wil.     [je'dawst.] 

Wil.'  Addcrwort,  Pot\goiiiitii  bislorta,  bistort 

ADDICK,  sb.     Som".  Dev.     [se'dik.]     Adder. 

w.Sora.'  Whether  this  means  adder  or  haddock,  or  what  besides, 
I  do  not  know,  but  it  is  the  deafest  creature  known.  '  Su  dee'f-s 
u  ad-ik'is  the  commonest  superlative  of  deaf.  n.Dev.  Thart  so 
decve  as  a  haddick  in  chongy  weather,  E.iiii.  Scold.  (,1746)  1.  123. 
nw.Dev.'  Deeve's  a  addick. 

ADDhE,  sb.^  and  adj.  Sc.  and  widely  diffused  throughout 
the  Eng.  dial.     See  below,     [a'dl,  Nhb. ;   also  ya'dl,  e'dl.] 

1.  sb.  Putrid  or  stagnant  water ;  usually  in  comp.  Addle- 
dub,  -gutter,  -pool,  see  below. 

Sc.  AdiU,  Addle,  foul  and  putrid  water  (Jam.)  ;  Aidle,  ditch- 
water,  Mackay.  Ayr.  Then  lug  out  your  ladle,  Deal  brimstone 
like  adle,  And  roar  every  note  of  the  damn'd.  Burns  Kirk's  Alarm 
1 1 787V  Nhb.'  Eddie,  putrid  water  [applied  specially  to  the  liquid 
manure  drained  from  a  dunghill  (^R.O.H.)].  Sc.  Addle-dub,  a 
hole  full  of  foul  putrid  liquid.  He  kens  the  loan  frae  the  crown 
o'  the  causey  as  weel  as  the  duck  does  the  midden  hole  frae 
the  addle-dub,  Hendekson  Prov.  (1832)  76.  ed.  1881.  Dev.' The 
ale  was  worse,  ...  a  had  as  leve  drink  the  addle-gutter,  ii.  13. 
nw.Dev.'  Addle-gutter,  a  stagnant  or  putrid  gutter  or  pool ;  [as  in] 
Addle-gutter  mud.  s.Pem.  Addlcy  pulke,  a  stagnant  pool,  Laws 
Little  Eng.  (1888)  419.  s.Cy.  Addle-pool,  a  pool  or  puddle  near  a 
dunghill,  for  receiving  the  fluid  from  it  (Hall.).  Cor.  They  carr'ed 
Nick  hum  .  .  .  and  thrawed  un  in  the  addle  pool,  Tregellas  Talcs 
(1868188;    Cor.'2  Addle-pool,  a  cesspool. 

2.  Cf.  addle,  k.'  B. 

Rnf.  The  urine  of  black  cattle  (Jam.). 

3.  An  abscess  containing  pus, aswelling,tumour;  a  blister. 
Som.  Addle,  a  swelling  with  matter  in  it,  Jennings   Obs.  Dial. 

w.Eng.  (1825);  It  all  come  up  in  addles  [blisters]  (G  S  !.  w  Som.^ 
Ee-v  u-gaut  u  guurt  ad  '1  pun  uz  nak,  sa  beg-z  u  ain  ag  [he  has  a  great 
tumour  on  his  neck  as  large  as  a  hen's  egi^\ 

4.  adj.   Rotten,    putrid,   esp.   applied   to   a   decayed   or 
barren  egg ;  cf.  1. 

Cld.  Addle,  foul,  applied  to  liquid  substances  (Jam.).  Lan.Addle, 
rotten,  Davies  Races  1^1856)  226.  Shr.'  I've  'ad  despert  poor  luck 
6uth  my  'en's  this  time.  I  set  three  66tli  duck  eggs  an'  two  Cidth 
thar  own  ;  an'  three  parts  on  'em  wun  aidle.  Hrf.^  I  be  most 
afeared  as  the  eggs  be  all  adle.      Ken.^      Sus.'  Eddel,  rotten. 

5.  Fig.  Weak  in  intellect,  confused  :  esp.  in  comp.  Addle- 
cap,  -head,  -headed,  -pate,  -pated. 

Ken.'  My  head's  that  adle,  that  1  can't  tend  to  notliin*.  e.Sus. 
Adle.  weak  or  giddy  in  the  head.  I  am  very  adle  to-day.  Hollo  way. 
Hmp.'  Addle,  stupid.  Slang.  Addle  cove,  a  foolish  man,  an  easy 
dupe.  Farmer.  n.Lin.'  Addle-cap,  Addle-head,  a  weak,  silly 
person.  He's  such  a  waffy  addle-head,  he  duzn't  knaw  blew  fra 
red.  w.Som.'  Addle-head.  N.Cy.'  Addle-headed.  e.Yks.'  Addle- 
hccaded,  of  obtuse  intellect.  ne.Lan.'  Chs.' He's  a  addle-3'edded 
think.  Der.2  War.  (J.R.W.)  Brks.'  Sus.' He's  an  adle-headed 
fellow.  w.Som.',  Dev.'  Wm.  My  addle  paate,  Hutton  S;«h  AV» 
H'aik{i-i&^  1.88.  n.Lin.' Addle-pate.  Cor.3  Dev.' Addle-pated, 
doltish,  thickheaded. 

[1.  OE.  adela,  liquid  filth,  foul  water;  cf  G.  add,  mire, 
puddle.  2.  Cf.  OSw.  adel  in  ko-adel,  cow-urine.  5.  Cf. 
Hooker  :  Concerning  his  preaching  their  very  by-word 
was  Aoyot  e^nvfid'tifiefos,  addle  speech,  empty  talk,  Ecci. 
P'ol.  III.  loi ;  Thy  head  hath  bin  beaten  as  addle  as  an 
egge  for  quarreling,  Shaks.  R.  &^J.  (1592)  iii.  i.  25.] 

ADDLE,  adj.     Hrf.  e.An.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.     [s'dl  ] 

1.  Ailing,  unwell. 

e.An.  Adle,  unwell  (Hall.).  Ken.' Adle.  Sus.' Adle,  slightly 
unwell.  My  little  girl  seemed  rather  adle  this  morning,  so  1  kep' 
her  at  home  from  school. 

2.  Tumble-down,  loose,  shaky. 

Hrf.  Adle,  loose,  shaky,  applied  to  a  paling  (W.W.S.).  e.An. 
Adle,  unsound  (Hall.).  Ken.  The  word  is  used  to  denote  anj'thing 
that  is  in  a  ricketty  or  shaky  condition.  Dat  vvaggiii  be  turrbul  adle 
(P.M.).  Sur,'  Adle,  weak,  shaky,  said  of  a  fence  the  posts  or 
pales  of  which  have  become  loose.  You  shan't  have  that  idle  thing 
[i.e.  an  old  gate]  any  longer  (s.v.  Idle). 

[OE.  adl,  MLG.  add,  disease.] 




ADDLE,  s6.2  Nhb.w.Yks.  [a-dl,  edl.]  Earnings,  wages, 
usually  with  in;  in  f^ood addh\  receiving  good  wages. 

Nhb.'  Eildle,  money  oarticd.  Savin's  good  cddle.  w.Yl-s.'  A 
poor  daital,  wlitca's  I'  naa  girt  addly.  ii.  340;   He's  i'  good  addle. 

ADDLE,  sh?     Nhp.     An  adding  or  addition. 

Nhp.'  Iwo  pence  and  three  pence,  is  five  pence:  and  two  groats 
and  two  ponce  is  ten  pence.  This  specimen  of  village  arithmetic 
is  called  '  the  old  woman's  addle.' 


In  i^oi.  use. 

A.  To  make  abortive,  as  eggs,  by  allowing  to  get  cold 
during  incubation  ;  fig.  to  confuse,  muddle. 

Ir.  Ihey  had  also  lost  a  fat  pig,  and  had  a  clutch  of  eggs  addled 
in  an  August  thunderstorm.  Barlow  Idylls  (1892)  45.  Yks.  It's 
no  use  addling  your  brain  with  so  much  learning,  it  won't  make 
the  pot  boil  iM.N.).  ne  Lan.'  Addle,  to  coagulate.  Not.  Addle, 
to  make  putrid  (,T.  H.B.).  Ken.  Dang'd  ould  hen  as  addled  dem 
heggs  |,H.M,1.  Scm.i  Hens  which  sit  badly  are  said  to  addle 
their  eggs.  Nauyz  unuuf  vur  t-ad-l  uneebau'deez  braa-nz  [noise 
enough  to  addle  one's  brains].  Dev.  'Twas  the  hard  times  addled 
his  brains,  O'Neill  Told  in  Dimpses  (1893)  116. 

[See  Addle,  sb}  4.] 

E.  Sc.  To  water  plants. 

Rnf.  water  the  roots  of  plants  with  the  urine  ofcattle 

[Sue  Addle,  sb}  2.] 

ADDLE,  c'.«  In  all  the  n,  counties  to  Chs.  Stf.  Der. 
Not.  Lin,;  also  in  Rut.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  c.An. ;  not  in  Sc, 
Not  in  gloss,  of  s. Chs.  and  Siir.  Also  written  adle  N.Cv.- 
Liu.  Ski.nner;  aadle  Suf.' ;  eddle  N.Cy.'  Nhb.'  Cum''^ 
w.Yks.  Willan:  yeddle  Chs.'*^;  aidle  N,Cy,>  Nhb.' 
Cum.  Lin.' e,An,' ;  aydle  cCum. ;  eddilNhb. ;  adel  Cum. 
e.  and  w.Yks.  [a'dl.  Besides  adl  there  occur  e'dl  in  Nhb. 
Cum, ;  edl  in  Nhb,  cCum.  Lin.  e.An.  ;  ye'dl  in  Chs.] 
L  To  earn,  acquire  by  one's  labour. 

N.Cy.' 2  Nhb.*  tie  addles  three  ha'pence  a  week.  That's  nobbut 
a  fardin'  a  day.  Song,  Ma  Laddie.  Dur.'  Cum.^  I's  to  eddle 
me  five  shiliin'  middlin'  cannily,  s.Wm.  Ye  dunnet  addle  as  mickle 
ta  day,  HunuN  Dia.  Slottli  and  ArnsiJe  11 7601  1.  29.  Wm.'  A'd 
better  git  a  nag  wi  panniers  an  addle  mi  brass  thet  wa-a.  Yks, 
They  say  he  addled  his  brass  i'  jute,  Kipling  Soldit-rs  Three  (ed, 
1895)  16.  n.Yks.'  Ah's  nowght  bud  what  Ah  addles;  n.Yks.'  To 
addle  oneself  heat  [to  grow  warm  with  e.xercise],  ne.Yks.'  He 
addles  a  good  wage.  e.Yks,'  Ah  haint  addled  saut  isalt )  ti  my  taly 
this  mornin.  w.Yks.  When  he'd  addled  his  shun,  Blackah  Poems 
(1867)  13  [said  of  a  horse  when  he  falls  upon  his  back  and  rolls 
from  one  side  to  the  other.  When  a  horse  does  this  in  Hmp.  or 
Sus,  he  is  said  to  earn  a  gallon  of  oats,  Hoi.loway]  ;  It  isn't 
what  a  chap  addles,  it's  what  a  chap  saves  'at  makes  him  rich, 
llARrLEY  Budget  118681  43;  w.Yks.'  We  mun  teugh  an  addle 
summat.  Lan.  Colliers  addle'n  their  brass  ;  an*  they'n  a  reet  to 
wear  it  as  they'n  a  mind,  Wal'gii  Chinifiey  Corner  (1879)  56  ; 
Give  a  mon  a  chance  of  addling  a  livin',  Wkstall  Old  Factory 
(18851  21  ;  Lan,'  m,Laii.'  A  mon's  heead  may  be  addled,  an'  his 
wage  may  be  addled.  n.Lan.'  Ciis.  [Aw  con]  yeddle  my  sax- 
pence  ivery  day,  Clough  B.  Bresski/tle  [iB'jg)  16;  Chs.'2  stf.', 
Der.'  s.Not.  I've  nothing  whativer coming  to  me  but  what  I  addle 
(J.P.K.).  Not.'2  Them  line-men  addle  a  sight;  Not.^  Lin. 
Skinner  (1671);  Mun  be  a  guvness,  lad,  or  sunimut,  and  addle 
her  brCad,  Tennyson  A',  farmer.  New  Style  ( 1870  <  st.  7  ;  An  addlin' 
tir  rent.  Peacock  Tales  and  Rhytnes  (1886)  135;  Lin.',  n.Lin.' 
sw.Lin.'  I'm  a  disablebodicd  man,  and  can't  addle  owt.  Rut.' 
Lei.  Shi  kalnt  add  moar*  nur  te-oo  ur  thrai  shil'lin  (^C.E.);  Lei.' 
Oi  ha'  addled  my  weej.     Nhp.'^^  War.^,  e.An.' 

2.  To  gain,  procure;  to  bring  in  by  labour. 

Yks.  My  kyes'  milk  addles  most  of  my  brass,  Fetherston 
farmer,  71.  Lin.  Grows  i'  the  wood,  an'  yowls  i'  the  town,  An' 
addles  its  master  many  a  crown. — Answer,  a  fiddle  (of  which  the 
strings  are  catgut  .  A',  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  viii.  503.  Let'  A  doon't 
addle  his  maister  his  weej. 

3.  To  save,  lay  by  a  portion  of  one's  earnings. 

Yks.  My  father  had  addled  a  vast  in  trade.  And  1  were  his  son 
and  heir,  lNGLEDEw/ja//<it/i-  (18601  259.  ne,Yks.'  He's  addled  a 
deal  o'  brass.  w.Yks,  Wi'  a  bit  o'  trouble  ah  addled  thegither  five 
pun'  (W,B.T,'),  n.Lln,  Addle,  to  lay  by  money,  Sutton  IVds. 
(1881).     e.An.'  At  last  I  have  addled  up  a  little  money;  e.An.' 

4.  Of  crops,  trees,  &c. ;  to  grow,  thrive,  flourish. 

n.Cy.  Addle,  to  grow  or  increase  in  size,  Toone.      Lan.'  Addle, 
formerly  used   in   the  sense  of  to  grow,  to  increase.       Chs,' ^  ^ 
e.An.'  That  crop  addles.      Nrf.'      Suf.'  Fruit,  corn,  &c.  promising 
VOL.  I. 

to  ripen  well,  are  said  to  aadic:  Ta  don't  fare  to  aadle.  Ess.  Where 
luie  imbraceth  the  tree  verie  sore,  kill  luie,  or  else  tree  wil  addle 
no  more,  Tl'sser  //iitbandne  115801  1 11.  St.  6. 

Mcnce  Addled,  />/>.  earned  ;   Addling,  vM.  sh.    Cf  4. 

n,Yks.2  A  ready  addled  penny  [money  easily  earned].  w.Yks.* 
It's  weel  addled.  Ess.  Ivy  will,  by  the  closeness  of  its  embraces, 
prevent  trees  from  addling,  that  is.  growing  or  increasing  in 
size.  Mavor,  note  to  Tusser  Husba)ulne  icd.  1812"'. 

[To  adle  [earn],  saiiiriiiin  vrl  pmeiiiimit  nierrri,  Coles 
(1679);  To  addil,  demetere.  Levins  Muitip.  (1570);  To 
adylle,  commereri,  adipisci,  Cnlli.  Aiigl.  (1483);  Hu  mann 
mihhte  cwcmenn  Godd  &  addlenn-hc-llness  blisse,  Orniti- 
liim  (c.  1205)  17811  ;  patt  mihhte  gilltenn  anij  gillt  &  add- 
lenn  helle  pine,  ib.  17544.  Cp.  ON.  fila,  refl.  ^llask,  to 
acquire  (for  oneself)  property,  cogn.  with  oJal,  property  ] 

ADDLED,  ppl.  adj.  In  gcit.  use  throughout  the  dial. 
Also  written  aiddled  Shr,'  Glo.'  See  below,  [adld, 
edld.]  Rotten,  putrid  ;  muddled,  confused.  See  Addle, 
a7a'  and  adj.^  4,  5. 

N.Cy.'  Addled-eggs,  addled,  decayed,  impaired,  rotten.  ne.Lan.' 
An  addled  egg.  m.Lan.'  One's  varra  likely  to  ged  wrang  wi'  this 
word  iv  they're  nod  keerful.  because  a  mon's  heead  may  be  addled, 
an'  his  wage  may  be  addled.  Th'  lost  o'  these  fits  th'  p.ij-son  an' 
th'  last  doesn'd — mony  a  time.  Not.'  You  cannot  blow  addled 
eggs  [i.  e.  partially  hatched].  Nhp.'  'War.  (J.R.W.)  s.Wor.' 
Shr.'  Aidled.  Shr.  &  Hrf.  Addled  means  corrupted,  as  'an  addled 
egg,'  one  in  a  state  of  putrefaction,  or  one  left  or  forsaken  bj'  the  hen 
aftcrsitting.  Bound  A'/oi'.  (1876),  Hrf.' Adlcd.  Glo.'  w.Som.' 
A(Idled  eggs  are  those  which  have  been  sat  upon  without  producing 
chickens.  Colloq.  We  have  learned  to  bottle  our  parents  twain  in 
the  yelk  of  an  addled  egg,  Kipling  Brk.  Ballads  1,1892;  Conundrum 
of  Workshops. 

ADDLING,  si.   Rarely  5;«^.   See  Addle,  f.'  See  below. 

[a'dlin,]     Wages,  earnings ;  savings, 

N.Cy.'  Addlings.  aidlings,  wages  received  for  work.  Nhb.'  He's 
had  good  addlins  this  quarter.  Dur.'  Cum.'  Aydlins,  r,  adiins,  sic. 
Wm.  Addlings  hcsbecn  farbetter, Gibson /.n?'.  (jHrfA'o'fS  !  1877  67; 
Wm.'  The  usual  form  is  addlins.  Yks,  Mah  waygcs  is  altegithcr 
oot  of  all  measure  wi'  me  addlings,  Wray  Neslleton  ^  18761  41; 
Short  harvests  make  short  addlings,  Swainson  Weather  /•'Ik-Lort 
(1873  18,  n, Yks,' Poor  addlings.  Hard  addlings.  Saving's  good 
adilling.  ne,Yks.*  Hard  addlins  an'  nut  mich  when  deean.  e.Yks.' 
w.Yks.s  Whoas  a  better  house  an'  I  hev  ?  an'  avgetten  it  together, 
stick  be  stick,  an'  ivvry  bit  on't,  wi  my  awan  addlings.  Lan. 
Eaul  of  his  own  adiilins.  Clegg /)rti'/(/'s' Z,ooi*i  1894  v.  ne.Lan.', 
Chs.'23.  Stf,'  Der,'  Addlings,  savings.  nw.Der.'  Ad<]lings.  savings. 
Not.',  n.Lin.'  sw.Lin,'  I  doubt  he  wears  all  his  addlings  in  drink. 
Lei.',  Nhp.',  War.3 

ADE,  sb.    Shr.     [ed.]    A  reach  in  the  Severn. 

Shr.'  1  his  term  is  .'pplied  by  navigators  of  the  Severn  to  reaches 
where  there  are  eddies  in  the  river,  as  Sweney  [sic]  Ade,  Preen's 
Ade,  &c.  ;  Shr'.  Boden's  Ade,  Preen's  Ade,  Swinny  Ade.  near 
Cualport,     This  signification  is  confined  to  bargemen,  owners,  and 


ADE,  V.     Shr.     [ed.] 

Shr,  A  word  peculiar  to  Shropshircmeaningto  cut  a  deep  glitter  or 
ditch  across  ploughed  land.  Bound  f>oi;.  (,1875;;  Shr.' Ading down 
in  the  follow. 

[See  Aid.] 

ADEARY  ME!  int.  In  var.  dial.,  and  colloq.  use. 
[e-  diari  ml.]  See  Deary.  Exclamation  of  sadness  or 

w.Yks.  Noabody  pities  them  'at  laups  aat  o'  th'  fryin'  pan  into  th' 
fire,  an'  it's  a  easy  matter  to  miss  it.  — Aa,  dear  o'  me!  aw  think  it 
is!  Hartley  Dilt.  ist  S.  (1868)  115.  Lin.  A  deary-mc,  Mrs.  Cox, 
who'd  ha'  thowt  of  seeing  thee,  N.  &■  Q.  ii865j  3rd  S.  vii.  31. 

ADEEl  /•«/.    Wxf.    [adl-.]     Ha! 


ADER,  sec  Arder. 

ADIDGE,  see  Arris. 

ADISr,  pup.  Sc.  Also  written  adiest  Ayr;  athist 
Dmf     [sdi'st,  atSist]     On  this  side. 

Sc.  I  wish  yow  was  neither  adist  her,  nor  ayont  her  [spoken  of 
a  woman  one  dislikes], /Vov,  iJam,')  ;  Hcgbeg  [nettle]  adist  the 
dyke.  Chambers  Pop.  Rhymes    1870I  109. 

\Adisl,  athist,  prob.  equiv.  to  on  this  {side).^ 

ADLAND,  see  Headland. 




ADMIRE,  I'.  In  Irel.  Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Lei.  Nhp.  War. 
Oxf.  Som.    [3dmai'a(r),  Lei.  admoi"a{r).] 

1.  To  wonder  at,  notice  with  astonishment. 

(a)  Used  simply,  or  with  dependent  clause. 

Wm.  Yan  wad  admire  how  yau  gits  sec  cauds  [colds]  (M  P.). 
e.Yks.i  There  is  plenty  of  macreuse  ill  the  marl<ets  all  Lent,  that  I 
admire  where  they  got  so  many.  Dr.  M.  Lister  of  York  (1698). 
w.Yks.  Admire,  wonder, i///C%-.  IVds.  Som.  This  ...  contented  chap 
had  had  a  longish  nap,  Ta  zlape  away  tha  winter,  I  shoodent  much 
admire,  'Agrikler'  Rliy»ics  (i^tz)  31.  [I  admire  it  escaped  Mr. 
Fuller  in  his  collection  of  'Local  Proverbs,'  Morton  Nat  Hist,  of 
Nhp.  (1712).  Amer.  To  wonder  at ;  to  be  affected  with  slight  sur- 
prise, in  New  England,  particularly  in  Maine,  the  word  is  used 
in  this  sense,  Bartlett.] 

(b)  With  acc. 

e.Yks.  An  when  Ah  gat  there  ;  oh,  this  Ah  did  admeyr,  Ti  see 
so  monny  lusty  lads,  asitting  roond  the  fire,  Nicholson  Flk-Sp. 
(1889)  49.  Chs.^  Ah  could  na  but  admoire  him,  he  looked  so 
fresh; — and  he's  turned  seventy.  War.(J.R.W.)  Oxf.  She  told  me 
her  husband  was  looking  so  ill  I  should  quite  admire  him,  N.  &>  Q. 
(18681  4th  S.  ii.  605. 

(c)  With  at. 

Lim.'Tis  to  be  admired  at — such  a  long  distance  traversed  between 
Ireland  and  America  so  fast  (G.M.H.). 

2.  To  be  pleased,  to  like  very  much. 

Lei.i  Ah  should  admoire  to  see  'er  well  took-to  [I  should  be  de- 
lighted to  see  her  well  scolded].  Nhp.'  The  child  admires  to  go 
a-walking.  I  should  admire  to  go  to  London  to  seetheQucen.  War.^ 
[Amer.  I  should  admire  to  see  the  President,  Bartlett  (^1848).] 

[].  (a)  Hear  him  but  reason  in  divinity  And  all-admiring 
with  an  inward  wish  You  would  desire  the  king  were  made 
a  prelate,  Shaks.  Hen.  V,  i.  i.  39 ;  Wonder  not,  nor  admire 
not  in  thj'  mind,  why  I  do  call  thee  so,  Tivclfth  Nt.  iii.  iv.  165. 
(b)  How  can  we  sufficiently  admire  the  stupidity  or  mad- 
ness of  these  persons?  Sped.  No.  575.  (c)  These  lords  At 
this  encounter  do  so  much  admire,  Siiaks.  Teinp.\.i.  154.] 

Hence  Admirable,  surprising,  wonderful. 

Wm.  It  is  admirable  [remarkable,  wonderful]  ;  used  by  old  per- 
sons M.P.).  w.Yks.  Admyrable  war  his  gambols,  CAUVERTS/narf- 
b::n:  Fnnr  {i8-]j)  14;  w.Yks.^ 

ADO,  V.  and  sb.    Sc.  Chs.  Nhp.  War.     [adii-.] 

1.  V.  To  do. 

Sc.  I'll  ha'e  naething  ado  wi't,  Grose  (1790I  MS.  add.  (C) ; 
I  have  nothing  ado.  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II.  436  ;  Had  nae  mair 
ado,  but  to  get  awa,  Scott  Midlothian  (1818)  iii.  w.Sc.  There's 
little  ado  in  the  market  to-day  (Jam.  Siippl.). 

2.  sb.   Bustle,  confusion  ;  stir,  excitement,   '  fuss ' ;    Sc, 
in  pL,  difficulties. 

Sc.  1  had  my  ain  adoes  [peculiar  difficulties]  (Jam.).  Lth.  I 
had  my  ain  adaes  wi'  him,  for  he  was  just  a  very  passionate  man, 
Strathesk  Bits  Bli>iibomiy  (i8gi)  135,  Chs.'  Oo  made  much  adoo 
abait  it.  Nhp.'  Ado.  a  familiar  expression  of  hearty  welcome  ;  e.x- 
cessive,  officious  kindness.  They  always  make  such  ado  with  me, 
whenever  I  go  to  sec  them  I  can  hardly  getaway.     War.  I  J.R.W. ) 

[1.  Ado  is  for  a/  do  in  the  sense  of '  to  do ' ;  see  At.  The 
constr.  is  found  in  the  Paslon  Letters :  I  woll  novvt  have 
ado  therwith,  Lett.  566.  2.  Much  Ado  about  Nothing, 
Shaks.;  We'll  keep  no  great  ado— a  friend  or  two,  R.  S^J. 
III.  iv.  23.  ME.  Ado  or  grete  bysynesse,  sollicilitdo,  Pioiiipt.] 

ADONE,  inl.plir.  Sc.  Lan.  Stf.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Won 
Shr.  Glo.  Brks.  Hnt.  Sur.  Sus.  Hitip.  I.W.  [edun, sdun.] 
Cease,  leave  off. 

Sc.Ane  spak  in  wordis  wonder  crouse,  A  done  with  ane  mis- 
chance! Old  Song  {]  AM.).  ne.Lan.' Adone,  cease,  be  quiet!  s.Stf. 
Adone,  will  yer,  I  want  to  be  quiet,  Pinnock  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895V 
n.Lin.'  Thoo  awkerd  bairn,  a-dun  wi'  thee  !  Lei.'  A  doon,  will 
ye.  Nhp.',  s.War.  se.Wor.' Adone  Oat!  [Have  done,  will  you  !] 
Shr.'A-done  now  w'cn  I  spake.  Glo.'  Brks.'  A  girl  would  say 
'  Adone  then  ! '  or  '  Adone  ! '  or  '  Adone  now  ! '  on  her  sweetheart 
attempting  to  snatch  a  kiss.  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Sur.' Have  a-donc 
there.     Sus.' Oh  !  do  adone.     Hmp.',  I.W.' 

[Adone.'  is  for  Have  done.'  The  expression  occurs  freq. 
in  Siiaks.  :  An  if  thou  couldst,  thou  couldst  not  make  him 
live,  Therefore,  have  done,  R.  Sa^J.  iii.  v.  73;  Therefore 
ha'  done  with  words,  T.  Shreiv,  iii.  ii.  118.] 

ADONNET,5Z».  Obs.  Yks.  A  devil.  (The  correct  form 
is  Donnet,  q.v.)  In  Yks.  one  sometimes  hears  the  saying, 
'  Better  be  in  with  that  adonnet  than  out '  (IIall.). 

Yks.  I  do  not  remember  ever  hearing  the  word  Adonnet. 
Donnet,  however,  is  a  very  commonly  used  word  (B.  K.  ). 

ADOORS,  adv.  w.Yks.  Lan.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.  [adoa'z.] 
Without  the  door  or  house,  outside ;  esp.  in  out-adoors. 

w.Yks.s  It's  warm  out  adoors  to-daay.  ne.Lan.'  Out-adoors. 
Lin.  Truly  my  brother  will  be  flung  and  thrust  out  adoores  by  head 
and  eares  with  this  gift,  Bernard  Terence  (1629')  120.  n.Lin.' 
You're  alus  clattin'  in  and  oot  a-doors.  Nhp.'  He's  gone  out 
a-doors.     War.  (J.R.W.) 

[But  what,  Sir,  I  beseech  ye,  was  that  paper  Your  Lord- 
ship was  so  studiously  employed  in  When  ye  came  out  a- 
doors?  B.&  Y. Woman  Pleased,\\.\\  Nowe  shall  the  prynce 
of  this  worlde  be  cast  out  a  dores,  Tindale  yoAw  xii.  31.] 

ADOW,  adv.     Sc.  (Jam.)    [adau-.]     Worth. 

Rxb.  Naething  adow. 

[A-,  of  +  daw,  q.v.  Cp.  tioc/it  o'  daw,  of  no  value,  or 
nothing  of  worth  (Jam.,  s.v.  Dow).] 

ADOWN,  adv.    Sc.  Hnt.  Cor.     [adtt'ii,  adeu'n.]    Down. 

Sc.  His  gorgeous  collar  hung  adown.  Wrought  with  the  badge 
of  Scotland's  crown,  Scott  Marinion  (1808)  v.  st.  8  ;  Adown  we 
sat,ALLANZ.i7/s(i874)  18.  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Cor.  Nor  drive  too  fast 
adown  the  hills,  Tregellas  Fanner  Brown  (1857)  22. 

[An  home  of  bugle  small  Which  hong  adowne  his  side 
in  twisted  gold,  Spenser  F.  O.  i.  viii.  3.  Adoun  ful  softely 
I  gan  to  sinke,  Chaucer  Leg.  G.  IV.  178.  OE.  ofdnne, 

ADRAD,  ppl.  adj.    Obs.    Sc.  (Jam.)    Afraid. 


[Adradd,  afraid,  much  concerned,  Bailey  (1721).  They 
were  adrad  of  him,  as  of  the  deeth,  Chaucer  C.  T.  a.  605. 
OE.  ofdfd'dd,  frightened,  pp.  of  ofdrd-dan,  to  dread.] 

ADREAMED,  ppl.  adj.  Wor.  Oxf  [adri-md,  adre'mt.] 
Dreaming,  dosing. 

Ee.Wor.'*  1  wasa-dreamed'  for 'I  dreamt.'  Oxf.  You  see,  ma'am, 
all  this  time  she  is  adreamt  between  sleeping  and  waking.  Ap- 
plied to  an  infant  (Hall.). 

[I  was  a  Dreamed  that  I  sat  all  alone,  Bunyan  P.  P. 
(1693)  66  ;  Hee  is  adreamd  of  a  dry  sommer.  Withal 
(1634)  ;  I  was  adream'd  that  I  kill'd  a  buck,  Luptun 
(Nares).  Deriv.  of  dream,  f.  The />;'(/!  a- is  prob.  due  to 
analogy.  If  the  word  adreamed  were  originally  a  west- 
country  word  it  would  be  natural  to  assume  tliat  the 
a-  represents  OE.  ge- ;  see  A-  pirf.'^] 

ADREICH,  adv.    Sc.     [adrix-]    At  a  distance. 

Sc.  On  painting  and  fighting  look  adreich,  Henderson  Prov. 
(1832')  134,  ed.  i88r.  n.Sc. To  follow  adreich,  to  follow  at  a  con- 
siderable distance  (Jam.). 

[Throw  ane  signe  that  Quincius  maid  on  dreich,  the 
Romanis  ischit  fra  thair  tentis,  Bellenden  T.  Liv.  213 
(Jam.),  me.  He  bad  tham  alle  draw  tham  o  dreih,  Brunne 
Chron.  (1330)  194.     A-,  on  -h  dreich. 

ADREICH,  rtiyi;.   Sc.  Behind,  at  a  distance.   See  Dreich. 

Sc.  The  steward  .  .  .  stood  behind,  adreich,  A.  Scott  Poems 
(1808    99  ;    The  word,  though  not  common,  is  still  in  use  iG.W.). 

ADRY,  adj.  Glo.  Brks.  Cmb.  Ess.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  Wil. 
Som.     [adrai-.]     Thirsty. 

Glo.'  Brks.' I  be .-idry.  Cmb.(M.J.B.)  Ess.John wasa-dry,CLARK 
J.  Noakes  (1839)  18.  Ken.'^,  Sus.',  Hmp.'  Wil.  Who  lies  here  ? 
Who  do  'e  think,  Why,  old  Clapper  Watts,  if  you'll  give  him  some 
drink;  Give  a  dead  man  drink? — for  why?  Why;  when  he  was 
alive  he  was  always  a-dry,  Epitaph  at  Leigh  Delanure,  Elworthy. 

[You  may  as  well  bid  him  that  is  sick  of  an  ague, 
not  to  be  adry.  Burton  Anai.  Mel.  (1621)  278,  ed.  1836. 
A-  (pref.^°)  +  dry.] 

ADVANCE,  V.  Som.  Dcv.  [advans.]  Used  refl. ;  to 
push  oneself  forward. 

■w.Som.'  Want  shud  ee*  udvaa'ns  ee*z-2uul  vaur  ?  [what  should 
he  push  himself  forward  for?]  A  good  singing-bird  was  thus 
described  :  Ee  due  udvaams  liz-zuul  su  boal-z  u  luy  unt  [he  does 
come  forward  (in  the  cage)  as  boldly  as  a  lion],  Dev.  A  woman 
is  said  to  advance  herself  when  she  sets  her  arms  akimbo  and  gives 
one  a  bit  other  mind  (P.F.S.A.). 

[Avaunce  yourselfe  to  aproche,  Skelton,  Boivqe  of 
Co«r/(',  88  (NE.D.).     OFr.  avancer,  to  set  forward.) 

ADVISED,  ppl.  ad/.  Obs.  n.Cy.  Nrf.  With  of:  ac- 
quainted with,  aware  of 




n.Cy.  I  am  not  advised  of  it,  I  am  not  acquainted  of  it,  Hollo- 
way.  Nrf.  I  an't  advised  of  it,  I  can't  recollect  it,  or  am  ignorant 
of  it,  Grose  (1790). 

[But  art  thou  not  advised?  (i.e.  haven't  you  been  in- 
formed ?),  SiiAKS.  T.  Shrew,  i.  i.  igi ;  Advised  by  good  in- 
tclhgence  Of  this  most  dreadful  preparation, /6. //<■«.  V,  11. 
Prol.  12.  Fr.  aviscr,  to  advise,  counsel,  warn,  tell,  inform, 
do  to  wit,  give  to  understand  (CorcR.).J 

ADVISEMENT,  sh.    Sc.     Advice,  counsel. 
5c.  Tlierc  came  never  ill  after  good  advisement, RamsayP;'OV.(  1737). 

ADWANG,  sec  Dwang. 

AE,  see  A,  All,  Aye,  Ea. 

AEFALD,  aiiv.  Sc.  Also  written  afald.  [efald.] 
Simple,  honest,  without  duplicity  or  deceit. 

Sc.  I  was  aefaald  aye  wi  Him,  Waddell  Ps.  (i8gi)  xviii.  23. 
S.  &  Ork.l 

Hence  Aefaldness,  sb.  honesty,  uprightness,  single- 
ness of  heart  (CD.). 

[Aifahi  is  the  Sc.  form  of  the  older  northern  aiifcilil, 
single,  simple,  sincere,  found  in  Oiiiiulum  and  Ciiiaor 
MiDuii.     OE.  an/old,  tilt,  onc+fald,  -fold.] 

AEHY,  int.     Nhb.     [li:]     Oh !  ah ! 

Nhb.  'Ae-hy,  ae-liy,'  kill  slie,  'azesueraws  rcet,'  Bewick  Iloadv 
(1850)  9. 

AERN,  see  Erne. 

AETH-,  see  Eath-. 

AF-,  see  Oflf-. 

AFEAR,  V.    Obs.    Nhp.    To  frighten. 

Nhp.2  That  dwant  afear  ma. 

[And  ghastly  bug  does  greatly  them  affcare,  Spenser 
F.  Q.  II.  iii.  20.  "The  word  is  of  freq.  occurrence  in  P.  Plow- 
tiian.    OE.  afHran,  to  terrify.] 

AFEARlD,  coitj.  In  gen.  use  in  var.  dial.  Also  by 
aphaeresis  feard.     Lest,  for  fear.     Cf  afraid. 

Nhb.  In  common  use  (R.O.H.).  Yks.  (J.W.)  e.Lan.l  s.Chs.' 
Go  an'  tine  them  gaps,  feared  lest  the  key  [cows]  getten  in.  ne.Wor, 
Don't  you  go  there,  afeared  the  bobby  si  ould  see  you  (J.W.P.). 
Ess.  We  didn't  stop  .  .  .  Afear  the  Ovvd  un  sh'd  come  out,  Downe 
Ballads  (18951  19.  Ess.i  Do  you  bathe  ?—  Ny,  zir.  Why  not  ? — 
Feard  a  bin  drownded. 

AFEARD,  Giij.  In  gen.  dial,  use  throughout  Sc.  Irel. 
and  Eng.  See  below,  [afiard,  afiad.]  Afraid,  frightened, 
struck  with  fear  or  terror. 

Sc.  Afeir'd,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C).  Ir.  The  bit  of  a  house 
there  does  be  that  quite  and  lonesome  on  me  .  .  .  that  I'm  afeard, 
troth  it's  .ifcard  I  am  goiii'  back  to  it,  Barlow  Idylls  (1892)  153. 
N.I.'  Wxf.'  Aferdlh.  Nhb.'  Aa  was  afeard  ye  warn't  comin'. 
Cum.'  Afcar't  (not  often  heard).  Wm.'  ne.Yks.'  Ah's  sadly 
afcai'd  on't.  e.Yks.'  Afeeahd.  w.Yks.  Ize  nane  afeard,  Di.\ON 
Craven  Dales  (1881)  180.  Lan.  I'm  much  afeard  there's  but  little, 
Gaskell  M.  Ba>to>i{^Q^8)  v  ;  Lan.'  Get  on  wi'  thee  mon  ;  what  arto 
afeard  on  ?  Chs.'  Come  on  !  who's  afeart  ?  s.Stf.  I  bai'  afeard  o' 
thee.  PiNNocK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (18951.  Stf.'  2  Der.  He  was  afeard  on 
the  Governor  too,  Le  Fanu  t'/zf/fiiiyns  (18651  II.  50;  Der.*  s.Not. 
Ah'm  non  afeard  o'  him  (J.I*. K.).  Not.'  n.Lin.  The  good  woman 
was  nearly  as  much  afeard  as  you  were,  Peacock  li.  Skiilmigh 
(1870)  I.  49.  n.Lin.',  Lei.'  Nhp.'  Afeard,  a  pood  old  word  still 
current  amongst  our  villagers.  War.' 2^,  se.Wor.'  Shr.'  Yo 
needna  be  afeard  o'  gwei'n  through  the  leasow,  they'n  moggcd 
[moved]  the  cow  as  'ilcd  poor  owd  Betty  Mathus  ;  Slir.*  Hrf.* 
I'm  a'most  afeared.  Glo.  Ur  were  Hitting  about  i'  the  night 
afeared  most  despert.  Gissing  {'///.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  vi ;  Glo.' 
Brks.'  *E  bent  aveard,  be  'e  ?  [You  are  not  afraid,  are  yovt  ?]  n.Bck. 
(A.C.)  Hrt.  Who's  afeard  ?  (H.G.)  Hnt.  l,T.  P.  F. )  e.An.'  N.f. 
I'm  afeard  that  flour  will  be  hained  [increased  in  price]  ag.iin 
next  week  (W.R.E.).  Suf.  C.T.) ;  Suf.'  Afeard  is  still  much  used. 
Ess.  Why  they  wornt  afeare<l  I  ne'er  could  understand,  Downe 
Ballads  (1895I  23;  Ess.',  Ken.'  Sur.  You  shall  liavc  a  glass, 
donna  be  afeared,  Bickley  Siir.  Hills  (1890I  I.  i;  Sur.'  Sus. 
Every  man  has  got  his  soord  upon  his  thigh,  cause  dey  be  afaird 
in  de  night,  Lower  Sng.Sol.  (1860)  iii.  8  ;  Sus.',Hmp.'  I.W.  I  was 
afeard  to  goo  in  and  lay  down  and  leave  the  yowes.  Gray  Anneslev 
(1889^  111.  173;  I.W.',  Wil.'  Dor.'  I  bCn't  afeard  To  own  it,  302. 
w.Som.'  Waut  be  ufee"urd  oa  ?  [^vhat  are  j'ou  afraid  of?]  Dev. 
Whot's  aveard  o' now,  yQ  stupid?  Dithzim  he'll  bite  thee?  Hewett 
Peas.  Sfi.  (1892)  ;  Dev.'  Cor.  I  shoudn't  be  afeerd  to  travel  oal 
hover  London,  /mi«jv  Trebilcock  {iS6^)  10;  Cor.'  I'm  afeard  of  my 
life  to  go  upstairs  arter  dark. 

[I  am  afeard  you  make  a  wanton  of  me,  Shaks.  Ham.  v. 
ii.  310 ;  So  wj'S  he  was  she  was  no  more  alercd,  Ciiaixkr 
Tr.  &r>  Cr.  III.  482.  OE.  ci/dnd,  frightened,  //.  of  ajdran  ; 
see  Afear.] 

AFER,  sec  Aver. 

AFFBEND,  i'.  Sh.I.  [a'fbend.]  To  remove  the  furni- 
ture from  a  peat-pony. 

S.  &  Ork.' 

[Aff,  oil'+bend,  used  in  the  sense  of  harnessing  a  horse 
to  a  cart:  Then  Joseph  bended  his  charctt  fast  ( /iinc/o 
ciirni,  Vulg.),  CovERDALE  Ccn.  xlvi.  29.  OE.  bemtan,  to 
fasten,  to  bind.] 

AFFEIRING,  frp.  Sc.  [afiarin.]  Appertaining  to, 

Slk.  It's  no  sae  ill,  alTciring  to  [said  of  any  work  done  by  a 
person  who  could  not  have  lieen  expected  to  do  it  so  well]    Jav.\ 

[Pip.  of  afifeir,  to  belong,  pertain  ;  also  written  effeir. 
Under  great  sums  effeiring  to  their  condition  and  rank, 
Act  Council  (1683')  in  Wodrow  Hist.  Chuirli  Scotland \i~i2i) 
II.  318.  AFr.  affeiir,  to  belong,  pertain  ;  Lat.  ad.  to  \ferire, 
to  strike,  hence,  to  affect.  Cp.  Cotgr  :  Afferant  KKhc  Par- 
ticiple of  the  Impersonal  affiert\,  beseeming  or  becoming; 
also,  concerning  or  belonging  ta     Sec  Efifeir.] 

AFFLUDE,  V.  Sh.  I.  To  injure  the  looks  or  appearance 
of  anj'thing ;  disguise. 

Sh.I.  To  change  the  appearance,  to  disguise  ;  of  clothes,  to  be 
unbecoming  (W.A.G.1.     S.  &  Ork.' 

[Cp.  Dan.  lud,  colour.] 

AFFLUFE,  AFF  LOOF,  adv.     Sc. 

1.  Without  book,  offhand.    To  repeat  anything  'afHufe'  is 
to  deliver  it  merely  from  memory  (Jam.). 

2.  Extempore,  without  premeditation. 

Sc.  Whene'er  I  shoot  wi'  m^'  air  gun,  'Tis  ay  affloof  Davidson 
Seasons  i^i-fit)]  183.  Per.  AflTufe,  in  two  words,  are  still  commonly 
used,  e.g.  AIT  lufe  speaking,  extempore  speaking  i.G.W.).  Lnk. 
How  snackly  could  he  gi'e  a  fool  reproof.  E'en  wi'  a  cant}'  tale 
he'd  tell  air  loof,  Ramsay  Poems  (ed.  1800I  II.  11  (Ja.m.\  Ayr. 
I  shall  scribble  down  some  blether  Just  clean  afl'-loof,  Buk.\s 
Epistle  to  John  Lapiaik  (1785). 

3.  Forthwith,  immediately,  out  of  hand  (Jam.). 

AFFODILL.aA.  Chs.  Also  in  the  form  affrodileChs."3; 
haverdril  Chs.'  [a'fadil,  a'fradil.]  The  daffodil,  A'anVsiMS 
psetido-  niiirissiis. 

Chs.  AITrodilc,  Nareissttspsendo-nnra'ssus,  hut  the  Cheshire  word 
is  really  Ilavrdril ;  Chs.'*;  Chs.^  '  Flower  of  AlVadille  '  is,  in  an  old 
Lincoln  Cathedral  manuscript,  recommended  as  a  cure  for  madness. 

[y/^/or)'///c,th' Affodillc or  Asphodill flower.  I/ac/ie rovatti; 
theAffodille  or  Asphodill  flower;  especially  1  the  small-kind 
thereof  called)  the  Speare  for  a  king,  Cotur.  M.Lat. 
affodilttis  {Pionipt.),  Lat.  asp/ioditiis,  Gr.  ilo-^ofifXcif.] 

AFFORDANCE,  sb.  Cum.  [afuadans.]  Ability  to  bear 

Cum.  Quite  right,  if  you  are  ofalTordance[ifyou  can  aflord  it].  It's 
beyond  my  affordance  [more  than  I  can  alTordJ  ,  W.K.1.  n.Cum.  Not 
known  round  Coniston  ;  but  in  the  district  rountl  Wigton  and  the 
widcand  isolated  district  of  the  Abbey  Holme  the  word  '  aflV>rtlance* 
is  well  known  and  generally  used  (.T.E.I.     Cum.'  AlTwordance. 

[A  deriv.  of  afford,  r.  (OE.  gefordian,  to  advance,  per- 
form) -^--ance,  a  Fr.  suffix.] 

AFFRONT,  V.  Sc.  [afru'nt.]  To  disgrace,  put  to  shame. 

Gall.  At  your  time  o'  life,  to  dress  up  for  a  young  man  ;  I'm 
black  alTronlit,  Crockett  Raiders  (1894)  xxxiii. 

AFFRONT,  sb.     Sc.      Disgrace,  shame. 

Per.  He  hasna  an  aflVont  [he  cannot  be  put  to  shame,  '  past 
feeling']  ^G.W.). 

Hence  Affrontless,  f7f//l 

Abd.  Not  susceptible  of  disgrace  or  shame  (Jam.).  Per.  He's 
atTrontlcps  [shameless,  p;ist  feeling]  (G.W.). 

AFFRUG,  sb.  Sh.  I.  [afrug.j  A  spent  wave  receding 
from  the  shore. 

S.  &  Ork.'  AtlVug  of  the  sea;  AfTrug  or  Aflf-bod,  MS.  add. 

[Lit.  a  pull-back.  Cp.  Dan.  af,  oft>;j^,  a  hasty  pull  or 
movement ;  ON.  rykkr,  cogn.  with  rykkja,  to  pull  roughly 
and  hastily.] 

AFFURST,  sec  Athirst. 

D  2 




AFIELD,  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  Dur.  Nhp.  War.  Brks.  [afi-ld, 
avi-ld.]     Abroad,  out  in  or  into  the  fields. 

Ayr.  My  only  pleasure  At  hame,  a-fiel'.  Burns  Second  Epistle  to 
Davie.  Wxf."  Aveel  (ofo.).  Dur.' Tek  the  cows  afield.  Nhp.' The 
master's  gone  a-field  ;  Nhp.^  Whcer's  maester?  — Up  afield.  \Var.2 
He's  gone  afield  [on  the  farmlands].  Brks.'  A  farmer  is  said  to  be 
'  gone  avield '  when  he  has  gone  to  walk  about  his  farm. 

\A-,  on  -afield.] 

AFIRE,  adv.  Nhb.  Wm.  Chs.  War.  Dev.  [3fai3;r), 
3vai'3(r).]     On  fire. 

Nhb.i  Ma  keel's  aa  afire,  ma  fortin's  aa  spoiled,  Corvan  Keel 
Afire  {c.  i&b^).  Wm.»,  Chs.i  War.  (J.R.W.)  Dev.  Urn,  Zue, 
vatch  zom  zalt !    Tha  chimbly's  avire  !  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892). 

A-FLAT,  adv.    Sc.     Flat. 

Fif.  There  a  jumper  falls  aflat  upon  the  mould,  Tennant  Anst. 
Fair  (,1812")  xxvii. 

AFLAUGHT,  adv.     Sc.  (Jam.)     [ana'xt.]     Lying  flat 


[A-.  on+flaitcht  {Jlaiighf),  q.v.] 

AFLEY,  V.     Sc.    Obsol.     To  dismay,  discomfit. 

Sc.  Alley,  in  pp.  dismayed,  frightened  ;  still  used.  The  herds 
would  gather  in  their  nowt . . .  Hafflins  afley'd  to  bide  thereout,  Fer- 
GUSSON  King's  Bulliday  (0.1774)  2,  ed.  1845  (N.E.D.). 

[OE.  (ijlii'gaii  I  Merc,  a/legan),  to  put  to  flight ;  see  Fley.] 

AFLUNTERS,  Wv.     w^Yks.     In  a  state  of  disorder. 

w.Yks.Afiunters,  disarranged, Lffrfi- j1/(7/-f.5K/'/i/.  (Apr.  18,  1891); 
Her  hair  all  aflunters  (B.K.). 

[A-,  on  +  Jliiiiter,  q.v.] 

AFOOT,  adv.     Sc.  Cum.  n.Yks.     [sfi't,  n.Yks.  sfist.] 
L  Up  and  about;  esp.  able  to  stand  and  walk  after  an 

Wm.  &  Cum.'  What  ailsta,  Jammy,  Thou's  sae  soon  a-fit,  Clark 
Sevnion  and  Jamwy  (1779)  1.  i.        n.Yks.^  It'll   be  a  whent  while 
afoore  he's  aff'eeat  ageean  [a  long  time  before  he  is  well]. 
2.  Fig.  to  get  afoot,  to  make  a  start  or  beginning. 

n.Yks. 2  Hae  ye  gotten  afeeat  wi'  t'  job  ? 

[Mischief,  thou  art  afoot.  Take  thou  what  course  thou 
wilt !  Shaks.  J.  Caesar  in.  ii.  265  ;  To  pleye  and  walke  on 
fote,  Chaucer  C.  T.  f.  390.     A-,  on  +foot.\ 

AFORCE,  V.     Nhb.     [aftir's.] 

Nhb.  To  hole  a  board  into  an  adjoining  board  unintentionally, 
GreF-NWELL  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1849!  ;  Nhb.' 

[The  word  occurs  freq.  in  Hampole's  Psalter  in  the 
sense  of  to  constrain.'  AFr.  aforcer,  OFr.  esforcier;  Rom. 
exfortiare.  to  force,  constrain  ;  deriv.  of  hat./ortis,  strong.] 

ATOKCED,  f>pl.  adj.    e.Yks.    Forced,  compelled. 

e.Yks.'  Ah  was  afooaced  ti  gang  alang  ti  gaol,  19. 

AFORE,  adv. .conj'.and prep.  Ingeii.  use  in  van  dial.  ofSc. 
Irel.  Eng.    Also  written  afoor  Nhb.  Cum.  Lan.Suf. ;  afocar 
e.Yks.  Wm. ;  aforne  e.An. ;  atvore  Glo. ;  avore,  avoore 
sw.  counties;  avaur,  avaurn  Som.     [3fo3(r),avo3'(r).] 
1.  Of  time:  before,  ere. 

Sc.  [He]  wan  there  afore  the  time  (Jam.).  Abd.  Wer  ither  herd 
thol't  a3'e  afore  To  lie  ayont  the  byre,  Goodwi/e  (1867^  ver.  8.  Edb. 
Afore  I  was  fifteen  years  old,  Scott  Midlothian  (1818)  ix.  GaH. 
Afore  they  could  let  him  gang,  Crockett  Stickii  Min.  (1893)  24. 
Ir.  They'll  be  gettin'  oodles  o'  money  on  at  the  fair  afore  Lent, 
Barlow /(/v//s(i892l57.  N.I.'  Nhb.  We'll  hae  anither  fishing  bout 
Afore  we're  taen  awa',  Coquet  Dale  Sngs.  (1852)  59:  Nhb.'  Dur.' 
Cum.^  We  teuk  a  gfld  Icuk  at  him  afoor  anybody  spak,  i.  Wm, 
Afore  we  com.  Knitters  e'  Dent  (Doctor,  ed.  1848)  560.  n.Yks. 
Ah  nivver  knew  t'rooad  .  .  .  seea  shooat  .  .  .  afooar,  Tweddell 
Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  64.  ne.Yks.'  He'll  mebbe  cum  afoor  neet. 
e.Yks.  He  hadn't  gcean  monny  yards  afcoar  he  fell  ower  summat, 
Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889;  33.  w.Yks.  A've  dubbled  t'neiv,  afoar 
la  day ,  PREsroNPof »is,  (ifc.  (1864)  4  ;  w.Yks.'  That  n  ivver  com  across 
my  brain  afoar,  ii.  324  ;  w.Yks.'  I  sal  be  offafore  long.  Lan.  Afore 
the  week  wureawt,  JiAUKsManch.  Man  (1876)  viii  ;  I've  hcd  things 
stown  afoorto-day.BowKER  7a/fs(i882',65:  Lan.*  Chs.  Awcannot 
tell  yo' very  much  afore,  Yates  Owd  Peter,  i.  8;  Chs."  Stf.' 
nw.Der.'  Three  year  afore  [three  eeti  T  flfoau  t].  He  went  an  hour 
afore  us  [ee  went  un  iaawur  Ofoau  T  iiz].  s.Not.  Ah  seed  it  afore  yo 
(J.P.K.).  Lin.  An'  'e  mrade  the  bed  as'e  ligs  on  afoor 'e  coom'd  to 
the  shire,  Tennyson  A^.  Farmer,  New  Style  (1870)  st.  7.  se.Wor.' 
w.Wor.'  Come  an*  see  we  afore  yd  goes  awaay.  s.War.  'Ebe  a 
wik  fool  az  gits  up  afore  egooas  t'bed.  IVhy  John  (G.H.T.)  {Call. 
L. L.B.I.  Shr.'  'E's  bin  theer  afore  I  know,  so  dunna  tell  me; 
Shr.2  Afore  lung,  before  long.       Hrf.  Thou  hadst  ought  to  a  come 

afore,  Flk-Lore  Jni.  (1886)  I'V.  166.  Glo.  [I]  lukk'd  at  thaay 
tateers  avore  y  yad  mi  ta,  Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  136. 
Brks.  He  made  his  braags  avoore  he  died  Hughes  Siour.  White 
Horse  (1859)  vii.  Mid.  Afore  you  takes  your  snooze,  Dickens 
Mutual  Fiiend  (1865)  bk.  iv.  i.  Hnt,  Afore  long  (T.P.F.).  Nrf. 
The  year  afore  that  he  kinder  did  for  my  tunnips.  Jessopp  Arcady 
(1887)  iii.  82.  Suf.  I'll  goon  him  such  a  hidin'  as  he  niver  had 
afoor.  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892).  Ess.  You  'ont  want  to  be  there 
long  Afore  j'ou  say  my  wahrd  is  right,  Downe  Ballads  (,1895)  17. 
Sur.'  Sus.  Afore  1  know'd  what  I  was  about.  Lower  Sng.  Sol. 
(i860)  vi.  12.  n.Wil.  What  the  men  call  '  the  dark  days  afore 
Christmas,'  Jefferies  Wild  Life  (1879I  98.  Dor.  Avore  we  git  to 
Temple  Coombe,  Young  Rabin  Hill  (1867)  22  ;  Dor.'  Avore  the 
east  begun  to  redden,  57.  Som.  If  his  veace  was  beautivul  avore. 
Leith  Lemon  Verbena  (1895)  51.  Dev.  It  mad  'em  laugh  more 
than  they  did  avore,  Repotis  Provinc.  (1886)  90.  n.Dev.  Ad  t  chell 
ream  my  heart  to  tha  avore  Ise  let  that  tha  lipped,  Exm.  Scold, 
(1746)  1.  17.  Dev,^  Her's  like  a  duck  avore  day.  Cor.  Our  boy, 
he  wor  to  school  a  bit  afore  aw  pitched  to  bal,  Forfar  Pentoivan 
(1859)  i.  7  ;  Cor.'  He  took  me  up  afore  1  were  down  [corrected 
me  before  I  had  made  a  mistake]. 

2.  Of  preference:  rather  than,  in  preference  to,  better 

w.Yks.s  Afore  al  du  that  al  heit  haay  wi  a  horse  !  nw.Der.'  I'll 
clem  afore  I'll  work  for  that  muney  [aujll  tlaem  ufoauT  au)ll 
wuur'k  fur  dhaat-  miini].  sw.Lin.'  There's  nothing  afore  bramble- 
vinegar  [vinegar  made  of  blackberries]  fora  cough.  I  reckon  there's 
nowt  afore  spring  waiter.  Wil.  Gie  I  a  English  shartharn  afor  a 
Alderney,  '  Agrikler  '  Rhymes  (1872)  20.  w.Som.'  Avore  I'd  be 
beholdin  to  he,  I'd  work  my  vingers  to  bones. 

3.  In  front,  before,  in  the  presence  of. 

Sc.  He  ran  on  afore  (Jam.)  ;  He  wad  hae  liked  ill  to  hae  come 
in  ahint  and  out  afore  them  this  gate,  Scott  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxxvi. 
Ayr.  Ae  Hairst  afore  the  Sherramoor.  I  mind't  as  weel's  yestreen. 
Burns  Halloiveen  (1785).  Nhb,  Wi'  canny  care  she  claps't 
afore  them,  Graham  Moorl.  Dia.  (1826)  6;  Nhb.'  Gan  on  afore. 
Wm.'  It's  reet  afooar  tha.  n.Yks.^  Ahmt  an'  afoore,  behind  and 
before.  w.Yks.  Mah  vaineyird  'at  is  maine,  is  afoor  mah,  Little- 
D.^LE  Craven  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  ^'i^^-  '^  >  w.Yks.'  Gehr  afore  him  an' 
keep  afore  him.  Lan.'  Now,  Sally,  gan  thi  ways  afore  me,  an' 
oppen  t'door,  Waugh  Jannock  (1874)  iii.  s.Chs.'  s.Stf.  He 
come  an'  stood  right  afore  me.  Pinnock  Bk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895). 
nw.Der.'  He's  a  mile  afore  me  [ec^z  u  mahy'l  ufoauT  mee]. 
Where  is  Sam? — He's  afore  [weeuT  is  Saam' ?  ec^z  ufoau'r]. 
Der.2  Dofi"th3'  hat  mon,  afore  thy  betters.  Slir.'  Theer  wuz  the 
child  right  afore  the 'orse.  Brks.' Avorn  is  '  before  him.'  Avoort 
is  '  before  it.'  Sur.  He's  afore^'ou  entirely,  Hoskyns  Talpa  (1852) 
183.  Wil.  Vootsteps  did  rouse  my  pensive  ears.  An  he  avore 
I  stood.  Slow  Rhymes  (1889)  21.  Som.  Get  avaur  un,  stoopid, 
Jennings  Dial.  u:Eng.  (1869).  w.Som.' A  little  knot  of  flowers 
avore  the  house.  Captain's  the  best  oss  to  go  avore.  n.Dev.  And 
whare  a  wou'd  be  ovore  or  no,  E.xm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  14. 

4.  Until. 

w.Som.'  Us  can  wait  avore  j'ou  be  ready,  sir.  Uur  oan  lat-n 
uloa'un  uvoa'ur  ec-z  u-broakt  [she  will  not  leave  it  alone  until  it 
is  broken].  n.Dev.  Th'arst  always  a  vustled  up  .  .  .  avore  zich 
times  as  Neckle  Halse  comath  about.  E.rni.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  108. 

5.  Coiup.  Afore  all,  nevertheless ;  -fit,  indiscriminately, 
all  without  exception  (Jam.)  ;  -hand,  aforran,  before- 
hand, ready;  -long,  shortly;  -time,  formerly;  yene,  over 

n.Dev. Yeet  avore  oil,  avore  voak,  tha  wut  lustree,  Exm.  Scold. 
(1746)  1.  291.  Frf.  Some  sa3's  ye  mak  them  up  aforehand,  Barrie 
Thrums  (1889)  39.  n.Cy.  Aforran,  in  store,  in  reserve  (Hall.). 
Nhb.'  Nowt  aforran,  nothing  ready.  Cura.^  It'so'  settl't  afoorhan'. 
n.Yks.  Bill  axt  ma  afooarhand  what  Ah  thowt,  Tweddell  Clevel. 
Rhymes  (1875)  66.  e.Yks.'  Ah  likes  ti  gan  ti  chotch  a  bit  afooar- 
hand. Noo,  get  on  wi'  thi  wahk;  Jack's  afooarhand  o'  tha,  MS. 
add.  (T.H.)  w.Som.'  Mind  you  get  em  in  readiness  avore-hand. 
Aay  wuz  uvoa'ran'z  wai  un,  vur  au*I  u  wuz  zu  kluvur[I  outwitted 
him  (or  got  the  better  of  him),  notwithstanding  that  he  was  so 
clever].  Dur.'  See  y'agen  afore  lang.  n.Yks.' ;  n.Yks. ^  Riddy 
for  off  afoorelang  [ready  to  set  out  soon].  It'll  happen  afoorelang 
gans  [it  will  happen  at  no  distant  period].  n.Lin.',  Lei.'  Nhp.' 
I  shall  go  afore  long.  Glo.  It's  you  as  ought  to  go  before  the  magis- 
trates, and  will  do  afore  long.  Gissing  Vill.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  ii. 
Som.  Come  it  did,  sure  enulT.  avore  lang,  Leith  Lemon  Verbena 
(18951  38.  n.Yks. 2  An  aud  afooretimes  body,  an  antiquated  per- 
sonage. ne.Lan.'  n.Lin.  Thaay  was  big  foiiks  afooretime  (  M. P.); 
n.Lin.'    Som.  Aforeyene,  over  against,  directly  in  front  of  (Hall.). 




6.  Phr.  to  live  afore  the  friend,  to  live  on  tlie  charity  of 

w.Yks.  A  chaphez  a  deal  to  swalls  when  he'zlivin' afore  t'friend 


[If  I  do  not  . . .  drive  all  thy  subjects  afore  thee  like  a 
flock  of  wild-geese,  Shaks.  i  lien.  Jf,  u.  iv.  152.  ME.  To 
hem  that  riche  were  afore,  Gower  C.A.  ii.  88.  OE.  on- 
foran,  before.] 

AFORWARD,  adv.    Glo.    Forward,  in  front. 

Glo.  Get  the  wurk  avorard,  carnt  ec  !  (S.S.B.)  ;  A  shepherd 
would  tell  his  dog  to  'go  avorard,'  meaning  'get  ahead  of  the 
sheep'  ij. D.R.I. 

\A-,  on  +forii.'ard,  q.  v.] 

AFRAID,  coil/.  Ircl.  and  var.  dial,  [afred.]  Also  for 
afraid,  and,  by  aphaeresis,  fraid.     Lest,  for  fear  that. 

Ir.  1  put  it  there,  afraid  you  should  find  it.  I  wouldn't  go  out 
to-day  afraid  I  should  miss  you  (A.S.P.)  ;  I  wouldn't  undertalie 
to  say  for  fraid  I'd  tell  a  lie,  Yeats  Flk.  Tales  (1888)  187.  Dub. 
Run  indoors,  God  bless  you,  for  afraid  the  cows  'd  run  over  you 
[said  to  a  child  by  a  man  driving  cows]  (^G.M.H.).  n.Lin.'  She 
weant  goa  by  trip-traains  for  fraaid  o'  sum'ats  happenin'.  ne.Wor 
I'll  just  go  with  you  part  of  the  way,  afraid  you  shouldn't  find  it 
(J.W.P.).  Su£  I  shall  put  on  my  hat  afraid  I  shall  catch  cold 
(Common.      '  For  afraid  '  is  less  common)  (F.H.). 

[Afraid  {cony),  contr.  for  'being  afraid.'  For  afraid  is 
due  to  association  with  the  phr.  '  tor  fear.'  Afraid  is  pp. 
o{ affray,  vb.  to  frighten,  AFr.  affrayer,  OFr.  eff'reer,  esfreer.] 

AFRAWL,  prefi.   Wor.Suf    [afr?-!.]    For  all,  in  spite  of. 

se.Wor.*  '  Now.  Bill}',  thee  cossn't  come  this  a-road.'  Billy;  *  1 
sh'll  come  afravvl  thee.'    Su£  AlVawl,  for  all,  in  spite  of  i^Hall.). 


AFRESH,  adv.  and  ad/.     In  gcii.  use.     [afre'/.] 

1.  adv.     Over  again. 

Brks.'  Thee  hast  done  the  job  zo  bad  thee  mus'  do't  avresh. 

2.  adj.     Unknown  before,  new,  fresh. 

Stf.'^  It's  naut  afresh  far  im  ta  bei  drunk.  Brks.'  A  be  a-doin' 
things  in  the  parish  as  be  quite  avresh. 

[1.  Dead  Henry's  wounds  Open  their  congeal'd  mouths 
and  bleed  afresh,  Shaks.  Ric/i.  Ill,  i.  ii.  56.  A-  (prob.  =  0/ 
as  in  anew)  +fres/i.  2.  As  an  ad/,  afresh  is  prob.  not 
exactly  the  same  word  as  that  above ;  the  a-  representing 
in  this  case  not  of,  but  the  pref.  surviving  in  western 
dial,  from  OE.  .,?■*'-.] 

AFRIST,  adv.  Sc.  (Jam,)  [afri'st.]  On  trust  or  in  a 
state  of  delay. 

Sc.  All  ills  are  good  afrist,  Prov. 

\A-,  on  +fri^t.  ON.  frestr,  OE.  fierst,  space  of  time, 
respite.     ME.  Do  f)OU  nouth  on  frest,  Hav.  1337).] 

AFRO,  V.     Sh.  I.     To  dissuade. 

Sh.I.(,W.A,G,,  Co//.  L.L.B.)       S.&Ork.« 

[Dan.  afraade,  to  dissuade  (cp.  G.  abraten) ;  Dan.  af 
ou  +  rnnde,  to  advise;  ON.  rai^a.  OE.  rddan.] 

AFRONT,  rtrfz;.  Yks.  Lan.  War.  Brks.  [afru'nt,  avre'nt.] 
In  front. 

w.Yks.*  He  wur  afront  an'  we  wur  aback  on  him.  ne.Lan.* 
War.  (J.R.W.)  Brks.' Thee  get  on  avront  o'  I,  thcr  ycnt  room 
vor  us  bwo-ath  in  the  paath. 

[A-,  on  +  front.] 

AFRORE,  ppl.  adj.  svv.  counties  only.  Ilmp.  Dor,  Som. 
Dev.  Also  written  avrore  Dor,'  Dev. ;  avraur,  avroared 
Dev.  See  below.  [3fro3'(r),  3vro3'(r).]  Frozen,  stiff  with 

s.Hmp.Ycmustbe  nigh  famished,  and  afrore  too,"VERNEy  i.  Lisle 
(1870)  xxiii.  Hmp.'  Froar,  Vrore.  Dor.'  Som.  My  vingers  be 
all  avraur,  Jennings  Dial.  w.Eiig.  (1869V  n.Dev.  Tha  chield's 
avroared.  tha  conkcrbells  Be  hangin  to  un.  Rock  Jim  fl;i' AV// ( 1 867) 
5  ;  Or  whan  'tes  avore  [misprint :  1771  has  avrore]  or  a  scratcht, 
£.vnt.  Scoid.  (1746)  1.  123  ;  Avrore,  frozen,  frosty,  Kxmore,  Grose 
(1790%  Dev.'  'Twas  so  hard  avrore  that  the  juggy-mire  was  all 
one  ditch  of  ice,  pt.  iii.  18,       nw.Dev.' 

[OE.  i^efroren,  pp.  oifrcosan,  to  freeze.] 

AFT.'  adv.     n.Yks.     [aft.] 

1.  Backward,  infig.  sense. 

n."Yks.2  They  went  aft,  instead  o'  forrat  [met  with  reverses 
rather  than  things  favourable]. 

2.  As  super/. 

n.Yks.*Afte5t,  the  hindmost,  the  laziest  of  the  lot. 

AFTCROP,  si).    Sc.    Written  eft-,  eff-. 

1.  After-crop,alsocalled  tail-crop,  i.e.  the  grass  that  springs 
up  among  the  stubble  after  the  crop  is  cut  (Jam.  Stippl.).  2. 
A  crop  of  the  same  kind  as  the  ground  yielded  last  year  (//>.). 

3.  Aft-crop  is  the  same  as  aftermath. 

Gall.  (A,W.') 

AFTCROP,  V.  Sc.  (Jam.  Sitppl.)  Written  eff-.  To 
after-crop,  i.  e.  to  take  two  successive  crops  of  the  same 
kind  from  a  field. 

Per.  Tenants  were  restricted  not  to  eff-crop  the  infield  [not  to 
take  two  successive  crops  of  oats],  Rorektson  Agric.  (1799)  23. 

AFTER,  prep.,  adv.,  v.,  and  adj.  (in  comp.)  Var.  dial. 
uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  Eng.    See  below.    [a'ft3(r),  e-fta(r).] 

1.  prep.  Of  place :  following  the  course  of,  alongside  of. 
A\so  fig.  following,  in  accordance  with. 

n.Lin.'  [Fig.  sense]  He  said  his  peace  wo'd  for  wo'd  efter  th'  book. 
Nhp.' Go  arter  the  hedge.  Glo.'  Go  athirt  that  ere  ground,  and 
you'll  find  the  path  after  the  hedge.  Som.  After,  along  (J.  S.F.S.;  ; 
•W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873). 

2.  Behind. 

Ir.  I  left  him  after  me  (G.M.II.). 

3.  Of  time  :  used  instead  of 'past'  when  speaking  of  the 

time  of  day. 

s.Oxf.  I'll  mash  the  tea  as  soonaseveritgoes'alfaater  three,  Rose- 
mary C/ji/Zfras  (1895)  181,  Suf.  M.E.R.i  Dev.  I  stap'd  thare  til  haf 
arter  zix  I  shude  spose,  Nathan  Hogg  Poet.  Let.  (1847)  15,  ed,  1865. 

4.  adv.     Even  with,  keeping  pace  with. 

w.Som.' Dhii  eenjiin  wain  zu  vaa'S,  wuz  foo'us  vur  t-ae-u  tiie- 
vur  t-an-  dhu  shcc'z— wau-n  kcod-n  nuuth'ecn  nee-ur  keep  aiip 
aa-dr  [the  engine  went  so  fast,  (we)  were  obliged  to  have  two 
(men)  to  hand  the  sheaves  — one  could  not  nearly  keep  up  after — 
i.  e.  the  supply  even  with  the  demand]. 

5.  (i)  Following  a  i>.  of  motion  :  to  fetch.  (2)  prep,  used, 
the  V.  being  understood.  (3)  prep,  used  as  a  v.  pure  and 

(I)  Nrf.  I'll  go  arter  it  (E.M.\  w.Som.' With  any  verb  of  motion 
[after]  means  to  fetch.  Zain  aa-dr,  goo  aa-dr,  uurn  aa-dr  [send, 
go,  run  —  to  fetch].  1^2)  n.Yks.  He  efter  Betty  ageean,  Tweddkll 
Clevcl.  Rhymes  1,18751  13.  ne.Yks.'  Ah  efther  him.  w.Yks.  They 
teld  her  Avhear  he'd  goan,  soa  shoo  after  him  (a  very  common  form 
of  expression).  Hartley  Yks.  Xinas.Ann.  (1879)  12.  (3^  w.Yks. 
Ivvery  dog  thcar  wor  in  it  [the  village]  afterd  us,  Tom  Treddle- 
hoyle  Bait tisla  Ann.  (1854)  35,  Nhp.*  He  got  the  start,  but  I 
preshus  quick  atter'd  him.  Bdf.  Batchelor  Anal.  Eng.  Lang. 
118091.  s.Hrap.  What  did  that  fellow  Ned  mean  by  aftering  me 
like  that,  Verney  L.  Lisle  (1870^  xxv. 

6.  When  used  with  a  progressive  tense  it  indicates: 
(i)  that  an  action  is  about  to  take  place;  (2)  completed 
action,  cf.  Fr.  venir  dc ;  (3)  present  action  ;  in  the  last 
sense  it  is  freq.  otiose. 

(1)  Inv.  I  will  be  after  telling  him  [I  will  tell  him]  (H.  K,  F.\  Clis.3 
He's  after  taking  another  farm,  e. An.' The  hen  is  after  l.nying. 
Suf.  I  now  after  fetching  it  ^C.  G.  de  B.).  (a'j  Inv.  I  am  after 
telling  him  [I  have  just  told  him]  (II.K,  F.).  Ir.  She  told  them  in  the 
prisoner's  presence  that  he  was  after  hanging  her  up  against  the 
door  with  a  rope,  Dublin  Dy.  E.xpr.  (Mar.  26,  1891) ;  I  am  after 
dining  [I  have  dined]  (G.M.H.);  Jos  was  after  balragging  the 
priest,  Kennedy  Even.  Diiffrey  (1869)81  ;  Ihey  were  after  hangin' 
a  lad  up  at  the  jail.  Barlow  Liseonnel  {\Qg^\  169.  s.Ir.  It  is  not 
every  lady  that  would  be  after  making  [would  have  made]  such  an 
offer,  Croker  Leg.  (i86a)  220.  Wxf.  S'es,  indeed,  sir,  and  I  only 
after  composing  a  new  prayer  today,  Kennedy  Banks  Bow  (1867) 
186.  (3)  Ir.  Then  it's  fitter . . .  for  you  to  be  after  putting  your  sign 
there  in  your  pocket,  Barrington  Sketches  (1830)  I.  xvii ;  Is  it 
Lanigan  you'd  be  afther  comparin' me  to  ?  Lover /.f^,  (1848)  I.  225. 
s.Ir.  I  would  not  beaftersayingsuch  a  thing,  Croker /.(■jf.  (1862)291. 

7.  To  be  after:  (i)  to  court,  to  be  in  love  with  ;  (2I  to  be 
in  pursuit  of,  to  follow ;  (3)  to  be  engaged  upon  ;  (4)  to 
aim  at ;  (5)  the  word  also  conveys  the  idea  of  a  state  or 
condition  in  the  immediate  future,  and  (6)  of  a  recently 
completed  action. 

(i)Inv.  1  am  after  so  and  so  [I  am  in  love  with  so  and  so]  (H.E.F.'). 
n.Yks.  (I. W.)  Chs.' I  expect  he's  after  our  Polly.  'War.  J.R.W.) 
(,2^  Inv.  I  will  be  after  you  [I'll  follow  you]  (H.E.F.\  n.Yks. 
(I,W,)  Chs.'The  policeman's  after  him.  War.  (J.R.W.)  (3) 
n.Yks.  (I.  W.)  Chs.' What  arc  you  after  ?  Lin.  He'll  be  efter  ye 
soon,  I'll  uphowd  it,  Peacock  R.  Skidaiigh  (1870)  I.  189.  n.Lin,' 
I  could  tell  what  he  was  efter,  though  he  kep'  very  squat.  'War. 
(J.R.W.)       Nrf.  What  are  you  arter  there  (E.  M.).       (4)  sJr.Is 




that  what  you'd  be  after,  you  spalpeen  ?  Croker  Leg.  (1862)  269. 
CoUoq. '  Look  here  !  Dunham,'  said  Staniford  sharply,  'what  are 
you  after!'  H dwells ^roos/oo;t  (1883^  xii.  (5)  Ir.  The  child  is 
after  the  measles.     (6)  I  am  after  my  dinner  (G.M.H.). 

8.  After  long  and  last,  at  the  end. 
I.Ma.  That's   where  we'll   all    be   after  long  and   last,    Caine 
Maiixntaii  (1894)  pt.  11.  xv. 

0.  Comp.  After-burden,  after-birth  (placenta) ;  -butter, 
that  made  from  after-fleetings,  q.v. ;  -cast,  consequences, 
effect,  what  may  ensue  (Jam.)  ;  -cleckin,  -clep,  -cletch, 
see  below;  -come,  consequence,  what  comes  after; 
-comer,  a  stranger,  visitor,  'follower';  -daylight,  -end, 
-feed,  -fetch,  see  below ;  -fleetings,  cream  from  milk  that 
has  been  twice  skimmed  ;  -gang,  to  follow  ;  -grass, -held, 
see  below;  -leavings,  slime  containing  ore  ;  -leys, -mead, 
-most,  -shear,  -shot,  -smatch,  -temsings,  see  below; 
-temsing-bread,  bread  made  from  coarse  flour,  the  refuse 
of  the  sieve  or  temse ;  -wald,  the  outfield,  arable  land 
which  is  not  manured,  but  cropped  until  it  is  worn  out 
(Jam.)  ;  -winding,  see  below. 

Lin.  After-burden,  after-birth,  Streatfield  Lin.  and  Danes 
(1884)  315.  n.Lin.'  The  afterburden  should  oht  to  be  alus  putten 
iipo'  kitchen  fire-back  at  neet  when  foaks  hcs  gone  to  bed.  Bck. 
That  which  is  afterwards  skimmed  makes  what  is  called  an  after- 
butter,  Marshall  Review  (1817)  IV.  546.  Rxb.  He  durst  na  do't 
for  fear  o'  the  aftercast  (Jam.).  Dut.'  Efter-clecking,  one  of  a 
second  brood.  ne.Yks.*  Efter-clecking,  a  brood  of  chickens,  &c., 
hatched  after  the  first  brood  of  the  season  [also  in  pi.  applied  to 
the  brood].  Them  fahve  geslins  is  eftthercleckins.  n.Yks.^  Efther- 
clep,  the  brood  that  happens  to  come  after  the  usual  breeding 
time.  Dur.'  Efter-cletch,  an  after  or  second  brood  in  the  same 
year.  s.Sc.  And  how  are  ye  to  stand  the  aftercome  ?  Brownie  of 
Bodsbeck,  ii.  9;  I  fear  she  is  ruined  for  this  world, — and  for  the 
aftercome,  I  dare  hardly  venture  to  think  about  it,  ib.  ii.  48  (Jam.). 
Gall.  He  wad  like  to  dee  but  for  the  thocht  o'  the  after-come, 
Crockett  Moss-Hags  (1895)  xxiii.  n.Yks.^  Efther-comers, 
followers.  e.Yks.*  Efther-cummers,  visitors,  strangers.  e.Lan.^ 
After-dellit,  night  [after  daylight].  n.Yks.^  Yan's  efther-end 
condition    [one's    state    after    death].  n.Lin.'    After-end,    the 

autumn ;  more  commonly  [called]  the  back-end  or  fall.  Oxf. 
Afterfeed,  the  grass  that  grows  after  the  first  crop  has  been 
mown,  and  generally  fed  olf,  not  left  for  an  aftermath,  as  in  some 
othercounties'j^HALL.,  Wright);  Still  in  freq.  use  (K.B.).  Cum.* 
Efter  fetches,  after-thoughts  or  actions.  Ess.  Butter  which 
is  made  from  the  after-fleetings  of  the  milk,  Marshall  Review 
(1817)  V.  164.  Abd.  They  .  .  .  gae  a  nod  to  her  to  aftergang, 
Ross  Hehnore  (17681  86.  w.Som.'  After  grass,  the  grass  which 
grows  after  the  hay  is  gone.  It  is  not  a  second  crop  to  be 
mown,  but  to  be  fed.  Wgt.  After-heid,  grass  springing  up  in 
the  stubble  after  the  crop  is  cut  (A.W.).  Cor.^  After-leavings  in 
washing  tin  (s.v.  Loobs".  Brks.  After-laies,  After-lej-s,  aftermath 
or  rowinge  (K.).  Hrt.  Our  after  mead,  or  second  crop,  Ellis 
Mod.  Htisb.  (1750)  IV.  i.  95.  e.Yks.i  Bill's  awlas  efther-most  on 
'em  all,  MS.  add.  (T.  II.)  Hmp.'  After-shear,  the  aftermath. 
Dor.  Another  person  claims  a  right  to  the  after  shear,  Marshall 
Review  (1B17)  V.  261.  Sc.  In  the  process  of  distilling  whisk3',  the 
strong  spirit  which  comes  away  first  is  called  the  foreshot  or  fore- 
shots;  and  that  which  comes  last,  the  aftershot  or  aftershots 
(Jam.  Sh/>/i/.V  n.Yks.^  Efther-smatch,  the  flavour  of  anything 
after  it  is  swallowed.  Dur.*  Efter-temsings,  coarse  flour.  m.Yks.l 
After-temsins.  w.Yks.'  I  hed  some  efter  temsin  breead  i'  t'Aumry. 
Cat.  Afterwald,  that  division  of  a  farm  which  is  called  outfield  in 
other  parts  of  Scotland.  The  outfield  land  [proviiicially  after- 
wald], Agric.  Stirv.  of  Cai.  87  (Jam.).  nw.Dev.'  Arter-wlnding 
or  Artcr-winning,  small  or  light  corn  [after-winnowing].  Cor.' 
After-winding,  waste  corn. 

AFTER,  V.  Yks.  (?)  Stf.  Der.  To  take  the  last  milk 
from  cows.     See  Afterings. 

Yks.  I  have  only  heard  this  word  once  in  Yks.  (M. F.)  Stf.' 
After,  to  extract  the  last  milk  of  a  cow  the  second  time  ;  Stf.^ 
Tak  5is  litl  kan,  an  gu  an  after  th'  kai.  Der.  After  the  youths  had 
milked  the  cows,  I  aftered  them,  getting  a  pint  or  so  from  each 

AFTER-ANE,  adj.,  prop.  phr.    Sc.     Uniform,  equable. 

Sc.  She's  fi.x't  my  lut  maist  after  ane,  CocK  5(H;/>/f  5/raiH5  (1810) 
69  (Jam.).  Bnff.i  Ye  canna  gang  wrang  t'him  :  for  he's  eye  efter- 
ane  :  an'  he  niver  sehns  awa  ony  ane  wee  a  sair  liairt. 

fSyne  eftir  ane  my  toung  is  and  my  pen,  Doug.  Virg. 
452)  30.] 

AFTERCLAP,  sb.  Sc.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Lei. 
War.  Shr.  Glo.  Oxf.  Ess.  LW.  Wil.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Not  in 
gloss,  of  e.An.     [a'ftatlap,  a'ftsklap.] 

1.  Ulterior  and  unexpected  consequences,  generally  un- 
pleasant ;  evil  consequence  (Jam.). 

e.Yks.*,  w.Yks.2  s.Clis.*  Unpleasant  consequences;  e.g.  of  the 
results  of  over-indulgence  in  eating.  St£2  Dunna  crow  too  soon, 
wait  till  th'  afterclap.  nw.Der.l  I  want  it  sattled  ;  I  dunno  want 
noo  afterclaps  [au)  waan't  it  saat''lt ;  au)  diin'u  waan-t  ndo  aaf- 
turtlaap-s].  Der.^  War.  (J.R.W.) ;  War.  2  Shr.i  It's  al'ays 
best  be  earful  an'  sen'  some  one  as  knows  thar  business  an' 
then  theer's  no  afterclaps  ;  Slir.^  The  consequence,  issue,  result, 
generally  received  in  nialain  partem.  Glo.*  Oxf.'  After  conse- 
quences, a  relapse.  Ess.  Which  being  descried,  take  heede  of 
you  shall,  For  danger  of  after  claps,  after  that  fall,  Tusser  Htis- 
bandrie  (1580)  107,  St.  d.  Wil.  Slow  Gl.  (1892);  Wil.'  Som. 
Svveetman  IVincanlon  Gl.  (1885).  Cor.'  Something  happening 
after  the  cause  is  supposed  to  have  been  removed. 

2.  Anything  occurring  when  it  has  ceased  to  be  expected; 
a  sequel,  anything  that  comes  after ;  an  after-thought. 

n.Yks.2  Efther-claps,  incidents  which  arise  after  matters  were 
thought  to  be  concluded.  w.Yks.  Banks  Wl;fld.  H'ds.  (1865). 
E.Chs.'  A  sequel,  anything  that  comes  after ;  e.  g.  a  prayer  meeting 
after  a  preaching  service,  a  distribution  of  bread  after  a  tea  meet- 
ing, &c.  n.Lin.'  Rachel  Ta3'lor's  'e  a  fine  waay  ;  she  hed  her  tent 
bairn  nine  year  sin,  an'  noo  she's  fallen  doon  wi'  twins ;  it's  a  sore 
after-clap  for  her.  Lei.'  Way'n  got  a  affter-clap  o'  winter  this 
turn  (in  reference  to  a  frosty  week  in  April).  I.W.^  I  don't  want 
noo  aaterclaps.  w.Sora.'  Arriere  pensee.  Au'nur  bruyt  un  noa 
aa'dr-klaaps  [honour  bright  and  no  afterclaps]  is  a  constant  ex- 
pression in  contracting  bargains  or  agreements.  Dev.  And  it  [yet], 
'tis  best  as  'tis,  perhaps ;  We  mert  a  catch'd  zom  arterclaps,  Peter 
Pindar  Middlesex  Elect.  (1816)  IV.  206.  Cor.'  After-clapses,  after- 
thoughts. [Amer.  An  attempt  to  unjustly  extort  more  in  a  bargain 
or  agreement  than  at  first  settled  upon,  Farmer.] 

3.  In  pi.  superfluous  finery. 

Cor.'  I  caan't  manage  the  after-clapses. 

[What  plaguy  mischiefs  and  mishaps  Do  dog  him  still 
with  after  claps,  Butler  Hiid.  i.  iii.  4  ;  For  had  he  been  a 
merchant,  then  perhaps  Storms,  thunderclaps,  or  fear  of 
afterclaps  Had  made  him  lon^  ere  this  the  food  of  worms, 
Taylor  Life  of  Old  Parr;  He  can  give  us  an  afterclap 
when  we  least  weene,  Latimer  Serm.  (Wright)  ;  It  was  a 
sorry  happe,  (he)  doubted  him  of  an  afterclappe,  Percy's 
Fol.  MS.  ( M atzner).    After  -)-  clap,  a  slap,  blow,  q.v.] 

AFTER-CROP,  see  Attercop. 

AFTER-DAMP,  sb.  Tech.  Nhb.  Dur.  w.Yks.  [a'fta- 
damp.]  The  noxious  gas  resulting  from  a  colliery  explo- 
sion (Wedgwood). 

Nhb.  &  Dur.  After-damp,  carbonic  acid,  stythe.  The  products 
of  the  combustion  of  fire-damp,  Nicholson  Coal  Tr.  Gt.  (1888). 
Ntib.'  After-damp,  the  noxious  gas  resulting  from  a  colliery  explo- 
sion. This  after-damp  is  called  choak-damp  and  surfeit  by  the 
colliers,  and  is  the  carbonic  acid  gas  of  chymists,  Hodgson  A 
Description  of  Felling  Colliery.  w.Yks.  The  after-damp  completed 
their  death,  N.  &  Q.  (1S76)  5th  S.  v.  325.  Miners'  tech.  Carbonic 
acid  gas,  or  choke  damp,  which  the  miners  call  after-damp,  Core 
(1886)  228. 

[After  +  damp,  q.v.;  cp.  choak-damp.] 

AFTERGAIT,  adf     Sc.  (Jam.) 

1.  Seemly  or  fitting. 

Lnk.  That's  something  aftergait. 

2.  Tolerable,  moderate,  what  does  not  exceed. 

Rxb.  I'm  ill  o'  the  toothache;  but  I  never  mind  sae  lang  as  it's 
ony  way  aftergait  ava.      I'll  be  there  if  the  day's  ought  aftergait. 

[After  +  gait,  way,  i.  e.  after,  not  out  of  the  ordinary  way.] 

AFTERHEND,  adv.  and  prep.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Afterwards, 

Sc.  Mark  ye  me,  friend,  that  we  may  have  nae  coUy-shangie 
afterhcnd,  Scott  Gay  Mannering  (1815)  xliv  ;  Get  the  ferm,  an' 
efterhand  that,  ye  may  kiss,  Lumsden  Sliccp-Hcad,  270 ;  It  lookit 
as  if  the  craytur  had  gotten  its  ain  back  afterhand,  Roy  Horseman's 
U'd.  (1895)  i.     n.Cy.  Aftcrhend,  Border  Gl.  {Coll.  L.L.B.) 

[Marshall  did  sweare  afterhend  that  he  had  not  fylled 
him  at  all,  Hist.  Kirk  1634-46  (N.E.D.) ;  Then  is  he  wise 
after  the  honde,  Gower  C.  A.  11.  31.  After  +  hand;  cp. 
beforehand,  behindhand.] 

AFTERINGS,     Sc.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin. 




War.  Shr.  Glo.  w.Cy.    Also  in  the  form  afterlins  w. Yks.' 
See  below,     [a'ftarinz.] 

1.  The  last  milk  that  comes  before  a  cow's  udder  is 
empty ;  locally  called  strippings,  drippings,  or  strokings. 

Sc.  I'il!  siie  frae  her  the  massy  aftVins  draw,  Morison  Poems 
(1790)  185  (Jam.).  s.Sc.  More  generally  known  as  jibbings  or 
dribblings,  A'.  &  Q.  (1882)  6tli  S.  vi.  54.  Dmf.  [Jane]  furnishes 
butter  and  afterings  (jibbings)  for  tea,  Fkoude  Thomas  Carlylc 
(1882)  II.  27.  Yks.  It  were  only  yesterday  as  she  aimed  her  leg 
right  at  t'pail  wi'  t'afterings  in;  she  knowed  it  were  afterings  as 
well  as  any  Christian,  Gaskell  Sylvia  (1863)  xv  (Dav.).  w.Yks. 
Afterings,  the  last  milk  of  a  cow.  Also  called  strippings,  lll/.x. 
ll'ds  ;  w.Yks.'  Afterlins,  the  last  milk  of  a  cow.  Lan.'  Jem,  let 
owd  Mally  have  a  quart  o'  aftherins  for  a  custhert  or  two.  e.Lan.' 
Chs."  Afterings,  the  same  as  strokings;  Chs.^  The  last  milk 
(generally  considered  the  richest).  So  called  because  in  all  well- 
managed  dairies,  a  milker  follows  after  the  others  to  make  sure  of 
the  afterings.  Stf.'  ^  Der.  The  strokings,  or  last  of  a  cow's  milk, 
Grose  (1790) ;  Der.'^,  Lin.'  n.Lin.'  Afterlings  [are]  said  to  con- 
tain the  most  butter.  War.  (J.R.W.)  Shr.' Afterings,  cf.  Drip- 
pings.    Glo.'     w.Cy.  Morton  Cvc/.^^nV-.  (1863). 

2.  The  surplus,  remainder  in  a  more  general  sense  (Jam.). 

Fif.  The  aft'rins  o'  a  feast. 

3.  Fig.  Outcome,  results,  consequences  (Jam.). 

Ayr.  The  bloody  afterings  of  that  meeting,  Gillhaize,  iii.  88. 

[2.  These  are  the  iarfflifuiTa,  afterings  of  Christ's  suffer- 
ings, Bi>.  Hall  Senti.  (N.E.D.)] 

AFTERMATH,  sb.  Very  widely  distributed  in  midl., 
e.An.  and  s.  districts;  but  not  given  in  gloss,  of  Sc.  Dev. 
Cor.  Also  written  efter-math  n. Yks.*;  attermath  Glo.'' ; 
aftermeath  Ken.'  *  [a'ft3nia)>,  n.  and  e.Yks.  e'ft3ma)j, 
se.Wor.  ata-,  Glo.  ae'ta-.]  The  second  crop  of  grass  which 
grows  after  the  field  has  been  mown.     Frcq.  used  in  />/. 

n.  &  s.Cy.  Aftermaths,  the  pasture  after  the  grass  has  been  mowed, 
Grose  (1790).  n.Yks.*  Efther-math,  the  second  mowing  of  grass 
yielded  by  a  field  in  one  season.  e.Yks.'  w.Yks.*  After-maths, 
after  mowings,  the  grass  in  the  mcidows,  that  grows  after  the 
mowing — the  eddish.  Stf.'  n.Lin.'  The  grass  that  grows  when 
the  hay  is  cut,  more  commonly  called  eddish.  Lei.'  Nhp.'  In 
strictness  aftermath  is  the  second  or  latter  mowing;  but  with  us 
it  is  equally  applied,  whether  the  second  crop  be  mown,  or  eaten 
off  the  ground  ;  Nhp.^  War.  (J.R.W.)  ;  War.^  Sometimes  used  in 
wider  sense.  He  cannot  expect  much  aftermath  now,  he  has  had 
two  crops  off  the  meadow  this  season.  se.Wor.',  Shr.',  Pera.(E.D.) 
Glo.  There  was  not  much  h.iy  this  year,  but  the  aftermath  has  been 
good(A.B.);  Glo.2,Brks.'  Bck.A'.  .S'lJ.  (1853,  ist  S.  viii.  102.  Hrt. 
Ellis  Mod.  Hiisb.  (1750)  IV.  ii.  76.  e.An.'  Nrf.  Yow  can  mow 
the  grass,  ye  know,  and  than  (then)  let  the  aftermath  for  .jfs^W.R.E."); 
Aftermath  eddish,  same  as  aftermath.  A'.  &  Q.  (1853)  ist  S.  viii. 
239;  Nrf.' The  feed  left  on  meadows  after  having  been  mown. 
Suf.'  Ken.'  Aftermeath,  the  grass  which  grows  after  the  first  crop 
has  been  mown  for  hay;  called  also  roughings  [usually  called 
rowens  in  e.Ken.];  Ken. '  Aftermeath,  aftenr.owth,  i.e.  that  which 
comes  and  grows  after  the  mowing.  Sur.'  Called  also  rowen. 
Hmp.'  Called  also  lattcrmath.  I.W.'  n.Wil.  The  aftermath  in  the 
meadows  beneath  will  not  grow,  Jefferies  Wild  Life  (1879)  21  ; 
The  feed  left  on  me-idows  or  grass-land  after  having  been  mown. 
Also  called  lattermath,  Britton  Beauties  (1825).     w.Som.' 

[After  +  math,  OE.  mil-3,  a  mowing;  cp.  G.  iiialid,  OUG. 
mad.  The  word  occurs  in  Fitzhkrbert  Husbaiulry  63, 
WoRLiDGE  Diet.  Rnsticum,  Bailey  (ed.  1721),  Lisle  Hus- 
bandry (Aftermass).] 

AFTERNOON,  adi.  Lin.  Wor.  Glo.  Ilrt.  Mid.  Nrf.  Sur. 
Som.  Dev.  See  below.  Late  in  performing  any  work, 
procrastinating ;  dilatory,  slow. 

sw.Lin.' I  call  him  nobbut  an  afternoon  farmer;  he  got  no  seed  in 
last  back-end.  War.^  s.Wor.' An  afternoon  farmer,  [one]  who  takes 
things  easily.  se.Wor.'  Atternone-folks,  people  who  arc  in  the 
habit  of  beginningwork  late  in  the  day.  Glo.  (A. B. ); 
he's  no  business  man.  We  call  him  an  arternune  farmer  (,W.  R.  E. ). 
Hrt.  In  Hertfordshire  we  call  [declining  farmers]  afternoon  fanners, 
Ellis  Mod.  Husb.  (1750)  III.  ii.  4.  Mid.  A^.  &  Q.  (1894)  8th  S. 
v.  153.  Sur.'  He's  pretty  much  of  an  afternoon  man.  w.Som.' 
Purty  arternoon  farmer,  sure  'nough  (s.v.  Arrish).  nw.Dev.' 
CoUoq. The  ram  and  snow  have  come  too  soon  fora  few  'afternoon 
farmers,'  who  have  not  yet  put  in  all  their  wheat,  Standard  (Nov. 
28,  1889)  2,  col.  I.  [Amer.  Afternoon  farmer,  .  .  .  one  who  pro- 
crastinates, or  who  misses  an  opportunity.  . .  .  Ii  is  only  slang 
when  used  figuratively  apart  from  agricultural  pursuits,  Farmer.] 

AFTERNOONING,  sb.    w.Yks.     [aftanuinin.] 
w.Yks.Afternooinin,  refreshment  between  dinner  and  tea.  Basks 

Jl'kfld.  ((Vs.  (1865).     Afternooning  is  still  heard  round  Wakefield 

but  is  rapidly  becoming  olrs.  (W.K.) 

AFT-HANKS,  s/a  Sh.L  [aft-har)ks.]  That  part  of  a 
boat  where  the  bands  come  together  at  the  stem  and  stern. 
See  Hank. 

S.  &  Ork.' 

AGAIN,  pnp.  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  Eng. 
Also  written  agaan,  agean,  agen,  agin,  agyen.  See 
below,  [agian,  agen,  agi'n.]  Used  for  against,  in  most 
of  its  mod.  lueanings. 

I.  Of  position. 

1.  Near,  beside. 

n.Yks.  Just  ageean  t'pleeacc  where  Ah  wur  bred,  Broad  Yks. 
(1885^  27  ;  n.Yks.*  ne. Yks.' Cor  spot  ligs  agaan  Helmsla.  e.Yks.' 
w.Yks.  Nelly  alwaj's  sits  again  John  (F. P.T.) ;  Poor  Bill,  lie  wur 
leynd  ageean  t'vvall,  Presion  Poems,  &e.  (1864)  24.  Lan.'  Agen 
th'  heawse-eend  wur  a  little  cloof  o'  full  o  brids  and  fleawrs. 
Chs.' He  lives  agen  th' chapel ;  Chs.^  Stf."'  sw.Lin.' They've 
taen  a  farm  agen  Eagle  Hall.  Rut.'  Agen  the  hedge.  Lei.'  It's 
close  again  Bosworth.  Nhp.  'Tis  agen  the  running  brook.  Ci  are 
Poe»ts{iH20)  140,  ed.  1873  ;  Nhp.'  He  lives  agen  me.  s.War.'  He 
lives  just  agin  us.  Slir.'  Lave  that  bouk  agen  the  pump  w'eer 
I  put  it ;  Shr.''  Shut  'em  agen  the  backside  o'  the  house.  Brks.' 
I  left  the  prong  over  agin  the  staayble  door.  e.An.'  She  stood 
again  the  door.  If  she  stood  very  near  the  door,  it  would  be  more 
correct  to  say  '  close  again,'  or  '  right  again' ;  if  facing  it,  at  some 
little  distance,  '  over  again.'  Nrf.  Agin  our  gates  are  all  mander 
o'  plasant  fruits,  Gillett  Siig.  Sol.  (i860)  vii.  13.  Cmb.'  It's  up 
to  your  boot-tops  in  mud  agin  the  Brick  Clamp.  Ken.'  He  lives 
down  de  lane  agin  de  stile.  Sur.'  Sus.'  He  lived  up  agin  the 
Church.  n.Wil.  Vccd  yer  kids  agen  th'  shepherds'  tents,  Kite 
Sng.  Sol.  (c.  i860)  i.  8. 

2.  In  contact  with,  touching,  resting  against. 

Nhb.  When  Dicky's  corf  was  fill'ij  wi'  sic,  He  let  his  low  and 
stuck't  agj'end  [again  it],  Wilson  Pitman's  Pay  (1843)  27.  Cum. 
Stand  aboot  int'  lonnin,  or  lig  ageann  t'dykes,  Dickinson  Cumbr. 
(1876)  6.  e.Lan.'  Chs.'  Th'  ladder  were  rared  agen  th'  waw. 
Lin.  Aj',  roob  thy  whiskers  agean  ma, Tennyson  Tiresias,  i&r.  (1885') 
Spinsters  Sweet-arts;  Sa  I  runs  to  the  j'ard  fur  a  lether,  an'  sets 
'im  agean  the  wall,  ib.  Owd  Pod  (i889\  Oxf.'  'Ee's  alcn  in 
[leaning]  agen  j'our  warnut  tree.  Dor.  Did  fondly  lay  agean  your 
zide  His  coal-black  nose  an'  russet  ear,  Barnes  Poems  (,1863)  a. 

3.  Opposite  to. 

Shr.'  Oud  it  up  agen  the  light  an'  then  we  shan  be  able  to  see 
w'eer  the  faut  is.  Glo.'*  e.An.''  Over  agin  the  gate,  opposite 
the  gate. 

II.  With  V.  of  motion. 

1.  Against,  in  violent  contact  with. 

Nhb.' The  keel  went  bump  agyen  Jarrow,  An'  three  o'  the  bullies 
lap  oot,  Little  Pee  Dee.  Yks.  He  came  wi'  a  crack  again  t'chap, 
Baring-Gould  Oddities  (1874)  I.  240.  e.Yks.  He  tummel'd  ageean 
t'bucket,  an  cut  his  heead,  Nicholson  Ftt-S/>.  (1889"^!  49.  w.Yks. 
When  one  o'  my  mates  shoved  another  chap  ageean  her,  Cudworth 
Dial.  Si'ete/ies{i88.\)2  ;  w.Yks.'  He  ran  agaan  him.  ne.Lan.  I  geet 
my  yed  jowled  agen  th'  frame  o'  th'  loom.  Maimer  /(/v/Zs  (,1895) 
317.  Lan.'  An  then  — he's  hardly  wit  enough  to  keep  fro  runnin 
again  woles  i'  th'  dayleet,  Waugh  Stete/ies  (1857)  28.  Der.'^  Oi'll 
jowl  thy  yed  agen  a  stoup.  Not.*  He  joled  his  'cad  agen  a  balk. 
Nhp.'  They  ran  again  me,  and  knocked  me  down.  Glo.  How  the 
rain  do  druv  agin  one!  Bvckma^  Darke's  Sojourn  (iSgo)  x.  Cmb.' 
When  I  want  to  write,  there's  alius  one  o'  y'r  a-joggling  agin  the 
table.  Snr.  And  then  he  run  agin'  a  man  at  the  bottom  of  the  road 
here,  Jennings  Field  Paths  (1884")  165.  Sus.' He's  hind  leg  flew 
up  and  het  agen  t'other  horse,  Egerton  Flks.  and  Ways  (.1884) 
26.  I.W.*  He  veil  agen  it.  Som.  The  wind  'twas  beaten'  the 
drops  vrom  the  chestnut  leaves  agen'  my  veace,  Leith  Letnon 
F(rrA«in  ( 1 895)  47.  w.Som.'  Ee  droa-vd  aup  ugun  dhu  gcc-ut  [he 
drove  against  the  gate].  Dev.  The  bellows  banged  agin'  the  wall, 
O'Neill  Idylls  (iBga)  a6. 

2.  Phr.  to  come,  go  again,  to  come,  go  to  meet  (see 
Against,  2);  to  run  again,  to  meet  by  chance. 

s.Pein.  I  went  again  him,  down  so  far  as  to  the  bridge.  Father, 
he'll  come  again  me  (E.D. ).  s.Stf.  I  chaunctd  to  run  agen  Steve 
Hodgkiss,  PiNNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (.1895  5.  Sur.'  To  run  agin'  any 
one  is  to  meet  him. 

III.  Of  opposition  or  resistance. 
1.  Against,  m  resistance  to. 

Sc  In  case  mine  enimie  say,  Thac  prcvailit  agaync  him,  Riddell 


[24  J 


Ps.  (1857)  xiii.  4.  Niib.l  Cum.' Ageann  t'hand,  inconveniently 
placed,  interfering  with  progress.  w.Yks.  For  strength,  I  prayed, 
to  bear  my  wrengs,  For  patience  agean  hate,  Yksman.  (May  12, 
1887)  295.  s.Not.  It's  no  good  runnin  again  [in  competition  with] 
yo  (J.P.K.).  Siif.^ 'A  struv  agin  um  as  long  as  'a  could.  Dor. 
Why  there  Almighty  ceare  mid  cast  A  better  screen  agean  the 
blast,  Barnes  Poetns  (1863")  68.  Som.  It  ain't  no  use  a  runnin' 
agin  the  law.  Palmer  Mr.  Trueiuaii  (1895)  141.  Dev.  Ha  gid  min 
power  agin  onclayn  spurrits,  Baird  St.  Malt.  (1863;  x.  i. 

2.  Averse  to,  in  opposition  to,  in  depreciation  of;  with 
obj.  of  person. 

Sc.  Deacon  Clank,  the  white-iron  smith,  says,  that  the  Govern- 
ment folk  are  sairagane  him,  Scott  IVavciley  (i8i4)lxiii;  Fortune's 
been  sair  agane  him  (Jam.).  Frf.  She  was  ane  o'  the  warst  agin 
me  at  first,  Barrie  Thnints  (iSSg)  120,  ed.  1895.  Ir.  Cross  she 
was  too,  if  an3"thin'  went  agin  her.  Barlow  Kerngaii  (1894) 
43.  Nhb.  What  have  ah  dune  that  folkes  sud  set  theirscls'  again' 
me,  Clare  Love  0/ Lass  (1890)  I.  72.  Cum.^  Hev  ye  gitten  owt 
agean  me  1  12.  e.Yks.  Ah  dooant  kno  what  theyr  sa  mitch 
ageean  ma  for  (W.  H.).  Lan.  Th'  wust  witness  agen  hissel, 
Brierley  Layrock  (1864)  vi.  Chs.'  We'n  nowt  agen  th'  chap. 
Der.  You  hanna  towd  us  why  t'other  two  were  agen  him,  Cushing 
Voe  (1888)  III.  vii.  sw.Lin.1  He  seemed  to  tak'  agen  the  child. 
I've  nowt  agen  him,  but  I've  heard  a  many  say  a  deal  agen  him, 
Lei.^  Oi  doon't  knoo  nothink  agen  'im.  Bdf.  Saunders  was  talking 
agen  him.  Ward  Bessie  Costrell  (1895'  24.  s.Hmp.We  mustn't 
go  agin  him,  Verney  L.  Lisle  (1870)  xxii. 

3.  Opposed  to,  averse  to,  contrary  to  ;  with  obj.  of  thing. 
Gall.  Cleg  Kelly  was  again  '  tracks,'  Crockett  Siickit  Min.  (1893) 

166.  Yks.  I  was  agin  it,  I  was  agin  it — my  mind  misgave  me, 
Baring-Gould  Pennyqks.  (1870)  54,  ed.  1890.  w.Yks.  It's  agean 
orders  to  tak  onny  passengers,  but  tha  can  come  as  commodore. 
Hartley  Sfc/s  (1895)  iii.  Lan.  We  spoke  up  again'  it,  Gaskell 
M.  Barton  (1848)  ix;  Awconnot  tak' money  fur  savin' a  choiit's  life. 
It's  agen'  mi  conscience,  Banks  Manch.  Man  (1876)  i.  Chs.'  I  were 
alius  agen  his  goin';  Chs.^  Agen  the  marriage,  s. Chs.  1  I'll  see  [say] 
nowt  agen  that.  Not.  A've  nowt  to  say  agen  it  (L.C.M.).  Lin.  An' 
i'  the  woosto'toimeslwurniver agin  the  raate,TENNYSON A'. /anwc?-, 
OW5/)'/f(i864)  St.  4.  Lei.  He  were  always  again  it  (C.E.).  Wor. 
Tom's  very  bad  to  come  to  school,  'e's  bitter  agen  it  (H.  K.). 
Shr.'  'E  wuz  agen  the  weddin'  altogether;  Shr.2  I'm  totally  agen 
it.  e.An.'  I  am  not  for  it  but  again  it.  Sur.  I  should  like  to 
hear  from  your  own  lips  what  you've  got  to  say  agin  it,  Hoskyns 
7rt//>(i  (1857)  172. 

4.  In  exchange  for;  as  an  equivalent  for. 

nXin.'  I  sattled  his  bill,  an*  he  gev'  me  three  an'  six  agean  a 
Eov'rin.  Sur.  I'll  back  Common  Sense  agin'  Chemistry  any  day, 
Hoskyns  Taljia  (1857)  172. 

Hence,  of  a  change  of  clothes :  in  turn  with,  in  succession. 

s.Not.  Ah'll  knit  'im  another  pair  o'  stockings,  then  'e  can  wear 
won  again  tother  (J.P.K.). 

5.  In  dealing  with,  as  regards.    [Cf  'he  is  a  match  for  it.'] 
Hrr.2  He  [watchmaker]  's  a  pretty  good  un  up  agin  a  clock.     I 

dunna  know  what  a'  might  be  agin  a  waatch. 

6.  In  comparison  with. 

s.Not.  Yo  can  faight  a  bit,  but  noat  again  our  Bob  (J.P.K.). 
IV.  Of  time. 

1.  Before,  against,  by,  towards. 

Sc.  Sicken  a  blythe  gaedown  as  we  had  again  e'en  !  Scott  Guy 
Manneting  (1815)  xxii  ;  It'll  be  ready  agane  Saturday  (Jam.). 
Ir. And  will  you  be  gettin'  married  agin  Shrovetide?  Barlow 
Lisconnel  (1895)  24.  Cum.  Dalston  singers  come  here  agean  Sun- 
day, Anderson  Ballads  (1808)  Nichol  the  Newsmonger.  Lan.  All 
customers  are  expected  bi  seven  o'clock,  agen  which  time  the  beast 
will  be  kilt,  Rossendel  Berf-Nect,  6.  Chs.'  Our  pump  alius  maks  a 
nizeagen  rain.  s.Chs.'  My  leg's  auvaywoss  agen  [on  the  approach 
of]  recn  [rain].  n.Lin.'Th'  herse  collars  is  al'us  as  wcet  as  muck 
ageiin  raain.  Nhp.' I  shall  be  ready  agen  to-morrow.  Shr.2  Agen 
to-morrow  ownder.  Hrf.'  I  will  do  it  agin  next  Sunday  ;  Hrf.2  He'll 
come  agin  Christmas.  GI0.2  I'll  be  ready  agen  zhip-zhearing. 
Luk  for't  agen  MT-elmas.  Oxf.'  I  au'lus  'as  a  new  cwut  agen  Wis- 
suntide.  Dor.  An'  deaisies  that  begun  to  vwold  .  .  .  Agean  the 
night,  Barnes  PocHii  (1869)  14. 

2.  In  time  for,  in  view  of,  in  readiness  for,  any  future  event. 
Ir.  All   this  while   I   had  a   right   to  be  doin'   me  messages  at 

Hanlon's,  and  the  flour  and  salt  a-wantin'  agin  the  supper.  Barlow 
Kerrigan  (1894)  66.  s.Ir.That  the  poor  beast  may  be  rested 
again'  the  fair,  Croker  Leg.  ( 1862)  4a.  Cum.  A  youthfu'  pair  .  .  . 
The  country  roun'  invited  Agean  that  day,  Stagg  Misc.  Poems 
(1805)   T/ie  Bridewain.       w.Yks.  Thah  mun  get  mi  shooin  soil'd 

agean  to-morn  o'  t'neet  (^E.B.).  Shr.'  If  I  start  now  I  shall  get 
thcer  agen  the  ondcr.  Brks.'  I  hev  a-got  money  put  by  agin 
a  raainy  day.  w.Som.'  Mus  sae-uv  dhai  geez  gun  Kuursmus  [(I) 
must  keep  those  geese  in  preparation  for  Christmas]. 

3.  Until. 

w.Som.'  Aay  kaa-n  paay  ut  giin  Zad'urdee  nait  [cannot  pay  it 
until  Saturday  night]. 

[I.  3.  He  stired  the  coles  til  relente  gan  The  wex  agayn 
the  fyr,  Chaucer  C.  T.  g.  1279 ;  Than  taketh  the  cristal 
stoon  ywis  Agayn  the  sonne  an  hundred  hewes,  ib.  R.  Rose 
1577.  II.  1.  Lyk  betyng  of  the  see  .  .  .  again  the  roches 
holowe,  ib.  Hoiis  F.  1035.  III.  4.  And  do  good  ajeyn 
uvel,  P.  Ploivman  (a.)  xi.  150.  IV.  1,  2.  Ageyn  this  lusty 
someres  tyde  This  mirour  . . .  He  hath  sent,  Chaucer  C.  T. 
F.  142.     OE.  oiigegn,  cp.  G.  entgegen^ 

AGAIN,  couj.  and  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  and  van  dial,  of  Eng. 
Not  in  gloss,  of  e.An. 

A.  conj. 

Of  future  time :  by  the  time  that,  before,  until.  (Cf.,  prep.  IV.  2.) 

Nhb.' Aa'll  be  there  agyen  ye  come.  Dur.'  Agane  (i.e.  the  time) 
he  comes  hame.  n.Yks.  Ageean  I  come  yam  [home]  (I.W.). 
w.Yks.  Have  it  ready  agean  I  come  back,  Hlf.x.  }l'ds.  s.Chs.' 
I  shall  be  theer  agen  yo  bin  started.  Stf.'  Again,  by  the  time. 
s.Not.  That'll  last  yer  agen  I'm  back  ^J.P.  K.).  sw.Lin.' 1  got  their 
teas  ready  agen  they  came  home.  Nhp.'  I  shall  be  there  agen 
you  come.  Shr.'  Mind  an'  'ave  the  oven  whot  agen  I  come  wham; 
Shr. 2  Agen  a  mon's  paid  for  iviry  thin  it  taks  a  dhell  o'  money. 
Glo.'  I'll  have  it  ready  agen  you  come  back.  Mid.  I  also  destroy 
black  beedles  with  a  composition  which  I  always  keep  with  me 
again  it's  wanted,  Mayhew  Loud.  Labour  (1864")  III.  17.  Wil. 
Mother,  cut  I  'nother  bit  'gin  I  done  this,  Akerman  Ja'.es  (1853) 
30.      Dev.',  Cor.' 

B.  adv. 

1.  At  a  future  time,  by-and-by. 

Sc.  Again,  at  another  time;  used  indet.  This  will  learn  ye, 
again,  ye  young  ramshackle,  y??^.  Z'n/toji,  I.  199  (Jam.).  Ir.  I  didn't 
do  it  yet,  but  I'll  do  it  again  (G.M.H.).  War.2  Shr.' I  hanna  got 
it  now,  but  I'll  gie  it  yo'  agen.  Wei.  I'll  pay  yah  again.  Wiien 
will  yah  come  then? — Oh,  again  [not  now,  next  time]  (W.M.M.). 
s.Pera.  I  thought  as  how  you'd  done  with'n,  but  I  can  fctcli'n  again. 
Not  you  trouble  to  move,  I  can  get  it  again  (E.D.). 

2.  Phr.  to  and  again,  to  and  fro. 
s.Chs.'  To  an'  agen.      Stf.^ 

8.  To  one  side  ;  back ;  gen.,  esp.  in  phr.  turn  again,  to 
turn  back. 

s.Not.  Ah'm  tired,  granfaylher,  let's  turn  agen.  Auve  again, 
Oieet  again.  Come  again,  and  Gee  again,  various  commands  to  the 
horse  to  turn  either  to  the  right  or  the  left.  [Within  the  last  few 
years] '  gee  again  '  has  been  replaced  by  '  gee  back'  (J.P.K.).  [Turn 
again,  Whittington,  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of  London!  Pop.  Tale.'] 

4.  Of  reciprocal  action  :  in  return,  back.  Hencein  inten- 
sive sense  (cf  'to  ring  again  '). 

Nhb.  She  aye  gives  ye  tweyce  as  gude  aghayn,  Bewick  Howdy 
(1850)  12.  w.Yks.  It  fair  dithered  ageean  (.lE.B.).  Der.'  He 
snored  again.  Lei.'  A  let  'im  'ave  it  loike  nothink  agen  [he  gave 
him  a  sound  thrashing]. 

5.  Conip.  Again-call,  to  revoke  (Jam.)  ;  -calling,  recall ; 
Agane-say,  to  recall  (Jam.);  -wards,  towards  ;  -ways,  by 
the  roadside. 

S.  &Ork.'  Sc.  Again-calling,  recall,  revocation  (Jam.).  n.Yks.2 
It  flew  ageeanwards  o'  me  [to  the  place  where  I  was  standing]. 
[Agenward,back  again,  Coles  Eng.  Diet.  (1677).]  n.Yks.^Ageean- 
ways,  by  or  against  the  roadside. 

[A.  His  cap  and  pantofles  ready  . . .  And  a  candle  again 
}'ou  rise,  Massinger  City  Madam  (1632)  in.  i.  ME. 
Ajeyn  this  cachereles  conieth,  Pol.  S.  151.  Cp.  the  use  of 
ajeines  in  P.  Ploivman  :  Ajeines  thi  greynes  . . .  bigynneth 
for  to  ripe,  b.  xix.  314.  B.  1.  I  will  not  again  curse  the 
ground  any  more  for  man's  sake,  Bible  Cen.  viii.  21.  2.  To 
and  again,  i.e.  to  and  fro ;  see  Aittobiog.  of  Sir  S.  D'Ewes 
II-  353  (Nares).  3.  Nay,  come  again,  Good  Kate,  I  am  a 
gentleman,  Shaks.  T.  S/ireiv  11.  i.  217.  5.  Ane  amerciament 
of  ane  fals  dome  againe  said  in  the  Justitiars  court,  is  ten 
pounds,  Skene  (N.E.D.).] 

AGAINST,  prep,  and  con/.  Freq.  in  Som.  Dev.  Cor. ; 
occas.  in  other  counties  (see  below),  but  usually  replaced 
by  again,  q.v.     [agins,  sginst.] 




A.  pref). 

1.  Near,  beside. 

Not.'  V'ou  sit  against  me. 

2.  In  a  contrary  direction  to ;   hence,  to  go  towards,  to 

w.Som.i  A  young  man  spcakinp;  of  a  young  woman  said  :  Aay 
waint  ugins  ur  [I  went  to  muct  her].  Dev.  I  am  going  out  against 
liim,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) ;  Jane  is  late  home  tii-night . .  . 
I  wish,  Jimmy,  yQ'd  go  against  her!  'Tez  gitting  dark;  us  'ad 
better  go  aginst  Jenny,  or  'er'll  be  a  skeard  out  ov  'er  Hfc,  IIkwett 
Peas.  Sp.  (1892"! ;  Tom  Wlieeilon  was  sent  against  me  with  a  liorse, 
O'Neill  Idylls  (1892)  21.  nw.Dev.'  As  1  waz  komin'  back-alung, 
I  zccd  min  komin'  aginst  ma. 

3.  To  go  against,  to  inform  against. 

Dev.  Squire  Stephens  tanned  Dick  Carter  last  night  up  tQ  tha 
Cat  and  Kiddle,  and  I  be  summoned  tu-day  tQ  go  against  un, 
Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892). 

4.  In  exchange  for  ;  in  paj'ment  ot. 

Dev.  Silver  against  a  guinea,  Grose  (1790')  MS.  add.  (C.)  ;  I 
wanted  that  money  bad  enough  to  go  against  the  boys'  boots, 
O'Neill  Idylls  (1892'.  40. 

Hence,  of  a  change  of  clothes :  in  succession,  in  turn  with. 

s.Not.  I  shan't  let  him  wear  his  (lannel  shirt  till  I've  made  him 
anotiier  to  wear  against  it  (J.P.K.). 

5.  In  competition  with  ;  compared  with. 

s.Not.  I'll  mow  an  acre  against  any  man  in  the  place  (J.P.K.). 
Dev.  Young  against  him,  Grose  (1790)  M.S.  add.  \C.) 

6.  Of  time  :  before,  near  the  time  of. 

e.An.'  Close  against  thunder;  i.e.  thunder  is  in  the  air.  Cor.^ 
I'm  h.-ippy  against  my  birthday.  As  dazed  as  a  duck  against  [on 
hearing]  thunder. 

7.  In  readiness  for,  in  time  for. 

w.Yks.  I'll  goagainst  Sunday  (J. T.\  Som.  One  of  the  puddings 
kept  over  from  Christmas  against  sheep-shearing,  R.\ymqnd  Cent, 
i'pwtl  (lags')  60. 

B.  coiij.  By  the  time  that  (of  past  or  future  time). 
Dev.  Against  she  had  finished  her  broth,  all  the  items  were 
packed  away  in  her  head,  O'Neill  Idylls  (1892'  9;  Against  I  got 
there  it  was  night,  Grose  '1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  nw.Dev.'  You 
waan't  ha'  lime  vor  do't,  I  tell  ee ;  'ginst  you've  had  dinner,  twull 
be  time  vor  go  home  again. 

[A.  1.  Against  the  Capitol  I  met  a  lion,  Sii.nks.  ./.  Cacs.  i. 
iii.  20;  Against  this  fire  do  I  shrink  up,  ib.  K.  Juliii,  v.  vii. 
33.  2.  Agayns  his  doghter  hastilicli  gotli  he,  Cii.\ucer 
C  T.  E.  911.  4.  And  do  good  ajeincs  yvel  god  hymself  it 
hoteth,  P.  Plowman  (b.)  x.  199.  5.  llir  paroch-prest  nis 
but  a  beest  Ayens  me  and  my  comiinny,  R.  Rose,  6875. 
6.  The  whyte  swan  Ayeins  his  dccth  bcgynnyth  for  to 
synge,  Cuwcek  Leg.  G.  IV.  1356.  7.  Against  this  coming 
end  you  should  prepare,  Sii.nks.  Son.  33.  B.  Uiijah  the 
priest  made  it  against  king  Ahaz  came  from  Damascus, 
Bible  2  Kings  xvi.  11 ;  I'll  charm  his  eyes  against  she  do 
appear,  Suaks.  M.  N.  D.  hi.  ii.  99.  Against,  M  E.  aieinst  {in 
P.  Ploicntan),  a  development  with  a  parasitic  /  of  ajeins, 
ajeines,  formed  from  aMin  ("gni",  q-v.)  with  the  adw  gen. 
ending  -cs.]     Or.  I.     [sgeri.] 

S.  &  Ork.'  To  go  a-gaairy,  to  leave  one's  service  before  the  term- 

AGALD,  see  Haggle. 

AGAR,  adj.     Cor.     [ae'go'r).]     Ugly. 

Cor.' 2   [Cornish,  hager,  uglv,  foul,  naughlv.  fierce  (Rogers).] 

AGAR,  ;■///.    Obs.  ?    De\'.    A  form  of  oath. 

n.Dcv.  No  agar.  zej'S  I,  vor  th'art  too  ugly  to  be  made  a  pretty 
vclla,  E.V)n.  Cttshp.  ( 1 746  1 1.  350  ;  There  are  so  many  forms  of  the 
I'xclamation  B3'  God!  that  Agar  is  quite  likely  to  be  still  in  use. 
The  forms  generally  heard  at  the  present  day  arc  Begar !  licgur ! 
Begor!   Bcgorz  !  '  R.P.Ci 

AGARIFIED, /■/>/.  «((>■.   Siif    [agarifaid.]   I  laving  ague. 

Suf.  Hay  be  heard  frequently.  Rather,  every  one  knows  it  and 
uses  it  at  times  iF.  H.). 

AGAST,  ppt.  adj.  Irel.  Soni.  Dev.  Also  written  egast 
Wxf;  ageest,  agest,  agush'd  Dov.  [aga  s  tl,  agis^t).] 
Terrified,  afraid. 

Wxf  '  Egast,  fear.      Egasted,  frightened.       w.Som.'  I  be  agast 

'bout  they  there  mangle  ;  I  ver'ly  blcive  the  grub'l  ate  every  one 

o'm.      n.Dev.  Agcst,  terrified,  GuosE  1^1790')  MS.  add.  (^C) ;    Cham 

agest  hare'U  dra  en  into  a  piomish  wone  dey  or  wothcr,  E.\m. 

VOL    I. 

Crtshp.  (174611.  584;  OGraccy!  I  be  all  ageest,  RocK /id;  rt)i' AV// 
(1867)  15;  Agush'd  and  Gush'd,  for  agasted,  dismayed,  Gkose 
(1790   MS.  add.  (II.)     Dev.3  Agushcd,  confounded  with  fear. 

|This  is  a  common  w'ord  in  ME.  But  thei  weren  aUraicd 
and  agast  and  gessiden  hem  to  se  a  spirit,  Wyclif  (1388) 
Luke  xxiv.  37  ;  No  how  the  ground  agast  was  of  the  light, 
Cn.\LXER  C.  T.  A.  2931.  Agast  is  the  pp.  of  ME.  agaslen, 
to  terrify  (found  in  /'.  P/oii'inan),  agesten  (in  Ancreii  liiwle). 
OE.  a-  ipref.^)  -I  gdslan,  to  frighten.] 

AGASTMENT,  sh.  Dev.  [agas-stment.]  Also  in  the 
form  agushment.     .Sudden  terror. 

Dev.  Grose  I  17901  jl/5.  add.  l,H.) ;  Dev.^  Agushment,  consterna- 
tion.   Agastment,  terror. 

[This  terror  and  agastment,  Nashe  (1594)  (N.E.D.). 
Agast  (see  above) -f -we;;/.] 

AGATE,  sb.  War.  Oxf.  Brks.  Mid.  Som.  [aegat.] 
The  best  kind  of  playing  marble,  made  of  glass  with 
variegated  colours. 

War.  Now  0^5.,  but  in  occas.  use  about  thirty'  j"ears  ago  (W.S.  n.\ 
Oxf.'  MS.  add.  Brks.  '  M.J.B.)  Mid.  Aggy  marbles  were  known 
round  Hammersmith  some  years  ago    F.W.L.;.    Som.  ^H. G.I 

AGATE,  adv.  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  w.Lin. 
n.Shr. ;  also  in  Not.  War.  Won  Glo.  Cor.  Also  written 
agaitSc.  n.Yks.' w.Yks.' ne.Yks.'Lan.  Lin.':  agyetMib.'; 
ageatCum.^;  ageattCum.';  agaate  Yks.  n.Lin.';  ageeat 
e.Yks.'  [age-t  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.,  also  agiat.  Besides  age  t 
there  also  occur  agiat  in  the  n.  and  e.,  and  agea  t  in 
w.Yks. ;  s.Chs.  agye't.] 

1.  On  the  way,  afoot,  astir,  going  about  (as  opposed  to 
lying  down,  confined  to  house  or  bed).  To  gang  agate,  to 
go  on  the  way,  make  one's  way,  proceed. 

Sc.  Agait,  on  the  way  or  road.  Ye're  air  agait  the  day  (Jam.). 
N.Cy.'°  I  am  agate.  Nhb.'  Aa's  pleased  to  see  ye  agate  agyen. 
Cuni.'2  Wm.'  Aa's  glad  to  see  em  ageeat  agen.  [Also]  set 
loose,  as  a  horse  in  pasture.  n.Yks.  Let's  gang  agait  into  t'ficld, 
Robinson  Sng.  Sol.  1 1860)  vii.  11 ;  n.Yks.'  Thou's  early  agate  this 
morning.  m.Yks.'  He's  always  agate.  w.Yks.  She  wor  owlus 
ageeat,  BLACKAnPofws  1867I  37.  ne.Lan.'  Chs.  I  am  agate  (K.); 
Chs.'  Is  Jim  at  work  yet?  — Oh,  aye!  he's  gotten  agate  again; 
Chs.^  Sometimes  when  you  ask  after  a  sick  pci-son  you  arc  told 
'  He's  agate  again  ' ;  s.Chs.'  Not.^  He's  been  laid  up  for  weeks, 
but  he's  agate  again.  Lin.  How  the  doctor  switched  Bob  Robinson 
for  s.-iying  he'd  been  agate  early,  Fenn  DUk  o  the  Feus  :  1888)  viii. 
s.Wor.'  Glo.  Agate,  moving,  occurring,  Baylis/3;Vi/.  v  1870  ;  Glo.' 
Cor.'  c  All  agate,  descriptive  of  earnest  attention  ;  :t'.  Agait,  very 
attentive,  earnest ;  Cor.^AlI  agate,  full  of  expectation,  all  eye  and 
ear,  on  the  qtti  vive. 

2.  Said  of  disease  or  the  like:  going  about,  prevalent. 
Lan.  'Ihcrc's  a  deal  of  mourning  agait,  Gaskell  M.  Ilaitoii  ,1848) 

XXV.     w.Wor.'  Thahr's  a  dill  o'  fevers  agate  this  'ot  weather. 

3.  Of  a  machine  or  the  like  :  going,  in  motion,  in  action. 
w.Yks.  Wen  th'  railwaj-  gets  fairly  agait,  Ilauvrl/i  Railway  \  1867) 

7,  ed.  1886;  Captain  sooin  hed  wun  squirt  agate  pl.aying  at  t'glass 
winder,  Piidsey  Oliii.  (1887)  20 ;  w.Yks.^  T'bells  is  agate  [ringing]. 
Lan.  Gooin  intu  o  Factri,  wi  o  stcym  ingun  ogate  sumwheer,  Sam 
Sondkiwcker,  14.  s.Ctis.'  Is  the  machine  agate  yet  ?  Slf.*  n.Lin. 
When's  auven  notauven? — When  she's  agaate.  Peacock  Talesand 
Rhymes  (1886)  120. 

4.  Of  an  operation,  process,  business,  affair :  going  on, 


Nhb.  What  for  sud  ye  gan,  lad ! .  .  .  What's  agate  ?  Clare  Love  of 
I.assi  1890)  I.  124.  w.Yks.  There  is  naught  agate  that  fits  women 
to  be  consarned  in,  Buonie  Shiitey  ^1849",  xviii ;  w.Yks.*  The 
washing  is  agate  ;  w.Yks.^  The  business  is  agate.  Lan.  Sin  they'rn 
so  mich  sodiering  ogate,  Or.mekod  Felley  fro'  Raihde  ,1864)1; 
What  h.ive  they  agate  at  th'  owd  mill !  Waugh  Besom  Ben  ,1865)  i. 
Chs.^  At  the  lime  of  the  last  comet's  appearance  some  one 
observed  '  There's  a  comet  agate.'  s.Chs.'  I've  gotten  my  hce  [hay] 
agate  yet.  Stf.*  Der.  We  have  brewing  .a-gate.  washing  a-gate, 
GnoSEi  1790  .1/5.  add.  J'.)  Not.^  What  have  they  got  agate  now? 
Ew.Lin.'  It  W.1S  a  long  lime  agate,  but  he  got  master  on  it  at  last. 
War.*  Wor.  It's  bin  agate  a  longtime  II.  K.).  w.Wor.  Thur 
be  summat  agate,  S.  Beai.'C1Ia.mi>  Giaiilley  Grange  {,l&-]^)  II.  162. 
se.Wor.'  What's  agate  now  ?      s.Wor.',  Glo.' 

5.  Started,  set  to  work  ;  to  get  agate,  to  begin  ;  to  set  ai-a'e 
iL'i',  to  start  with,  get  on  with  ;  to  set  one  agate,  to  start  him, 
set  him  on  ;  to  be  agate  o'  or  on.  to  tease,  plague,  assault ; 
tu  be,  go,  lake,  agate,  go  agate  ivitli,  to  accompany. 




Yks.  If  ah  wunce  git  agaiit  at  it,  ah  can  ^00  a-'ead.  Get  agate 
o*  your  dinner,  child  ^F.  P.T.).  n.Yks.^  l'hey"\'e  gotten  fairly 
agate;  n.Yks.^  Get  ageeat  \vi'  your  job.  ne.Yks.^  TlicyVe  gitten 
ageeat  wi'  pleewing.  e.Yks.  Let's  get  ageeat  on't,  Nicholson 
Flk-Sp.  (1889';  50.  w.Yks.  It'scasycniiffto  ramble  after 30've  once 
started,  but  its  this  gettin'  agate  'at's  soa  micli  trouble,  Hartley 
Biirfget  {i8-j  i)  125;  w.Yks.'  m  Lan.'  Iv  he  were  to  tek  a  lass 
agate  when  hoo  were  gooin*  hooam,  an'  he  coom  to  a  gate,  id 
wod  be  for  him  to  ged  agate  o'  oppcnin'  gate.  s.Chs.* 
There'll  be  noo  stoppin  thee,  naj  tha't  gotten  agate.  s.Not.  As 
soon  as  the  fire  got  agate,  it  blazed  up  summat  fearful  (J.P.  K.'). 
Not.' 2  Lin.'  I  am  going  to  get  agate  my  work.  sw.Lin.'  I  didn't 
get  agate  my  work  while  noon.  Shr.'  Yo  can  get  agate  o'  that 
job,  as  soon  as  yo'n  a  mind.  Cum.  I  set  him  ageat,  Richardson 
Tali:  I  1886)  2nd  S.  33  ;  Cum.^  Whatever  schemes  yel  set  ageeat 
'ill  widder,  Wm.'  I'ha  set  oop  a  hullybaloo  an  set  t'horse  ageeat. 
ne.Yks.'  He'll  set  'em  all  agate.  ra.Yks.'  He  was  set  agate  of  it. 
Lan.  Betty  set  ogate  o  scrikin  'Murder!'  Laiiee  Ozfci  Yeni,  8; 
Th'  injin  set  agate  o'  goin,  U'li/dcr Bn^s/iii:v's  Tiip{c.  i860')  7  ;  You 
can  find  him  something  to  do,  Jim?— Oh  ay,  I'll  set  him  agate, 
Westall /?;>(■/; /).•;«(  I B89)  I.  303.  ns.Lan.'  Stf.^  Der.  To  set 
anything  a-gate,  is  to  begin  it,  or  set  it  a-going,  Grose  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (P.);  Der.'  Not.^  Set  him  agate  with  the  vveeding  o' that  plot. 
m.Yks.'  He's  been  agate  o'  him  again.  w.Yks.  Awlus  agaate  o' 
sumbod3',  Banks  Whjld.  I'l'ds.  (.lE^o) ;  A  child  will  come  crying  to 
its  mother  and  say  somebody  has  'been  agate  on  him,'  Yks.  Mag. 
( 187 1 1 1.  30;  w.Yks.^  Agaat  onhis  poor  wife  agean  !  [beating  her]. 
Lan.'  Mother,  aar  Jem's  agate  on  me.  e.Laa.'  The  boys  are  agate 
of  one  another  [teasing  one  another].  Chs.'  Oo's  [she  is]  alius 
agate  o'  me.  Sf.^  'Er's  got  a  temper  like  a  rcd-'ot  iron,  'er's  agate 
o'  iverybody.  e.Lan.'  I  went  agate  with  my  friend  [I  went  a  part 
of  the  way  with  him].  Chs,2  I  have  been  agate  a  woman  [direct- 
ing her  in  the  road]. 

6.  Of  a  person  :  going  on  with  work,  busy,  occupied,  en- 
gaged upon. 

Wm.  T'ncbbers  hard  him  agaet  wi  his  screcapin'  (t'flddle"). 
Spec.  Dial.  (1880)  pt.  ii.  45.  n.Yks.  To  watch  us  all  agaat,  Munuy 
J-V>-ifS  ( 1 865  I  65.  ne.Yks.'  Ah's  kept  agate.  e.Yks.'  He's  ageeat 
on  a  theakin  job.  w.Yks.'  What's  'to  agait  on  ?  w.Yks.^  Who's 
been  agate  o'  this?  Lan.  Get  fori'ard  Vv'i  what  thae'rt  agate  on  just 
now,  Waugii  Besom  Ben  (1865)  viii ;  Aw  went  an  wur  soon  at 
th'  Potteries, an  ogatc,  Abrnni  o' Flap's  Quoitiii  (1886)  12.  ne.Lan. 
Yo'd  nobbud  been  agate  seven-teen  year,  Mather  Idylls  (1895) 
331.  Chs.s  lam  agate  a  new  cart.  Stf.^  Kot.^  He's  agate  of  a  fresh 
job  nov/.  n.Lin.'  All's  gooin'  on  reight ;  she's  hed  twins  and  is 
agaate  yit.  When  he's  agaate  on  oht  noht'll  stop  liim.  w.Wor.' 
Owd  Jem's  agate  now  uv  'is  taay'ls  ;  thahr'U  be  no  stoppin'  un. 
Shr.'  Whad  ban  jo  bin  agate  on ! 

7.  Wlieti  used  with  a  gerund,  with  or  witliout  o',  it  is 
almost  otiose,  or  indicates  continuance  of  action. 

Yks.  Tliis  set  ma  agate  a  roaring  agean,  Cinns  Tout  Wallop 
(1861)  4  ;  They  kept  me  agate  leaching  other  folk,  Taylor  Miss 
Miles  (1B90)  i.  n.Yks.=  It  keeps  ageeat  coming.  ra.Yks.'  lie's 
agate  o'  breaking  sticks.  w.Yks.  Men  are  agate  making  new 
limmers,  Lucas  Stud.  Nidderdalc  (c.  1882)  v;  w.Yks.'  He  then 
gat  agait  o'  fabbin  me,  ii.  293.  Lan.  They  were'n  olcz  agate  o' 
fcightin,  Wal-oii  Chiiiiu.  Conicy  (iS-j^)  i3,ed.  1879;  'At  set  mi  e'en 
agate  a  runnin',  Lnit.  Stigs.  (1C67)  11;  I  hope  thou'rt  not  got 
agate  of  meeting-going,  Fotiiergill  Fiohatioii  (,1879)  vi.  s.Lan. 
Anoetherloyme,when  av/re  agatefcyghtin.BAMFoRD  /r(i/fo(i844) 
The  Travcilcr.  e.Lan.'  We  are  now  agate  of  working.  It  keeps 
agate  of  raining.  Clis.  Bill  agate  o'  'ammering  the  last  nail, 
'Wardurton  Hunting  Siigs.  (i860)  91  ;  Her  father  treated  her 
mother  very  cruelly ;  he  did  not  beat  her,  but  was  always  'agate' 
calling  her.  ^//;»(f//.  G»rj)rf.  (Apr.24, 1895^;  Chs.' y\gateo' thrash  in. 
If  tha'lt  git  agate  0'  getting  ait  a  bit,  tha'l  git  better;  Chs.2  He  is 
agate  marling,  or  ploughing.  s.Chs.'  Agate  o'  mowin'.  De.-.  I  was 
agate  o  goin'  to  Ycwdle  Brig,  Gushing  Fof  (1888)  I.  ix.  s.Not. 
I'hey've  got  agate  o'  mekking  parafthl  artificially  (J.P.K.\  Lin. 
She'd  keep  one  man  agate  o'  mendin'  creddles.  Peacock  R.S/;iilaiigh 
(1870 ,  ii ;  To  get  a-gait  o'  coughing,  Stkeatkield  Lin.  and  Danes 
(1884  )  315.     Bw.Lin.'  They've  gotten  agate  a-reapeiing. 

8.  Apace,  briskly. 
N.Cy.'  The  fire  burns  agate. 

9.  ^i,i.'(.'/c  o'  (?),  along  of,  in  course  of,  by  reason  o^. 

I.Ma.  Child  screwed  agate  o  the  tcetliin',  Browne  Tl:e  Doctor 
('887J  4. 

[A-,  on+ f;ate,  way,  path,  road;  Oti.  gala;  see  Gate. 
Some  of  the  mills  . . .  were  set  on  gate  by  reason  the 
streams  were  so  hugclic  augmented,  IIolinshed  (N.E.D.). 

ME.  He  dijt  him  deliverly  and  dcde  him  on  gate,  IVui.  of 
Pal.  1 119] 

AGATE-WARDS,  adv.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Also 
written  agateurse  n.Lin.',  &c.  [agetadz,  sgeatsdz, 
age  taz.]  On  the  way  towards  home  ;  to  ga)is;  agatewards 
ivit/i  any  one,  to  accompany  part  of  the  way  home. 

n.Cy.  I  will  set  you  agates,  or  agateward,  I  will  accompanj-you 
part  of  the  Vpfay,  Grose  (1790).  w.Yks.  To  go  a  gatewards  was 
to  conduct  a  guest  towards  the  high-road,  the  last  office  of 
hospitality,  necessary  both  for  guidance  and  protection,  when 
the  highway  lay  across  an  uninclosed  and  trackless  country,  amidst 
woods  and  morasses,  Hlf.x.  Jl'ds.;  w.Yks.' I  gangs  agaitards  wi 
him  ;  w.Yks.''  To  go  agatewards  with  any  one  is  to  go  part  of 
his  way  home.  Der.  Let's  gang  agate'ards  [go  home]  (tl.R  ). 
nw.Dcr.'  Agatart  [ugyai'turt].  Not.^  It's  time  I  were  getting 
agatesward.  To  go  agatesward  or  agatehousing  [agatessing]  is  to 
go  part  of  the  way  home  with  a  friend.  Lin.'  nLin.'  If  thoo'll 
nobbut  waait  a  bit  I'll  go  agateus  wi'  thee  o'  th'  waay  hoiim. 

[Agate +  -ivard,  with  -s,  -es  the  adv.  gen.  suffix,  as  in 
towards.     In  agatesivard  this  adverbial  s  is  transposed.] 

AGE,  V.  Var.  dial.  Not  given  in  any  s.  gloss,  except 
w.Som.'  [edg,  w.Som.  eadg.J  To  show  signs  of  age,  to 
look  old  ;  to  cause  one  to  seem  old. 

n.Cy.  He  begins  to  age,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.')  Nhb.', 
Dur.',  Cum.'  e.Yks.'  To  show  signs  of  the  infirmities  of  old  age. 
w.Yks.'  My  daam  ages  fast.  Chs.' He's  agein'  very  fast.  Stf.'- 
Der.-  He  ages  fast.  Not.',  n.Lin.'  Lei.'  It's  eeged  'im  very 
sadly,  his  loosin'  on  'er.  Nhp.  'He  ages  apace,  i  e.  looks  older  in 
a  short  space  of  time.  War.' 2  Shr.' The  maister's  beginnin' to 
age  oncommon  fast,  an'  'c  inna  whad  j-o'  met'n  call  so  owd,  about 
fifty,  or  fifty  sa'one.  Brks.'  Mother's  a-bin  aaygin  vast  laaytely 
ater  her  cawld  at  Kursmas.  e.An.'  To  grow  old,  to  assume  the 
appearance  of  age.  Suf.,  Nrf.,  e.Sus.  He  ages  very  much,  that  is, 
he  grows  old  very  fast,  Hollovvay'.  w.Som.'  Siinz  iJz  wuyv  duyd, 
ee  du  ae'ujce  maa'ynlee  [since  his  wife  died  he  ages  mainly]. 
I  was  a  friglitencd  to  zee  how  the  old  man  d'agy. 

AGEE,  adj.  and  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  and  the  n.  counties  to 
Lan.  and  Lin. ;  also  Dev.  Also  written  agye  n.Cy.  Wm.' ; 
ajee  Sc.  Yks.'^^  Lan. ;  ajy  Wm.  &  Cum.'    [adgi'.] 

1.  Crooked,  uneven,  awry. 

Sc.  His  nose  aye  lay  On's  cheek  a-jee,  Drusimond  Mnchoinaehy 
(1846)  40;  Heaven  kens  that  the  best-laid  schemes  will  gang 
ajee,  Scott  S/./^o/'n;;  (1824). x.  Inv.Agee,  oil' the  straight  (H.E.F.). 
Rxb.  His  hat  was  set  awee  ajee,  Riddell  Poet.  Wis,  (cd.  1871) 
I.  8g.  N.I.'  n.Cy.  To  look  agye,  to  look  aside,  Grose  (1790); 
Holloway  ;  N.Cy.'  It  went  all  agee.  Niib.'  Hae  ye  seen  my 
Jocker,  comin'  up  the  quay,  Wiv  his  short  blue  jacket,  and  his 
hat  agee?  Nunn  (</.  i853)yoi/'cr.  Dur.'  Cum.  Wardle's[world] 
sadly  gean  ajy,  Gwordie  Greenup  Yance  a  Year  (1873)  27  ;  Aa's 
war'nt  ta  things'll  nit  be  sa  far  ajye  cfter  o',  Dickinson  Joe  and 
Geol.  (1866)  suppl.  4  ;  The  parson'  wig  stuid  aw  ajy,  Anderson 
Ballads  (1808)  IJ'orton  IVcdding.  Wm.  It  mud  a  bin  o'  a  jie,  fer 
it  tuminalt  slap  ower  a  top  et  fiewer  reet  afooar  ma,  Spec.  Dial. 
(1885)  pt.  iii.  5.  Wm.  &  Cum.'  Our  lot  of  leyfe's  not  far  a-jy,  Stagg 
Nejv  Year's  Epistle,  159.  Wm.'  Yeeat  lungs  agye.  Yks. '  To  look 
agye,'  to  look  awry,  to  look  on  one  side  (K.\  n.Yks.'  It  was  all 
a.gee,  quite  crooked  ;  n.Yks. ^^,  e.Yks.',  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.  When 
you've  missed  attending  to  things  two  or  three  times  they  go  agee 
(F.P.T.V  n.Lan.  T'ian's  strcit,  an  t'udar's  not  far  sjai  (W.S.). 
ne.Lan.',  n.Lin  ',  Dev.'     [Amer.  To  ha\'e  one's  iiat  ajee,  Barti.ett'.] 

2.  Of  a  door  or  gate  :  half-open,  ajar. 

Ayr.  But  warily  tent,  when  ye  come  to  court  me.  And  come  na 

unless  the  back-yett  be  a-jee.  Burns  Whistle,  and  I'll  conte  to  you. 

Edb.  When  the  door  was  pat  ajee,  Moir  Mansie  ll'auch  (1828)  x. 

Wm  '  .Set  t'dure  agee.       w.Yks. 2**     Lan.' Tint  dur  ;  its  ajee. 

8.  Of  mental  states :  agitated,  disturbed,  slightly  deranged. 

Sc.  It  is  sometimes  applied  to  the  mind,  as  expressive  of  some 
degree  of  derangement.  His  brain  was  awee  agee,  but  he  was 
a  braw  preacher  tor  a'  that  (Jam.).  Lan.'  An'  when  aw  meet  wi 
my  bonny  lass,  It  sets  my  heart  ajee,  Waugh  S"^i'.  (1859)  Siveel- 
hcai  t  Gate. 

[A-,  on  +gee.  Cp.  the  gee!  or  jee!  of  a  wagoner  calling  to 
his  horse  to  move  to  one  side.  Hence  the  primary  sense 
of  agcc,  on  one  side.] 

AGENT,  V.  Sc.  [e'd/^ant.]  To  manage,  whether  in  a 
court  of  law,  or  by  interest,  &c.  (Jam.) 

Sc.  I'll  employ  my  ain  man  o'  business  to  agent  Eflie's  plea, 
Scon  Midlothian  (1818)  xii ;  The  Duke  was  carefully  solicited  to 
agent  this  weighty  business,  Baillie,  I.  9  (Jam.). 




[/Igcit/,  sb.  (in  the  Sc.  sense  cf  a  solicitor  for  the  Court 
of  Session  or  other  courts),  used  as  v.] 

AGER,  see  Eagre. 

AGEREVER,  sb.  Obs.}  Cor.  A  fish-name  ;  the  Pollack. 

Cor.^  In  common  use  with  the  fishermen  of  St.  Michael's  Mount 
and  Marazion. 

AGESOME,  (rrf/.    Olis.}    Sur.     Elderly. 

Sur.  I  should  say  he's  sonicwiiat  agcrsomc.  N.  &  O.  (1883^  6th 
S.  vii.  165  ;  Sur.'  (Quoting  the  above,  adds]  I  have  never  heard  the 
word  in  tliis  part  of  Surrey. 

AGEST,  sec  Agast. 

AGETHER,  adv.    Obsol.    Irel.     To.qiethcr. 

Ir.  Agcther  is  becoming  obsolete;  hardly  ever  used  by  the 
peasantry  (S. A. B.).       Wxf.> 

[OE.  oiigeador,  together  (in  Deoivitif).'] 

AGO,  sb.    Sh.  I.    [ag.] 

(i)  S.  &  Ork.'  A  short  breach  of  the  sea.  (s")  Sh.I.  A  collection 
of  light  floating  articles,  such  as  morsels  of  straw,  scraps  of  sea- 
weed, <S:c. ,  found  drifting  between  the  string  of  the  tide  and  the 
backvi'ash  from  the  shore  ;  usually  met  with  on  a  calm  day  or 
when  there  is  a  slight  swell  (I\.I.). 

AGGERHEADS,  si.//.  Yks.  [a'gariadz.]  Loggerheads. 

Hence  Aggerheaded,  adj. 

w.Yks.2  '  lie's  an  aggerheaded  fellow'  means  he  is  a  dull,  stupid 
fell  o  w. 
AGGL, :;.    Sh.  I.    [a'gl.]    To  soil,  to  defile. 

S.  &Ork.' 

AGGUCKS,  sb.  Sh.  I.  [a'guks.]  A  kind  of  fish,  the 
same  as  awmucks. 

S.  &  Ork.l 

AGHENDOLE,  see  Eightindole. 

AGHT,  see  Out. 

AGIF,  coiij.    e.Yks.    [agi'f.]    As  if;  although. 

e.Yks.  It  was  twenty  year  last  Cannlcnias,  bud  Ah  mind  it  like  as 
agif  it  was  nobbut  yistliada,  Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  96 ;  e  Yks.' 
He  ramped  as-a-gif  he  was  mad.  Ah  likes  a  bit  o'  fun  agif  Ah  is 
awd,  MS.  add.  (WH.) 

[A:  all  +.i;7/(OE.  gif)  if;  see  Algif.] 

AGIG,  ddj.     Glo. "  Sec  Gig.     [agig.J 

Glo.  Agig,  giggling,  e-xcitcd  i_F.  H.);  Used  by  school-children 
when  racing  with  one  another.  He's  getting  agig  [getting  first  or 
foremost]  (S.S.B  ). 

AGIN,  coiij.  Yks.  and  n.Lan.   [agi'n.]    As  if.    See  Gin. 

n.Yks.';  n.Yks.^  It  Icuk'd  agin  it  was  asleep.  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.' 
I  can  tell  agin't  wor  3'ustcrday,  sin  thou  hed  as  nice  a  long  waist 
as  onnybody,  ii.  297.       ne  Lan.' 

[A-,  all+^/H,  if,  prob.  a  contraction  o( gie'n,  given,  i.e. 

AGIST,  sb.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  War.  Suf  Not 
in  Sc.  gloss.  Also  written  gist,  jeist,  joist  (see  below). 
[dgaist,  dgais,  Lan.  Lin.  Der.  also  dzoist.]  Pasturage  let 
out  during  the  summer  lor  cattle  at  a  lixed  price  per  head. 
Also  used  adjectivally. 

Yks.  Gisk  [sjc],  pasturage,  Morton  Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863).  n  Yks.'' 
Gist  money,  the  payment  for  pasturage  of  cattle  that  are  agisted, 
or  fed  at  a  stipulated  price.  ne.Lan.'  Gist  [cattle],  cattle  taken 
in  to  depasture  at  a  stipulated  price.  Der.'^  Joist.a  cow's  summer 
eating.  Not  He  takes  in  a  lot  of  joist  beast  (L.C.M.);  Not.^ 
Joist,  agistment,  sw  Lin.*  We've  a  lot  of  jeist  beast  down  here 
now.  War.  Joist  (J.R.W.).  Suf.  Joist  cattle,  Cullum  Uiil. 
Haivslcd  (\Qi-i)  140. 

[Sec  Agist,  I'.] 

AGIST,  V.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Rut. 
Lei.  Nhp.  w.Cy.  Also,  by  aphaeresis,  gist,  joist,  &.c.\ 
see  below.  To  receive  cattle  to  graze  for  a  fixed  sum  ;  to 
put  out  cattle  to  pasture.     (The  same  as  Tack,  q.v.) 

w.Yks.*  Jiste,  to  feed  cattle  for  hire.  Ajist,  to  take  cattle  in 
to  pasture  for  hire  ;  w.Yks.*  Jiste,  to  'agist'  or  feed  cattle  for 
hire  :  used  chiefly  in  the  participle  *  jisting.'  e.Yks.^  Ajist,  to 
rent  a  right  of  pasturage.  Joyce,  to  agist,  or  pasture  cattle  at  so 
much  per  head.  Lan.  Joyst,  to  summer  grass  feed  ;  to  let  out  for 
another's  stock,  Morto.n  Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863);  Lan.'  Gisc,  Gist. 
ne.Lan.'  Gise,  Gist,  to  pasture  cattle  on  hire.  Der.  Them  two 
sheep  as  is  in  the  croft  to  joist,  Vernky  Slone  Kdge  (1868)  ii. 
Not  To  joist,  to  take  in  cattle  to  feed  for  liirc,  Bailey  (1721); 
Not.'3  Agist.  Lin.  Each  agists  his  cow  at  is.  6d.  per  week,  .,•/(/>;. 
Agik.  (,1784-1815)  ;    Lin.'  Joist,  agist,  or  to  hire  for  a  season 

certain  pasturage  for  feeding  cattle.  n.Lin.'  Giste.  They  are  forced 
to  sell  their  heeders,  and  joist  their  sheeders  in  the  spring,  VouNG 
/,/;/.  ^^^/Vr.  ( 1 799)  325.  sw.Lin,'  They  tak' in  bca^t  to  joist.  We've 
joisted  them  out  by  t)ie  Trent.  Rut.'  It's  on'y  some  ship  [i.e. 
sheep]  he's  got  a  joisting.  Lei.'  Joist,  to  take  or  send  in  to  '  ley ' 
or 'tack.'  Nhp. '  Joist.  The  word  is  still  in  everyday  use,  and 
is  a  Nhp.  word  of  some  two  centuries  standing.  w.Cy.  To  joist, 
Lisle  Husbandry  (1757^ 

Hence  Agisted,  ppl.  adj. 

Cum.  Joistcrcd,  pastured,  Linton  Lake  Cy.  (1864'^  306.  Wm. 
Cattle  maj'  be  kept  through  the  months  of  summer  upon  joisted 
fields  at  a  cheap  rate,  ylgric.  Stiii:  (1703   1813'. 

[To  agist  signifies  to  take  in  and  feed  the  cattle  of 
strangers  in  the  King's  forest,  and  to  take  money  for 
the  same,  B.mley  (1721);  To  take  in  and  feed  cattel  of 
strangers  in  the  King's  forest,  and  to  gather  the  money 
due  for  the  same  for  the  King's  use,  Blou.nt  i  1681) ;  Glan- 
dagcr  Ics porcnnix,  to  agist,  or  laj",  swine  in  masty  woods, 
CoTGR.  OFr.  agis/cr,  to  lodge,  to  make  to  lie,  a  +  gisUr, 
Rom.  jaci/aie  (deriv.  of  Lat.  jaccre,  to  lie),  cp.  Fr.  gilcr: 
avoir  sou  gi/,\  on  lieu  oil  ton  troiive  a  conclicr,  Hatzi-eld. 
The  following  illustrations  of  the  aphetic  forms  maj'  be  also 
quoted  :  To  gisc  ground,  is  when  the  owner  docs  not  feed 
it  with  his  own  stock,  but  takes  in  other  cattle  to  graze  in 
it,  B.MLEY  (1721);  To  gise  or  juice  ground,  is  when  the 
lord  or  tenant  feeds  it  not  with  his  own  stock,  but  takes 
in  other  cattel  to  agist  or  feed  it  (K.)  ;  To  joist  or  jeist 
horses,  i.  e.  cqtios  alicnos  ccrlo  cl  condicio  pirlio  inpnsciiis  snis 
aloe,  vox  agro  Line,  xisitcitissiina,  Ski.nner  (1671)  Ddd  2.] 

AGISTER,  5*.  Yks.  Not.  Lei.  Nhp.  Hmp.  Also  written 
joister  Nhp.'^  &c.  [ad3oista(r),  Yks.  adgai'sta  r).]  An 
animal  fed  by  '  agisting.' 

w.Yks.3  Jistcr,  tlie  animal  so  fed  [i.  e.  by  agistment].  KoL  lie's 
got  no  stock  of  his  own,  only  joisters  (L.C.M.).  LeL'  Joislcr,  an 
animal  taken  or  sent  in  to  joist.     Nhp.* 

[.•7^/5/,  vb.-f-cr.  This  word  seems  to  occur  only  in  the 
dialects.  It  should  be  distinguished  from  agister,  AFr. 
agistoiir,  an  officer  of  the  roj'al  forests  who  takes  charge 
of  cattle  agisted.] 

AGISTING,  .si.  n.Cy.  Lan.  Rut.  War.  P,y  aphaeresis 
gisting  Nhb.'  «S;c.     See  below,     [sdgaistin,  adgoistin.] 

1.  The  pasturage  or  '  keep'  (q.v.)  of  cattle  put  out  to  graze. 
N.Cy.'  Gisting,  pasturage  of  cattle,  in  some  places  Giscment. 

Nlib.'  Gisting,  the  agistment  of  cattle  {obs.).  w.Yks.5  The  'gisting- 
daj'is  the  day  whereon  pasture-owners  have  agreed  to  take  in  cattle 
at  a  stipulated  price  per  head  to  feed.  The  times  of  agistment  arc 
advertized  in  the  local  papers  by  some  of  the  principal  landowners 
in  the  ncighbouiiiood.  Lan.'  Gistin.  ne.Lan.'  Gisting.  8. War.' 
What  must  I  p.iy  for  joisting  ! 

2.  Paj'ment  for  pasturage. 

Rut.'  Ajoisting.  a  pa3mcnt  for  feeding  and  dep.istiiring  of  cattle. 

AGISTMENT,  sb.  Yks.  Lnn.  War.  Hmp.  Wil.  Also 
written  egistmcnts  Ray.  [adgistment]  '1  he  Iccdingof 
cattle  at  a  fixed  rate  ;  pasturage  ;  the  right  of  herbage  ;  a 
tithe.     (In  the  two  latter  senses,  a  legal  term.) 

N.Cy.'  The  tithe  due  for  profit  made  by  such  gisting,  where  neither 
the  land  nor  llic  cattle  otherwise  p.ny  anything,  [is]  agistment. 
w.Yks.  Agistment,  Trvston  Park.—  Gaits  to  let  for  cows  at  £s  each, 
from  H.ay  13th  to  November  ist,  1889.  (lood  water  and  shelter. 
Excellent  grass,  Advl.  in  Leeds  Men.  (M.iy  4,  1889  .  e.Yks.' 
Ajistmcnt,  a  right  of  herbage.  ne.Lan.'  Tlie  feeding  of  cattle  in 
a  common  pasture  for  a  stipulated  price.  War.  (J.R.W.)  s.Cy. 
Egistmcnts.  cattle  taken  in  to  graze,  by  week  or  month,  Ravi  1691). 
Hmp.'  Wil.  Agistment,  the  taking  in  of  cattle  to  keep  bj-  the 
week  or  month.  D.wis  Ai^rir.  (1813'. 

(Giscment  la  contraction  of  Agistment),  foreign  cattle  so 
taken  in  to  be  kept  by  the  week,  Bailey  (1721)  ;  Agist- 
mentjAgistage, tlic  function  of takingcattle  into  the  King's 
forest,  lite.,  the  herbage  or  feeding  of  cattle  in  a  forest, 
common,  &c.,  ib. ;  Egistmcnts  (agistments),  cattle  taken  in 
to  graze,  or  be  fed  by  the  week  or  mouth,  Worlipge 
Syst.  Agrie.  (1681)  ;  Glandage  .  .  .  th'  agistment  or  laying 
of  swine  into  mastic  woods,  Cotgr.  OFr.  agisleinent,  deriv. 
of  agister.] 

AGIVE,  I'.  Dcv.  [sgi  v.]  To  be  pliant,  yielding.  See 

Dev,-^  The  frost  agi\cs. 




[That  they  [hops]  may  cool,  agive,  and  toughen,  Wor- 
lidge5v5/.  J4^;7f.  (1681).     OE-agifan,  to  give  up,  to  yield.] 

AGLE,  see  Aigle,  sb.'^ 

A-GLEG,  adj.     n.Yks.     [agle'g.]     Asquint. 


AGLET,  sh.  Sc.  Cum.  Yks.  I.W.  Also  written  yiglet 
Cum.,  aiglet  Sc.  (Jam.)     [a'glst,  eglat.] 

1.  The  metal  end  or  tag  of  a  bootlace,  &c.    (Cf.  aiglet,  sb.'^) 
Sc.  Aiglet, a  tagged  point  (Jam.).      Cum.^  Aglet,  the  metal  end  of 

a  bootlace,  c&c.      n.Yks.^  To  an  aglet,  to  a  nicety,  to  a  tittle.      It  fits 
to  an  aglet. 

2.  An  icicle. 

I.W.  Haglet,  an  icicle  (J.D.R.^)  ;  I.W.2 

[Aglette,  hracteohtm,  Levins  Mniiip.  ;  Affiqml,  a  little 
brooch,  llower,  button,  aglet,  Cotgr.  ;  An  aglet  [tag  of 
a  point],  Aeraincntinn  tigiilae;  also,  an  aglet  [a  little  plate 
of  metal],  hracka,  bractcola.  Coles  ;  Aglet,  the  tag  of  a  point, 
a  little  plate  of  metal ;  also  a  substance  grovying  out  of 
some  trees  before  the  leaves,  B.mley  (1721).  Fr.  aigiiilliile, 
a  point  (Cotgr.),  dimin.  of  aiguille,  a  needle  ;    see  Aigle.] 

AGLEY,  adv.  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  n.Yks.  Also  written 
aglee  Sc.     [sglr.] 

1.  Obliquely,  aslant,  turned  to  one  side. 

Sc.  Let  faction  gang  fairmacst  and  right  gang  aglce.  The  People 
(June  16,  1889)  13,  c.  3;  Why  sud  I  be  like  til  ane  wha  gangs 
agley  fiae  the  hirsels  0'  thy  frien's  ?  Henderson  5;/^.  Sol.  (1862) 
i.  7  ;  Whare  has  thy  belovet  gane  agley?  ib.v't.  i.  Lth.  Yet  bunkers 
aften  send  aglee,  Altho'  they  weel  did  ettle,  Strathesk  More  Bits 
(1885)  Curler's  Song,  2■].^.  Ayr.  The  best-laid  schemes  o"  mice 
an' men  Gang  aft  a-gley,  Burns  7o  (7  il/o((S(?  (1785).  N.Cy.'  Nhb. 
His  neet-cap  thrawn  on  all  aglee,  Wilson  Pitinnii's  Pay  (1843) 
46  ;  Nowt  holy  ye  can  find  in  hor,  she's  bewty  g'yen  aglee,  Robson 
Evangeline,  &e.  (1870)  361.  Nhb.i  Cura.^  Sae  fine  she  goes,  sae 
far  aglee,  That  folks  she  kenned  she  cannotsee,  BlamirePoc/.  JVks. 
(1842)  192. 

2.  7o^rt;;^ff^/(y',to  err,  go  wrong.  Used  in  a  moral  sense 

Rnf.  We  haena  mcnse  like  cruel  man ;  Yet  tho'  he's  paukicr  far  than 
we.  What  reck  !  he  gangs  as  aft  aglee,  Picken  Poems  (178B)  I.  67. 

[A-,  on  +glcv ;  see  Gley,  v.  (to  squint).] 

AGNAIL,//).  n.Cy.  Lan.  Not.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  Nrf  Cor. 
Also  called  angnail,  angernail,  hangnail,  nangnail, 
gnangnail.  See  below,  [agnel,  a'rjnel,  narjnel,  Yks. 
ner)nel.]     See  Nangnail. 

1.  A  loose  piece  of  skin  at  tlie  base  of  the  finger-nail.  With 
great  variety  of  names  in  tlie  dialects,  e.g.  backfriend,  step- 
motlier's  blessing,  idle  wheal,  fan-nail,  idle-warts,  idle- 
welts,  thang-naii,  warty-wheals  (Nhp.'). 

Nhb.i  Anger-nail,  a  piece  of  skin  at  the  side  of  the  nail  which  has 
become  semi-detached  and  gives  pain.  Cum.  He  had  a  trouble- 
some backfriend  or  agnail,  at  which  he  often  bit,  Linton  L.  Lorton 
(i867)xxiv;  Cum. 'Angnails,  Anger-nails,  jags  round  thcnails;  nails 
grown  into  tiic  flesh.  w.Yks.s  Hang-nails,  skin  over-lapt  finger- 
nails. Not.i  n.Lin.*  Nangnail,  a  partly  detached  piece  of  skin 
beside  the  finger-nails,  which  gives  pain.  Lei.*  Nhp.*  A  trouble- 
some and  disagreeable  little  piece  of  reverted  skin  at  the  side  of 
thefinger-nail;  morefrcquentlycalled  Idle  Wheal.  Nrf.  Hang-nails, 
slivers,  which  hang  from  the  roots  of  the  nails,  and  reach  to  the 
tips  of  the  fingers,  Holloway. 

2.  A  corn,  bunion  ;  ingrowing  toe-nail. 

Cam.  Ang-nails,  corns  on  the  feet,  Grose  (1790);  Holloway. 
N.Cy.' Ang-nails,  corns  on  the  toes.  w.Yks.  Nangnails.  Opinions 
are  dis'idcd  as  to  this  word  :  i.  Ingrowing  toe-nails,  2,  corns,  3. 
bunions  (.S.K.C.)  ;  Being  troubled  wi'  corns  and  nangnails  shoe's 
not  fit  for  mich  walkin'  at  present,  Hartley  Seels  (1895)  ii  ; 
w.Yks.2  Gnang-nails.  corns  on  the  toes.  ne.Lan.'  Angnail.  acorn 
upon  the  toe.  n  Lin.' Nangnail,  acorn,  a  bunion.  There  is  a  black 
resinous  ointment  largely  sold  under  the  name  of  Nangnail  salve 
for  the  cure  of  corns. 

3.  A  whitlow. 

Cor.2  Agnail,  a  whitlow. 

[1.  Ang-nail,  a  sore  or  imposthumation  under  the  nail  of 
a  man,  Kennett  (1700) ;  Agnail,  a  slip  of  skin  at  the  root 
of  a  nail,  Bailey  (1721).  2.  Agnail,  a  corn  upon  toes. 
Blount  (1681) ;  Agassin,  a  corn  or  agncle  in  the  feet  or 
toes.  Corrct,  an  agnail  or  little  corn  upon  a  toe,  Cotgr.  ; 
Agnayle  upon  ones  too,  corirt,  Palsgr.  3.  Agnail  (whitlo), 
Pkrigimn,  Coles  (1679).    The  Yks.  and  Lin.  form  nang-nail 

is  for  an  older  ang-nail  \m\!i\  the  n  of  the  indef.  art.  prefixed. 
OE.  ang-ita'gl,  the  original  meaniugof  which  seems  to  have 
been  a  corn  on  the  toe  or  foot,  a  compressed,  painful,  round- 
headed  excrescence  fixed  in  the  flesh  like  an  iron  nail.  OE. 
aiignagl,  ciig-  compressed,  tight  (cp.  ang-  in  anginod 
anxious,  angness  anxiety,  angsiim  narrow,  Goth,  aggwiis) 
+  iicrgl,  an  iron  nail,  claviis.  Meanings  1  and  3  are  due  to 
a  popular  association  of  the  word  with  nail  =  ««^«/s.] 

AGO,  pp.  s.Irel.  and  Dev.  Also  written  ee-go  Wxf.' 
[ago',  3gu3-.]     Gone,  finished. 

WxT.'  Ilea's  ee-go.  Dev.  Awl  tha  tatties  be  ago,  missis  ;  there 
idden  wan  a-layved,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  45  ;  They  be  all  ago, 
there  idn  one  o'm  a  left.  Verb.  Prov.  (1886)  89.  n.  Dev. There's  Dame 
an'  Maister's  chair  ;  Wi'  thick  I  zem  they  ba'nt  a-go.  Rock  Jim  an'' 
Nell  (1867)  28 ;  The  blue  of  the  plum  is  ago,  zure,  Monthly  Mag. 
(1808)  II.  421. 

[iVIE.  For  now  is  clene  a-go  My  name  of  trouthe  in  love 
for  ever-mo  !  Chaucer  Tr.  Or'  Cr.  v.  1054  ;  And  thus  ar 
Tisbe  and  Piramus  ago  (i.  e.  dead  1,  ib.  Leg.  G.  IV.  916  ;  My 
lady  bright  Which  I  have  loved  with  al  my  might  Is  fro  me 
deed,  and  is  a-goon,  ib.  B.  Diic/icsse  479.  OE.  dgdn,  pp.  of 
dg(hi,  to  pass  away.     See  Agone.] 

A-GOG,  adv.  Yks.  Som.  Dev.  [agog.]  On  the  move, 

w.Yks.s  Gee  him  a  sup  o'  drink  an'  he'll  soin  be  agog  on't, 
alluding  to  a  hobby  of  a  tale  that  a  man  is  in  the  habit  of  telling. 
[Of  a  child  on  a  moving  rocking-horse]  There,  now  he's  agog  ! 
Som.  Ofl' we  started,  all  agog,  Pulman  S^v/rAi-s  (1842)  25.  n.Dev. 
When  tha  art  zet  agog,  tha  desent  caree  who  tha  scuUest,  E.rm. 
Scold  (1746)  1.  228. 

[Six  precious  souls  and  all  agog,  Cowper  Jo/t  11  Gilpin; 
On  which  the  saints  are  all  agog,  Butler  Hud.  11 ;  The 
gawdy  gossip  when  she's  set  agog,  Dryden  Juv.  Sat.  vi. 
OVr.dgogue.  In  a  poem  of  the  13th  cent,  occursthe  phrase 
tout  vient  ii  gogiie  (Hatzfeld).  Cp.  Cotgr.  eslre  en  ses 
gogues,  to  be  frolick,  lusty,  lively,  wanton,  gamesome  ;  all- 
a-hoit,  in  a  merry  mood.] 

A-GOGGLE,  adv.  Brks.  Hmp.  [ago'gL]  Trembling, 
shaking  with  palsy. 

Brks.*  An  old  man  was  spoken  of  as  being  agoggle;  he  was  the 
tenor  of  little  children  from  this  involuntary  shaking  of  the  head 
at  them.       Hmp.'  His  head  is  all  agoggle. 

[A  frequent,  of  agog.     See  above.] 

AGONE,  adv.  Irel.  Shr.  Glo.  e.An.  Ken.  Hmp.  LW. 
Som.  Dev.  Cor.    [sgo'n.]     Ago,  since. 

s.Ir.  We  started  three  days  agon.  Lover  Leg.  (1848)  II.  291. 
Wxf.'  Shr.  2  An  archaism  very  common  at  Wenlock.  Glo.  They 
have  told  me  as  'e  be  dead  twelve  months  agone,  Gissing  Both  of 
this  Parish  (1889)  I.  14  ;  Glo.',  e.An.'  Nrf.,  Suf.  Holloway.  Suf.' 
'Tis  three  months  agon.  Ken.  Grose  (1790)  MS.  aeid.  (P.)  Hmp.' 
Ten  years  agone.  I.W.'  Sora.  We  should  a-bin'  out  o'  parish 
years  agone,  Raymond /.otrdxrf  Quiet  Life  {iQg^)  193  ;  W.  &  J.  Gl. 
(1873)  ;  w.Som.'  'Twas  ever  so  long  agone.  Zabm  yuur  ugau'n 
kaum  Kandmus  [seven  years  ago  next  Candlemas].  Such  phrases 
are  quite  familiar  to  all  West-country  folk.  Dev.  When  old  fayther 
died,  two  weeks  agone.  Bray  Desc.  1,1836)  I.  32;  'Twas  zome  time 
agone  her  went  up  tii  gcrt  ouze,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  45.  n.Dev. 
They  say  '  time  agone  '  for  'some  time  since,'  Jefferies  Reel  Deer 
(1884)  X.  Cor.  Some  years  agone,  Tregellas  Rural  Pop.  (1863)  8. 
w.Cor.  He  went  to  Africa  some  time  agone  (M.A.C.). 

[Oh,  he's  drunk.  Sir  Toby,  an  hour  agone,  Shaks.  Twelfth 
Nt.  V.  i.  204  ;  For  long  agone  I  have  forgot  to  court,  ib.  'Two 
Gent.  III.  i.  85  ;  A  while  agon,  Gower  C.A.  (Tale  of  the 
Coffers,  9)  ;  Nat  longe  agon  is,  Chaucer  C.  T.  d.  9.  OE. 
ds^dn.  See  Ago.] 
"  AGONIES,  sb.  pi.     Pern.     Glandular  swellings  (?). 

Laws  Little  Eng.  (1888)  419;  Never  heard  [agonies]  in  this 
sense.  The  word  is  used  for  any  great  pain.  Swelth  is  the  word 
for  glandular  swellings  (W. M. M. ). 

AGRAFT,  V.    e.An.  Suf.     [agra'ft,  agrse-ft.] 

e.An.'  To  lay  in,  of  a  tree  put  into  the  soil  so  as  to  just  cover  its 
roots.  Suf.  To  graft  a  stock  below  the  surface  of  the  ground.  An 
old  gardener  says  it  is  nearly  obsolete,  and  known  in  no  other 
sense  than  the  above  (F.H.). 

AGREAT,  adv.  Lei.  Nhp.  Also  written  agret  Nhp.' 
[sgre't,  Nhp.  also  agre-t.]     Of  work  :  done  by  the  piece. 

Lei.'  Nhp.'  By  the  great,  work  taken  or  let  out  to  be  done  by 
quantity  instead  oi  by  the  day. 




[Agrcat,  by  the  great,  by  the  job,  Asii  (1795I  ;  To  take 
work  agrcat,  i.e.  by  the  piece,  Blol'nt  (1681 1  ;  A-grcat, 
universe,  Coles  (1679)  ;  A-grcat,  by  the  great  or  hinip. 
Coles  ( 1677) ;  Agrcat  or  altogitlier,  universe,  Baret  (1580). 
A-,  on-t^ffrea/.] 

AGREE,  V.     Sc.  Glo.     fagrr.]    Agree  ivi//i,  agree  to. 

Sc.  I  do  not  agree  with  it,  Moiillily  Mitg.  (1800I  I.  324.  Inv. 
Used  all  over  Scotland,  and  very  common  aboirt  Inverness  J  I.K.  V.  \. 
Glo.'  Agree  with,  to  put  up  with.  What  !  be  you  washing  the  dumb 
animal  [i.e.  a  dog]  ■  a*  seems  to  agree  with  it  very  well. 

[Agree  with  his  demands,  Siiaks.  M.for  ^Ieas.\u.'\.2^J^. 
OFr.  ni;reer ;   Rom.  nggratare,  to  make  ]i!easing.] 

AGREEABLE,  adj.     In  i;en.  colloq.  use.     [agria-bl.] 

1.  Acquiescent,  compliant,  willing. 

w.Yks.'  I's  parlitly  agreeable  lul't,  i.  4.  Chs.^  He  is  not  agree- 
able [refuses  his  consent].  n.Lin.'  Robud  a.x'd  mo  if  I  would  hcv 
him,  and  I  s,ays,  'Well,  Bob,  I'm  agree.ible.'  Nhp.'  I'm  quite 
agreeable  to  it.  Oxf.'  MS.  add.  Brks.'  I  be  agraable  vor  urn  to  get 
married  if  urn  be  agra-able  on  t'other  zide.  e.An.'  I  am  agreeable 
[agree  to  3-our  proposal].  Sur.'  I  ast  'un  to  come  along  of  us,  but 
he  didn't  seem  now.iys  agreeable.  w.Som.'  Wau'd-cc  zai  tiie  u 
kwauTt? — Aay  bee  ugrai'ubl  [What  do  you  say  to  a  quart?  — I  am 
willing  to  join  J'ou]. 

2.  Convenient,  suitable. 

s.Stf.  Wen  expect  yer  when  yo  con  mak'  it  agreeable  to  come, 
PiNNOCK  BIk   Cv.  Ann.  1  189^5  . 

[1.  Agreeable  or  c^informable,  consenliens,  concurrens, 
Robertson  (1693) ;  Agrcablc  .  .  .  consentyng  to  a  thyngc, 
agreable,  Palsgr.  305.  2.  Agreeable  or  convenient,  co>i- 
sentanens,  conveniens,  apltis.  He  hath  a  nature  agreeable  . . . 
and  suitable  to  all  things,  Robertson  (1693);  con.'>cn/anens, 
agreeable,  meet,  convenient,  Rider  (1649).  OFr.  agreable, 
deriv.  oi  agreer.     See  Agree.] 

AGREEN,  sb.  Cum.  [agrin.]  Plant-name,  Senecio 
Jacobaia  (Common  Ragwort'. 

Cum.'  [Also  called]  Booin,  Grundswathc.  Muggort,  Grunscl. 

AGROUND, n(/i'.  Lan.  Won  Hrf.  Glo.  Brks.  [agreund, 
Lan.  agru'nd.] 

1.  On  tlic  ground. 

ne.Lan.'  ^\grund,  on  the  ground. 

2.  (_)n  foot. 

s.Wor.  Known  in  this  sense  in  Stoulton  (U.K.).  Hrf.  Going 
aground  [on  foot],  heard  some  time  ago  in  the  Ledbury  district 
(H.K.^.  Glo.  Commonly  used  in  Vale  of  Berkeley.  Are  you  going 
to  Dursley  in  the  cart?  — No,  I'm  going  aground.  [Also]  used  by 
an  old  gamekeeper,  at  Snowshdl  ^near  Stanway)  thirty  years  ago 
(J.D.K. )  ;  Glo.' 

3.  Of  a  fox:  to  earth. 

Glo.   J.D.R.)     Brks.'  The  vox  be  gone  aground. 

4.  Fig.  in  phr.  to  run  aground,  to  slander,  depreciate. 
s.-Wor.  (F.W.M.W.) 

[A-,  on  +  ground.] 

AGUE,  sb.  e.An.  [egiu.]  Swelling  and  inflammation 
from  taking  cold. 

e.An.'  An  ague  in  the  face  is  a  common  consequence  of  facing  a 
Norfolk  north-caster.  Ague-ointment,  an  unguent  made  with  elder 
leaves  for  ague  in  the  face.  Suf.Ague,  or  swelling  in  the  face, 
e.An.  (1866)  II.  325. 

[A  vehement  ague  causing  an  inflammation  in  the  mouth. 
eniphysodes,  Robertson  ( 1693).  This  is  a  peculiar  use  of 
E.  ague,  a  feverish  attack  folTowcd  by  a  cold  and  shivering 
stage.     OFr.  ague,  MLat.  acula,  an  acute  fcver.J 

AH,  int.  jn  gen.  use  throughout  the  dialects.  Also 
written  eh.  [e.]  Interrogative  exclamation  =  What  ?  What 
did  you  say  ?     Sec  Ay. 

Nhb.'Aah!  Eh-ah  ?  n.Yks.2  A-ah,  said  you  '  w.Som.'  Eh  I 
Used  interrogatively  and  alone,  it  means  '  what  do  3-ou  s.ay  ''  at  the 
end  of  an  interrogative  sentence  repeats  the  question.  Wuur-s 
u-biin'  tiie,  ai  ?  [where  hast  been,  ch  !] 

AHEAD,  adv.     Dev.     [a-ed.]    Overhead. 

Dev.  Zes  I  tu  a  chap, '  What  dee  call  thic  ahead  ? '  Zcs  he,  'Aw 
that  air's  tha  balune's  little  maid  '  [a  small  pilot  balloon  sent  up 
before  the  large  one],  Nathan  Hogg  Pod.  Let.  (,1847)  19,  ed.  1858. 

[//-,  on+/(ra(/.] 

AHEIGHT,  adv.     Yks.     [a-ei't.]     On  high,  aloft. 

n.Yks.  [Of  a  ball,  &C.J  Shy  itupaheight  .0. W.W.I  :  Lift  it  up 
a-height  (.I-W.). 

[Look  up  a-hei"ht ;  the  shrill-gorged  lark  so  far  Cannot 
be  seen  or  heard.  Siiaks.  A'.  Lear,  iv.  vi.  58.  A-,  on  -f  height.] 

AHENT,  sec  Ahind. 

AHIND,  />'■'/'.  and  adv.  Sc.  n.Irel.  and  all  the  n.counties 
to  Chs.  and  Liu.  Also  in  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Glo.  Also  written 
ahintSc.  Nhp.';  ahinSc.  N.I.'  See  below.  [Sc.  Nhb.Cum. 
Wm.  ahi'nt ;  Lin.  a-ai'nd,  a-i'nt ;  Lei.  a-oind,  Ir.  a-hi'n.] 

1.  prep.     Of  place  :  at  the  back  or  in  the  rear  of;  alsoyfi''. 
Sc.  Vich  Ian  Vohr  and  ta  Prince  are  awa  to  the  lang  green  glen 

ahint  the  clachan,  Scott  JFnwc/cv  (1814)  xliv  ;  Hide  yoursell  ahint 
ta  Sassenach  shentleman's  ped,  lA.  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxii ;  Snaw  lies 
ahint  the  d3kc,  Swainson  ll'cather  Flk-Lore  {iQt^^)  la  ;  A  woman 
cam'  ahint  him,  an'  touchet  the  hem  o'  his  garment  Henderson 
SI.  .Matt.  (1862')  ix.  20.  Frf.  Gie  the  door  a  fling-to,  ahent  ye, 
Barkie  Liclil  (1888)  173.  Per.  There's  something  ahint  that  face, 
Ian  yi,\CLARE:t  Brier  Bush  J895;  25.  Bwk.  Ahint  the  kyc.  Hender- 
son Pofi.  Rhymes  (1856)  79.  Feb.  Here  he  comes  with  the  dog 
running  ahint  him  (A.C.).  Gall.  He  canna  shut  them  ahint  him, 
Crockett /J<yr-.A/v,Y/^(  1895^  367.  N.I.'  Ahin,  behind.  Nhb.  Ahint 
the  bush  that  bauds  the  thrush,  Coqiirl Dale  Sngs.  (1852^  116;  Nhb.' 
Ahint  yor  hand  [to  have  some  one  to  look  after  j'our  interest  in 
your  absence],  Dur.  Behowld,  he  stands  ahint  our  \vo,  Moore 
Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  ii.  9.  Cum. '  You  oald  donkey,'  scz  a  fellow  ahint 
mo,  Mary  Dinyson  1872)  16.  Wm.  &  Cum.'  A  stomach  fit  to  eat 
thorse  ehint  t'saddle,  Bo»7io:i'r/(i/c  Lrl.  17871  131.  Wm.'  It  stands 
ahint  t'dure.  ne.Yks.' It's  nut  mich  ahint  t'uther.  w.Yks.*  Cloise 
ahint  him.  ne.Lan.'  Chs.  Lookingk  at  th'  sarxant  wench  ahint 
mi  back,  Clovgh  B.  Bresskillle  (1879"!  7.  n.Lin.  An'  reaper,  'at's 
swingin"  ahind  em.  Peacock  J'nics  and  Rhymes  {18S6':  80.  n.Lin.' 
Lei.' Ahent,  Ahind.  Nhp.' Ahint.  Not  frequent,  and  confined  I 
believe  to  the  northern  part  of  the  county  ;    Nhp.^  Ahent. 

2.  Of  time:  after,  behind. 

w.Yks.5  Tha't  awlus  ahint  thee  time,  ah  think. 

3.  adv.  Of  place  :  in  the  rear,  at  the  back,  behind  ;  /ig. 
concealed ;  ahind  a/ore,  hind-foremost ;  to  walk  ahind  a/ore, 
to  walk  backwards. 

Sc.  Here  heids  had  humps  ahint  th,it,  tow'rin',  seemed  A  fairy 
helmet,  Allan /.r'//5  (1874")  65.  Per.  A'  mind  him  gettin'  a  tear  ahint, 
and  the  mend's  still  veesible,  Ian  MaclarenBwc^ks/i  ^1895:  240. 
Gall.  The  reed  lowe  jookin'  through  the  bars,  and  the  puir.  puir 
craiters  yammerin'  ahint,  CROCKETr  Raiders  (1894")  xvii.  N.Cy.' 
To  ride  ahint.  Nhb.  Ah  canna  rightlys  mak'  him  oot  noo  !  There's 
somethin'  ahint,  Ah  doot  1  Clare  Loi'e  of  Lass  (1890)  I.  50;  We 
stagger'd  a  hint  se  mcrry-o.  A'.  Minslrel  xixA  1,  pL  iv.  81;  Nhb.' 
Come  in  ahint  [the  familiar  cry  of  the  drover  to  his  dogl  Wm.' 
Tha's  alias  ahint  like  a  coo's  taal.  n.Yks.'  He's  close  ahint. 
w.Yks.*  To  ride  at-hint  [to  ride  behind  another  person  on  the  same 
horse].  War.*'  Why  bless  me,  child!  you've  put  your  baton  ahind 
afore.  Glo.  But  this  'ere  time  I'd  a  'ad  to  leave  Willum  a-hind, 
Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn  ^1890)  60. 

4.  Behindhand;  backward(of  the  state  of  vegetation'). 
n.Yks.'  I'm  afraid  I'm  late-  —  Nac,  thou's  nane  sae  raich  ahint; 

n.Yks.=  All's  a-hinL    w.Yks.  Ahinthand  yE.B.). 

5.  Tobe  ahind,  (1)  to  be  in  error,  (2I  to  come  out  of  an  affair 
at  a  disadvantage  ;  to  come  in  ahint  one,  to  take  the  ad- 
vantage of  one  ;  to  fall  ahint,  to  be  disappointed  in  one's 
expectations  ;  to  get  on  ahint  one,  sec  below ;  not  to  be 
ahint,  to  be  equal  with  respect  to  retaliation  or  revenge  ; 
cf.  to  be  even  ivith. 

(i)  Sc.  Ahint,  expressive  of  error  or  mistake  in  one's  supposition 
in  regard  to  anything  (.Jam."*,  (a)  n.Yks.'  They  say  Joscy's  come 
badly  on  ?  — Nae.  he's  not  far  ahint.  Sc  'Had  M'Viltic's  folk 
bch,ivcd  like  honest  men,'  he  said,  '  he  wad  hac  liked  ill  to  come 
in  ahint  them,  and  out  afore  them  this  gate,' Scott /?oA  ;R<)y(i8i7) 
xxxvi  ;  Ye'vc  fa'n  ahind  there.  To  get  on  ahint  one,  to  get  the 
advantage  of  one  in  a  bargain,  to  take  him  in  [said  to  allude  to  the 
practice  of  leaping  up  behind  an  enemy  on  horseback,  and  holding 
his  hands].      I  shanna  be  ahint  wi'  you  iJam.V 

[A-,  at  (/>»•</.' H  -hind  (cp.  behind).  Cp.  ME.  at-hinden, 
OE  irt-hindan :  Se  cyiiing  tcrde  him  aet-hindan,  the  King 
went  after  them,  Chron.  a.d.  1016.J 

AHM,  sec  Harm,  i'. 

AHOME,  adv.  prop.  phr.  Sc.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Dcr. 
War.  Shr.  Wil.  Written  a-whoam  Yks.  Lan.  ;  a-whani 
Shr.' ;  a-whom  Dcr.  ;  a-whum  Stf.'  ;  a-woni  Chs.'  War. 
[S.':.  a-he'm  ;  Lan.  &c.  a-wcni,  a-wum.]  Within  doors, 
at  home. 

Ayr..  Gall.  Ye  better  bide  ahame  the  day  (Jam.  Siif>pl.^.  Yks. 
I  felt  almost  a-whoam,  Fetherston  Farmer,  5.       Lan.  I  ax  Ihur  i( 




Mr.  Justice  wur  o  Whoam,  Tim  Bobbin  View  Dial.  (1746)  27, 
ed.  i8o5  ;  Laa.l  For  there's  no  peace  i'th  world  iv  there's  no 
peace  awhoam,  Waugh  Sn^s.  (1859)  Jamie's  Frolic.  Chs.' ^ 
Stf.'  Is  the  doctor  a-whum  ?  Der.  You  sitten  a-vvhom  here,  and 
thinken.  Howitt  CloJiinakcr,  i.  nw.Der.iAwhom.  War.  (J.R.W.) ; 
War.^Awum.  s.v.  A, /);•(/  Shr.l 'E  wunna-d-a wham.  Wil.  The 
Ileadborough  shud  not  ha  kept  them  a  whome,  Masque  (1636)  9. 

[A-,  at  ipirf.^)  +  l!Oiiic.] 

AHOMEL  (Jam.),  see  Awhummel. 

AHORSE,  adv.  n.Cy.  (Hall.)  Not  found  in  any 
n.  gloss,  or  books  ;  doubtful  whether  any  such  word 
exists.     On  horseback. 

[ME.  They  scholde  him  sende  al  the  knj-ghtis  That  on 
hors  ride  myghte,  Alis.  2611.] 

A-HUH,  adj.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  War.  Nhp.  Shr.  e.An.  Sus. 
limp.  Som.  With  great  variety  of  forms.  See  below, 
[s-ii',  3-0',  w.Yks.  awou',  a-iu'.] 

1.  Awry,  lop-sided,  aslant,  esp.  in  all-a-huh,  all-of-a-huh, 

Cum.A-heh,  tooneside  (J.  P.).  n.Yks.'  All-ahuh.  all  on  one  side, 
av/iy,  askew.  m.Yks.l  w.YIis.  [Of  a  faulty  knife]  Ah,  I  see,  its 
all  awow  (S.O.A.).  ne.Lan. '  Ahuh.  All-of-a-heugh,  all  on  one 
side.  Nhp.^  You've  put  your  shawl  on  all  ahuh.  If  the  word 
is  preceded  by  the  pronoun  '  one,'  the  a  is  dropped,  and  it  is  said  to 
be 'all  of  one  huh';  Nhp.  ^  The  luoad's  all  ahoh.  War.  Ahuh,  all- 
of-a-heugh  (J.R.W. ).  Shr.i  All-a-3-ock,  all  awry;  Shr.2  Ayoh, 
Ahuh,  Aumph,  All  ayoh.  Brks.^A  rick  is  said  to  be  all-a-howhen 
settled  out  of  the  perpendicular.  e.An.^  Ahuh,  better  Ahoe,  and 
sometimes  All-of-a-hugh  ;  e.An.^  That  is  not  flush,  — it  stands  all-a- 
one-hoh.  Sus.  Ahuh,  Holloway.  Hmp.'  AU-a-hoh.  l.W.^  All 
of  a  hoogh,  out  of  shape,  or  place.  That  ere  wut  rick  is  all  of 
a  hoogh.  Wil.^  All-a-huh,  All-a-hoh,  unevenly  balanced.  That 
load  o' earn  be  aal-a-hoh  ;  Wil.^  All-a-hoh.  w.Som.l  Why,  thee's 
a  got  the  rick  all  a-ugh  ;  he'll  turn  over  nif  dus-n  put  a  paust  to  un. 
An'  wunt  yer  onner  ha  tliat  wee-wowy  auld  olive  down  ?  I  do 
zim  he  do  grow  all  a  huh  like.  Dhik'ec  pau-s  uz  au'l  uv  u  uuh 
[that  post  is  quite  one-sided].  Poor  old  fellow,  he  is  come  to  go 
all  of  a  ugh.  Tech.  Slang.  Why,  'tis  all-a-hoh  like  a  dog's  hind- 
leg  [in  printing,  of  matter  made  up  '  out  of  the  straight']  i;W.W.S.). 

2.  Fig.  (i)  Wrong,  not  'straight,'  straightforward,  oropen; 
cf.  Agley,  2;  (2)  upset,  vexed,  anxious. 

( i)  Yks.  It  was  all  ahug  on  'em  to  deu  that  way  ;  they  wanted  to 
deceive  'cm  (W,  H.).  (2)  Hmp.^  He  was  quite  a-hoh  because  a 
shower  came  on,  he  thought  'ud  spoil  his  hay. 

[OE.  aivoh,  aslarit.  wrongfully,  comp.  of  ivoli,  crooked, 
awry:   cp.  Goth,  walis  (in  uinvalis,  blameless t.] 

A-HUNDRED-FALD,  sb.  n.Cy.  [a-undadfald.]  Ca- 
lium  vcriiiii,  Our  Lady's  Bedstraw. 

n.Cy.  As  the  flowers  are  exceedingly  numerous  and  clustered,  our 
common  people  call  the  plant  A-hundred-fald,  Johnston  Bot.  e. 
Bold.  (1853")  100. 

A-HUNGERED,  #.     Brks.    [a-B-qed.]     Hungry. 

Brks.l  I  be  a-veelin'  ahungerd. 

[lie  was  afterward  an  hungred,  Bible  Mall.  iv.  2  (Att  the 
last  he  was  an  hungred,  Tindale).  In  P.  Plowman  occur 
the  forms  (7«  huiigrcd  ic.)  x.  &^,aliHngerd(B.)  xix.  123.  OE. 
of-hyns;rod.  pp.  of  of-livnqrian,  to  be  excessively  hungry.] 

A-HUNGRY,  adj.    Wor.     [a-Bijgri.]     Hungry. 

se.Wor.'  A-ongry,  hungry. 

[Dinner  attends  you,  sir. — I  am  not  a-hungry,  Shaks. 
M.  Jl'ivcs,  L  i.  280.  The  prefix  is  perhaps  due  to  the  in- 
fluence of  a-hungered  (above) ;  see  A-,  pr/.^"] 

AI-,  see  A-,  Oa-,  Ou-,  Ow-. 

AIBLINS,  see  Ablins. 

AICH,  sb.   Obs.    Sc.  (Jam.)    An  echo. 

Frf.  [Aich]  is  the  only  term  used  in  Angus  to  denote  the  reper- 
cussion of  sound. 

AICH,  V.    Obs.    Sc.  (Jam.)    To  echo. 

Cld.  But  blither  far  was  the  marmaid's  sang,  Aichan  frac  bank  to 
brae,  B/acl-n:  Mag.  (May  18201  Mannaidcn  nf  Clyde. 

AICHAN,  sb.  Sc.  n.Irel.  Also  written  achen,  aiken. 
[e-xsn.]    A  small  bivalve,  Maclin  siibnincala. 

Sc.  [The  aichan  is]  found  in  sandy  bays  of  the  Firth  of  Clyde. 
Myriads  of  aichan  shells  were  dug  up  nearDumbrcck  by  the  work- 
men engaged  in  cutting  the  canal  between  Glasgow  and  Paisley 
(Jam.  Siip/il.).  N.I.>  Ncayghcn,  a  small  marine  bivalve,  about  the 
size  of  a  cockle,  used  for  bait. 

[Etym.  unknown.] 

AICHEE,  sb.  Glo.  Also  written  akee.  [ai-ki,  aki.] 
The  hedge-sparrow. 


[Perhaps  forms  of  lity,  familiar  form  of  Isaac  (hedge- 
sparrow),  probably  by  popular  etym.  for  ME.  heysiigge 
(hedge-sparrow)  in  Chaucer  M.  P.  v.  612,  and  Owl  Sr'  A. 
505.     OE.  hegesngge.     See  Haysuck.] 

AID,  5*.  Shr.  Also  written  ade  Shr.*  [ed.]  A  gutter 
or  ditch  cut  across  a  ploughed  field. 

Shr.l  Aid,  a  gutter  cut  across  the'  buts'of  ploughed  lands  to  carry 
off  the  water  from  the  'reans' ;  Shr.*  I  imagine  it  means  simply  an 
aid  for  the  water  to  escape. 

[Perhaps  the  same  word  as  Ade,  q-v.] 

AID,  see  Hade. 

AIDEN,  see  Eident. 

AlFER,sb.    Obs.    Sc.    (Jam.) 

SIk.  Aifer,  a  term  used  by  old  people  in  Ettrick  Forest,  to  denote 
the  exhalations  which  arise  from  the  ground  in  a  warm,  sunny  day : 
now  almost  obsolete, 

[Etj'm.  unknown.] 

AIG,  sb.   Obs.  or  obsol.    n.Cy.    Sourness. 

N.Cy.'  Aig,  sourness,  in  a  slight  degree.  The  milk  has  got  an  aig. 

[Cp.  Fr.  aigre,  sour  ;  see  Aigre.] 

AIG,  adj.    w.Yks.     [eag.]     Eager. 

w.Yks.^  Speaking  of  a  profitless  occupation,  a  man  says  that  he 
isn't  so  aag  after  that  business. 

[Fr.  aigre,  eager  ;  see  above.] 

AIGAR,  sb.  usually  in  pi.  Obs.  or  obsol.  n.Sc.  Also 
written  aiger,  agger,  egges.     See  below. 

n.Sc.  Aigars,  grain  dried  very  much  in  a  pot,  for  being  ground  in 
a  quern  or  handmill  (Jam.). 
2.  Comp.  Aigar-brose,  Aigar-meal. 

n.Sc.  Aigar-brose  [is]  a  sort  of  pottage  made  of  [aigar]  meal. 
Aigar-meal  is  meal  made  of  grain  dried  in  this  manner  (Jam.). 
Sc.  I  have  met  with  only  one  person  having  heard  of  aiger-ineal. 
She  had  many  times  heard  her  mother  with  several  old  people  tell- 
ing that  when  children  [came]  running  in  hungry  at  dinner-time, 
it  would  be  said  to  them,  '  You  are  coming  in  for  your  aiger-meal,' 
MacduffScA'.  (fT-O.  (1891)  IV.  78;  Others  made  use  of  egger  meal, 
consisting  of  equal  portions  of  oat.  pease  and  bear  meal.  It  took 
rise  from  the  beggars  mixing  difl^erent  kinds  in  the  same  bag, 
Ramsay  Sc.  in  Eighteenth  Centuiy  (18S8)  II.  202.  Per.  It  is  known 
to  many  old  people  in  Thornhill,  but  the  word  [aigar-meal]  is  not 
now  used  because  the  mixture— oatmeal  and  pease  meal,  the  larger 
proportion  being  pease  meal — is  no  longer  made  (^G.W.). 

[Etj'm.  unknown.] 

AIGH,  V.    w.Yks.     [e.] 

Aigh,  to  frighten,  to  control  through  fear,  or  awe,  IIl/.w  IVds. 

[Cp.  ME.  aig/ic,  eig/ie,  OE.  ege,  cvije,  fear,  dread,  Goth. 
agis  ;  related  to  ON.  agi,  whence  lit.E.  awe.] 

AIGHINS,s6./i/.  nSc.  (Jam.)  Owings  ;  what  is  owing 
to  one ;  esp.  used  as  denoting  demerit. 

n.Sc.  I'll  gie  you  your  aighins  [used  in  threatening  to  correct  a 

{Aigli!ii,\h\.  sb.  of  aig/i  (lit.E.  ozt'e),  OE.  agait,  to  possess.] 

AIGLE,  sb.  Midi,  counties,  Shr.  Also  in  Dev.  Also 
written  agle  S.Wor.'    [egl.] 

1.  An  icicle. 

Midi.  Marshall  Rnr.  Ecoh.  (1790).  Lei.'  Aigle,  Iggle.  War.^ 
Pi  on.  iggle.  w.'Wor.'  See  ahl  them  aigles  'angin'  to  the  thack : 
'tis  mighty  teart  this  marnin'.  Shr.*  It  must  a  bin  freezin  'ard 
i'  the  neet,  thcer's  aigles  o'  ice  'angin'  from  the  aisins. 

2.  A  spangle,  tinsel  ornament.   ?  Obs. 

Shr.'  Aigles,  obs.  ?  Han  'eesin  Bessy  Pughscnce  'er'scomenback 
thr^im  Lunnun  ;  'er's  got  a  bonnet  as  shines  all  o'er  like  aigles  on 
a  showman  ;  Shr.*  Aigle,  Aiglet,  a  spangle,  the  gold  or  silver  tinsel 
ornamenting  the  dress  of  a  showman  or  rope  dancer. 

3.  Scintillations  such  as  appear  on  the  surface  of  iron  pots 
when  removed  from  the  fire. 

Shr.'  Aigles  .  .  .  are  supposed  to  be  lantillae  of  salts  of  iron, 
caused  by  the  decomposition  of  the  pots  by  the  gases  from  the  fire. 
Mind  w'cer  j'o'  put'n  that  marmint  aw'ildc  the  aigles  bin  on  it. 

4.  Comp.  Aigle-tooth,  a  tooth  sharp  and  pointed  like  a 

n.Dev.  Stiverpowl  George,  wi'  th'  aigle  tooth,  Rock  Jim  an'  Nell 

[Fr.  aiguille,  a  needle,  also  used  of  various  things  tcrmi- 
I   nating  in  a  point  (Hatzi eld'.    See  Aglet,  Haggle  tooth.] 




AIGLED,  ///.  adj.  Slir.  Covered  witli  'aiglcs.'  Sec 
Aigle,  2. 

Shr.2  He's  aigled  all  o'er. 

AIGRE,  r7r//.    n.Cy.  w.Yks.  Lan.  Dor.    Obsol. 

1.  Sour,  tnrt. 

n.Cy.  ICager.Algre, sour,  tending  to  sourness, sharp, Grose '1790') 
MS.  add.  ^I'. )  Cum.  Grose  (1790  .  Yks.  Aygre  .  .  .  still  in  use 
(Hall.).  w.Yks.';  w.YUs.'  Aasar  beer,  turn'd  sour  with,  or  by 
reason  of,  the  thunder,  n  Lan.  It's  a  lile  bit  ower  aigre  [said  of 
vinegar]  ^W,1I.^.).     Dor.  Eiger,  B.MiNEs  Gl.  (1863). 

2.  Of  wind:  sharp,  cutting. 

Cum.  Lager,  Aigre.  sliarp,  sometimes  applied  to  the  air,  Grose 
(1790'.      n.Lan.    \V.  11.11.) 

[1.  It  doth  posset  And  curd,  like  eager  (aygre,  1602) 
droppings  into  milk,  Siiaks.  Ham.  i.  v.  69;  Aii:;fet,  some- 
what tart,  sharp  or  eager,  Cotgr.  ;  Breed  Kncden  with 
cisel  strong  and  egre,  Chaucer  R.  Rose  217.  2.  It  is  a 
nipping  and  an  eager  ajTe,  Shaks.  Ham.  1.  iv.  2.  OFr. 
aigre,  sliarp,  keen,  sour.] 

AIGRE,  see  Eagre. 

AIK.  see  Hake. 

AIKER,  see  Acre. 

AIKERIT,  adj.  Ubs.  Se.  (Jam.)  Also  written  aikert, 

Twd.  Aikerit,  eared.  Weil  aikerit,  having  full  ears  ;  applied  to 

[A  dcriv.  of  OE.  aliher,  eher  (Nhb.\  ear  (WS.),  an  car  of 
corn  ;  see  Icker.] 

AIKIE  GUINEAS,  sb.  pi.     Sc.  (Jam.) 

Rnf,  Aikie  guineas,  the  name  given  by  children  to  small  flat 
pieces  of  shells,  bleached  by  the  sea. 

AIKRAW,  sb.    s.Sc.     The  Lichen  Scrobiciilaliis  (Jam.). 

s.Sc.  L.  Scyubiiulatits.  pitted  warty  I.iclicn,  with  broad  glaucous 
leaves;  Aiiglis.  ai kraw, Licf n foot /Vo;rt6Vu//fY7(  17912; 850-1  [ Jam.V 

[Aik,  oak  +  raiv.  For  raw,  cp.  Slane-raw,  a  name  of  the 

AIL,  s6.'  Yks.  Hrt.  Ump.  Som.  [eal,  el.]  An  illness, 
ailment,  or  complaint. 

Hrt.  .Staggers  and  other  ails,  Ellis  Mod.  Iliisb.  I' 1750'!  III.  i.  69. 
Hmp.  The  ail  or  complaint  layalong  th' chine,  White  Si/Aojvif  (1788) 
280,  cd.  1853. 
2.  An  evil. 

n-Yks."  Ails,  evils. 
D.  Coiiif).  Quarter-aiL 

Som.  Ail,  ailment,  disease  in  the  hind-quarters  of  animals,  quarter- 
ail.  W.&  J.  Gl.  (1B73). 

[An  ayl,  an  illness,  sickness,  Bailey  (1721) ;  Aile,  mor- 
bus, Coles  (1679I.  ME.  The  word  occurs  in  the  form 
eile,  meaning  pain,  in  Aiicreii  Riw/e  (c.  1230)  50.  OE.  eg/e, 
troublesome,  grievous.     Cp.  Goth,  ai^/o,  distress.] 

AIL,s4.=  Rarely  sing.  Nhp.  War.  Won  Ilrf.Glo.  Brks. 
Hrt.  Ess.  Ken.  .Sur.  Sus.  limp.  I.W.  and  all  sw.  counties. 
Also  written  aile  Wil.  Cor.' ;  eyle  Wil.'  ;  ile  War.  llrf.* 
Ess.'  Ken.'*  Wil.'  w.Snm.'  Dcv.  Cor.';  oil  Sils.'  Hmp.' 
Dev.*;  oileCor.'i  hail  Wil.  ;  hile  Uev.Cor.' ;  hoil  Dor.' ; 
hoile  Ken.'     See  below,     [ail,  m.  oil.] 

1.  The  beards  or  awns  of  barley  or  any  other  bearded 
grain  ;  rarely,  the  husk  of  any  coin. 

Nhp.'  Ail.  or  Ayl.  the  beard  or  awn  of  barley.  Pile  is  synony- 
mous in  Stf.  and  Wor.  War.  Ails,  or  lies  (J.R.W.).  se.Wor.' 
Ilrf.'  lies,  awns  of  barley,  cone  wheat,  iVc.  [sec  Spiles^.  GIo. 
Ails,  called  awns  in  the  north,  Grose  (1790'  AfH.  add.  1  M.  , ;  GIo.' 
Ails.  Hrt.  Tails,  or  Ails.  Ellis  i1/o(/.  Wi/ii.  (17501  VI.  iii.  71.  Ess. 
Ails,  see  Awns,  Ray  (1690.  Ken.'*,  Sur.',  Sus.'  I.W.'^Aails, 
beards  of  barley,  called  barley  aails.  Wil  '  The  bl.ick  knots  on  the 
delicate  barley  straw  were  beginning  to  be  topped  with  the  hail, 
Jefferies  C/.  Es/aU-  (1880I  i.  Dor.'  w.Som.'  Ails,  the  beard  of 
barley  when  broken  off  from  the  grain.  These  little  spears  are 
alw.nys  called  baar-lce  aayub.  The  individual  husks  of  any  corn 
are  also  called  aay -ulr.  The  term  is  only  applied  to  the  separated 
spear  or  husk— never  when  still  attached  to  the  grain.  Ee-v  u-gau't 
u  aayul  u  daewst  een  dh-uy  oa  un  |he  has  an  ail  of  dust — i.e.  a 
husk  in  his  eye].  Dev.  Yu  can't  use  barle}--dowst  vurbcdties,'cuz 
tha  iles  wid  urn  intU  'e,  Hewett  A  as.  S/).  (1892)  s.v.  liarlcy-ile. 
Cor.l  Mile.  Aile.  He. 

2.  Com/).  Barley-ail. 

Brks.'  Barlcy-oylts.  Hmp.'  Barley-oils,  the  beard  or  prickles. 
D.;v.  Bailey-ilc,  the  beard  of  ripe  barley,  Hewett  Pias.  S/>.  (i892\ 

Hence  Ally,  adj. 

Nhp.'  If  any  of  the  awns  adhere  to  the  corn  after  it  is  dressed  for 
market,  it  is  said  to  be  aily. 

[Ails,  beards  of  wheat,  Bailey  (1721) ;  An  oile  (beard 
ofcorni,  arisla,  Coles  (1679);  lies,  or  Oilcs,  Woui.idge 
Syst.  Agric.  (1669);  Aresle,  the  eyle,  awmc,  or  beard  of 
an  ear  of  corn,  Cotgr.  ;  These  twice-si.x  colts  had  pace  so 
swift,  they  ran  Upon  the  top-ayles  of  corn-cars,  nor  bent 
them  any  whit.  Chapman  ///>«/ (1603)  ,\.\.  211.  0)L.egl\ 
occurs  in  Co.'ipels,  II wi  gesilist  ))U  j;a  cgle  on  J>ines  bro):or 
eagan  ?  Luke  vi.  41.) 

AIL,  V.  In  gen.  dial,  use  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  Also  written 
eelie  Sc.     [el.J 

1.  To  aflect  witli  pain  or  uneasiness;  to  trouble. 

Sc.  What's  ailin'  ye,  Peter?  Ian  M.\claren  .hild  Lnm;  Syiis 
(1895)  122.  Wm.  &  Cum.'  What  ails  ta  Jemmy,  Clark  Stynion 
and  Jainiiiy  (i-jig)  I.  r.  n.Yks.^ That's  in  'em  that  ails  'em  [persons 
have  naturally  the  kind  of  temper  they  usually  exhibit].  neXan. 
Whatailsthce?  Mather  Z^/)'//*:  1895  258.  e.Lan.'  Not.*  What  ails 
thee?  Nhp.'  Dunnakneow  what  ealt  him.  GIo.  What  ails  i'ou  ? 
Baylis  l/liis.  Dial.  (1870  .     [What  aileth  you  ?  (K.).] 

2.  To  be  unwell  or  suffering  in  body,  to  have  something 
amiss  with  one  ;  /o  ad  ait'ny,  to  dv.'indle. 

Sc.  The  strangirs  sail  eelie  awa'.  Riddle  Ps.  (1857'!  xviii.  45; 
Ane  skaddaw  that  eelys  awa',  I'i.  cii.  11.  n.Cy.  [V/.W.S.)  Nlib. 
Ailiet  away  (R.O.II.).  Cum.  She's  varra  ailing.  Linton  Lai\-  Cv. 
(1864)  295;  Gl.  (1851^  w.Yks.  It  niver  did  ail  owt  at  aw  know 
on,  Hartley  Bitdgtt  ^1867)  20.  e.Yks.'  IIoo's  thy  wife.  John? 
— Whah,  shee's  nobbut  ailin'.  Wor.  Mr.  Jones  enjoys  a  very 
fair  share  of  health;  he's  alius  adding  '.U.K.).  w.Wor.'  This 
casselty  weather  dunna  suit  the  owd  lolks;  grandad's  but  aildiii' 
like.  Ess.  More  stroken  and  made  of  when  ought  it  [a  calf] 
doo  aile.  More  gentle  ye  make  it,  for  yoke  or  the  pailc,  Tusser 
Hitsbaiidrie  (1580)  81.  st.  31. 

3.  To  have  cause  for  dissatisfaction  against,  to  object  to. 
Sc.  What  ails  ye  at  them  as  they  are.  Oliphant  Lover  and  Lass, 

ix.  Yks.  What  does  ta  ail  at  him  iS.  P.U. );  What  do  you  mean 
about  a  new  chapel,  Sammy  ?  What  ails  ye  at  t'oud  'un  ?  T.wlor 
Miss  Miles  (1890  ii.  Dev.  Somebody  ealcs  me,  or  is  railing  at  me, 
Grose  ;i790)  MS.  add.  (M.) 

4.  To  hinder,  prevent. 

Sc.  What  suld  ail  me  to  ken  it?  Scott  Rnb  lioy  (1817")  xviii. 

['  What  can  the  fool  mean  ? '  said  old  Richard,  '  wliat 
can  he  ail  at  the  dogs  ? '  Hogg  Ta/es  O^  Si:  288.  What 
ayled  the  O  thou  see  that  thou  flcddest,  Coveudale  I's. 
cxiv.  5.     OE.  eg/an,  to  trouble,  aftlict.] 

AILDY,rt^(>'.  Yks.(ofo.)  Nhp.IInt.  [eldi.]  Ailing,poorly. 

n.Yks.  Ise  grown  seay  hcaldy.  I  mun  gang  lo  bed.  Meriton  Piaise 
Ali-{i6g-})  1.246.    Nhp.'  I  be  very  aildy  to-day.     Hnt.  Aildy  (,  I'.P.r.). 

[A  pronunc.  of  ndy,  ad,  vb.  -t  -y.] 

AILE,  see  Aisle. 

AILER,  see  Heler. 

AILING,  vb/.  sb.     Sc.  Yks.    [elin.] 

Sc.  Ailin.  sickness,  ailment  (Jam.).  w.Yks.'  A  long-standing  ill- 
ness is  an  ailing. 

[See  Ail,  v.] 

AILING-IRON,  sb.  War.  Som.  [eiinaian,  ealin- 
aian.]  An  implement  for  breaking  olT  the  ail  or  sjicar 
from  barley,  sometimcscallcd  a  piling  iron  or  barley  stamp. 

War.  Ailing-iron,  hand  implement  for  hummelling barley,  Mokto.s 
Cvi/«.  yl!;n'<r.  ^1863^     w.Som.'  Sec  Barley-Stamp. 
'[A  dcriv.  ofAil,  5i.»| 

AILSA-COCK,  si!'.  Sc.  n.Irel.  [elsa-kok.]  The  rufTin, 
Frahrcu/a  an/iia  ;  so  called  from  its  breeding  about  Ailsa 
Craig  in  the  Frith  of  Clyde  (CD.).     Sec  Puffin. 

Sc.  Ant.  Ailsa  Cock  (so  called  from  its  favourite  haunts),  the 
Puliin.  SwAiNsoN  Pirds  (1885',  220.     N.I.'  See  Pullin. 

AILSA  PARROT,  sb.     Sc.  Ant.    The  rullin. 

SwAixsoN  Buds  '  1885:  220. 

AIL- WEED,  see  Hell- weed. 

AIRI,  sb.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Dcr.  War.  [em.]  An  idea, 
conjecture  :  a  like  aim,  a  shrewd  guess. 

Lan.  I  don't  know,  but  I  have  a  like  aim  (H.M.).  Chs.'  Do 
you  know  who  did  it  ^ — Now,  bur  aw've  getten  a  loikc  aim. 
s.Chs.'  I  shall  have  a  better  like  aim.  if  yo'n  tell  me  yur  price. 
Stf.2  Used  by  old  people  in  the  Aiidlcy  district.  Bles  dtii, 
wensh.  oiv  nu  loikaim.  Der.^  Aim.  attempt.  nw.Dcr.' Aim,  idea, 
comprehension  01  any  matter.     War.  (J.R.W.) 




[But  fearing  lest  my  jealous  aim  might  err,  And  so  un- 
worthily disgrace  the  man,  Shaks.  Two  Gent.  in.  i.  28. 
See  Aim,  v.  2.] 

AIM,  V.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  War.  Wor.Hrf. 
Glo.  Dor.  Som.  Dev.     See  below,     [yam,  iam,  earn,  em.] 

1.  To  plan,  intend,  purpose  ;  to  attempt,  endeavour. 
Cum.  I  nobbet  aim't  t'll  ha'  kiss't  her,  Gilpin  Pop.  Poetty  {16-15) 

64  ;  Cura.l  He  aims  to  be  a  gentleman.  Cum.  &  Wm.  '  Now 
mistress,' said  a  hospitable  farmer  to  his  wife  when  a  friend  called, 
'  if  you  aim  us  owt,  give  us't  suin'[if  you  intend  to  give  us  a  glass, 
do  it  at  once]  (M.P.V  Wm.  Aaiming  to  hev  a  good  conscience, 
HuTTON  Brail  New  IVaik  (1785  1 1.  24.  Yks.'  Ah  dizzint  seea  hoo 
thoo  yams  tu  keep  a  wife  when  thoo's  gitten  her,  Macquoid 
D.  Barugli  (18771  xxii.  n.Yks.'  Ah's  seear  he  aimed  o'  coming. 
w.Yks.  Ah  hedn't  aimed  hevin'  ony  (J.R.)  ;  w.Yks.^  Whear's 
tuh  aam  going  to  morn  ?  Lan.*  Hoo'd  ha  made  a  rare  wife 
for  onybody  'at  had  ony  sense — hoo  would  that  !  Awd  aimt 
her  dooin  weel,  and  hoo  met  [might]  ha  done  weel  too, 
Waugh  Oiud  Blanket  i'i866)  iii.  Der.^  Aim,  to  attempt.  War.^ 
I  aim  to  do  my  best  for  him.  I  aim  and  scheme,  but  nothing 
goes  well.  Wor.  Aim  to,tointend  to  (H.  K. ).  w.Wor.l'Er  aimed  to 
pick  it  up,  but 'twere  too  'eavy  fur  'er  to  'eft  it.  Hrf.^  You  hain't 
haimin  to  muv.  I  did  aim  to  come.  Glo.'  I  aimed  to  come  to 
Gloucester  last  wick.  Dor.  Aiming  to  arrive  about  the  breakfast 
hour.  Hardy  Tess  (iSgi)  204,  ed.  1895.  w.Som.'  Niivur  muyn 
dhur-z  u  dee-ur,  ee  daed-n  aim  t  aa't  ee  [never  mind,  there's  a 
dear,  he  did  not  intend  to  hit  you].  Ee  du  aim  tu  bee  mae-ustur, 
doa-unur?  [he  intends  to  be  master,  does  he  not?]  Be  sure 
nobody  widn  never  aim  vor  to  break  in  and  car  away  your  flowers 
['  carry  away  '  is  a  common  euphemism  for  steal].  Dev.^  He  aimed 
to  kill  his  missus,  and  then  he  cut  his  own  droat. 

2.  To  suppose,  conjecture  ;  to  anticipate,  forecast,  expect. 
Yks.  Ah  aims  there's  shops  in  Steersley,  Macquoid  D.  Bariigh 

C1877')  bk.  I.  i.  n.Yks.i  What  o'clock  is  it,  aim  j-ou  ?  I  never 
aimed  he  wad  ha'  ganned  yon  gate  ;  n.Yks.^  I  aim'd  varry  badle 
[I  acted  on  mistaken  views].  w.Yks.^  Whears  tuh  aim  o'  going 
tul  . .  .  when  tuh  dies  if  thah  cheats  a  body  an"  leaks  'em  it't  faace 
i'  this  waay  ? 

3.  To  rt//;;ybr,  to  have  designs  upon  ;  of  a  road,  iS:c., /oo/;;; 
to,  to  run  in  the  direction  of. 

e.Yks.  Ah'll  3'am  fo'  sum  rich  farmer  sun.  Spec.  Dial.  (1887)  10. 
ne.Yks.*  Yon  rooad  yams  ti  Whidby. 

4.  To  prepare  to  throw,  to  throw. 

w.Yks.  He's  aimed  a  stoan  at  mi  heead  (S.  K.C.).  War,'^  Don't 
you  aim  at  me.      Glo.'  Aim,  to  throw  stones. 

[1.  The  ground  which  we  aim  to  husband  must  be  fat, 
'Walker  (1680)  ;  That  never  aim'd  so  high  to  love  j'our 
daughter,  Shaks.  Per.  11.  v.  47.  2.  Heli  therfor  eymyde 
hirdronken,  Wvclif  (1382)  i  Sam.  i.  13  (gesside,  1388); 
Ah,  Nell,  forbear  !  thou  aimest  all  awry,  Shaks.  2  Hen.  VI, 
II.  iv.  58.  OFr.  (7««(7-,  rtfs;«cr,  to  esteem,  consider;  Rom. 
adestiDiare  ;    Lat.  ad+aes/iinare.] 

AIM,  ad/.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  War.  Won  Shr.  Hif.  Ess. 
Also  written  earn,  eem  Chs.' ;  erne  Shr.'^     [em.] 

1.  Of  numbers:  even. 
w.Yks.3  Odd  or  aim,  odd  or  even. 

2.  Straight,  direct,  near,  close,  of  distance,  &c.,  esp.  in  an 
aimer  gale,  a  more  direct  road  ;  so,  a  nearer  way.  Fig. 
nearly  akin,  related. 

w.Yks.  Eym-anent,  directly  opposite,  GrosE  (1790)  MS.  add. 
(P.)  Chs.  This  is  the  heamest  road.  Coltie  heamer  (,E.F.)  ;  Chs.' 
You  mun  go  dain  th'  aimer  gate.  He  lived  aimer  this  way  afore 
he  took  yon  farm  ;  Chs.^  Eamby,  close  by,  at  hand  ;  Chs.^  Are 
yow  going  to  Knutsford  by  the  road  ?  —  No,  an  knows  an  aimer  gate. 
s.Chs.'  They  liven  eeam  by  the  chapel.  Stf.'  Aimer,  Aymcr  ;  Stf.° 
That  big  sojer  thcer  wfir  aimer  to  th'  target  nor  ony  on  'em.  Put 
thisteps  a  bitaimertowart.  Der.  &  Stf.  Aimest  road  i  J. K.).  Der.^, 
nw.Der.'  Eighmer.  War.^  w.Wor.'  1  he  emest  waay  is  across 
the  crafts.  Shr.  It  is  quite  eem  here,  not  a  mile  away  (E.P.)  ; 
Aimer  is  a  well-known  word  here  CW.W.S.)  ;  They  bin  too  erne 
to  marry  won  another  (G.F.J.;  ;  Shr.'  Cross  them  filds,  it's  the 
emest  road  ;  Shr.^  This  road  is  full  as  eme  as  the  tother.  Hrf.^ 
Eimer,  Eemer,  also  Eemcst.  Ess.  Emcr,  Trans.  Arcliaeul.  Soc. 
(18631  'I-  184. 

3.  Fig.  mean,  stingy,  '  near.' 

Stf.2  I'hat  oud  Jew's  aaful  cm,  yer  canna  get  saat  fur  yer 
porridge  out  on  him. 

[1.  Possibly  we  haven/;;;!  n  the  sense  of 'even'  in  Cotgr.  : 
Jones  vosire  jeu,  play  an  aim  cast  (at  bowles).   ME.  e:nne, 

eni'  (in  compounds\  as  in  emcnslcn,  i.e.  evcn-Chnslian, 
fellow-Christian  ;  OE.  efn  (entn)  even,  cp.  ON. /(7;;;;;.] 

AIMATION,  sb.     n.Yks.     [eme-Jan.]      Guesswork. 

n.Yks.^  'We  shall  get  it  by  aimation.  We  rooaded  it  by  aimation 
[took  the  road  we  supposed  to  be  the  right  one].  A  soort  of  aima- 
tion [a  piece  of  guesswork]. 

[Aim,  vb.  (see  2)  -1-  -alion  ;  a  late  analogical  formation.] 

AIMES,  sec  Hames. 

AIMLESS,  adj.    Stf  Der.    [e-mlas.]     Senseless. 

Stf.' ;  Stf.2  Oi  wor  moiiVord  till  oi  wor  emless.  Stf.  &  Der.  (J  K.) 
Der.  He's  a  gawky,  aimless  sort  of  chap  (H.R.). 

[Aim,  sb.  (purpose!  + -less  ] 

AIMSOME,  adj.     Yks.    [emsam,  yemssm.] 

n.Yks.2  Aimsome,  ambitious,  speculative.      m.Yks.' 

[Aim,  sb.  (purpose) -I- -so;;;c.] 

AIMSTART,  sb.    n.Yks.     [i'mstat.]     A  starting-point. 

n.Yks.^  This  mun  be  your  aimstart. 

[Aim,  sb.  (purpose,  object)-!- 5/(7;/.] 

AIMY,  adj     Chs.     [e  mi.]     Shrewd. 

Chs.'  Ee  wur  a  aimy  sort  o'  chap,  ee  wij.r. 

[.//■;;;,  sb.  (purpose) -(--_)'.] 

AIN,  s6.  Yks.  Not.  Lin.  Also  written  ane  w.Yks.^  ; 
hane  Lin.   The  awn  or  beard  of  barley  or  bearded  wheat. 

w.Yks.  So  calledinKeigliley district  (J.R.)  ;  Hl/.v.  IVds.  ;  w.Yks.^ 
Not.3     Lin.  Morton  Cyclu.  ■4gric.  (1863). 

Hence  Ainded,  ppl.  adj.  having  awns  or  '  ains.' 

w.Yks.  ',J.R.)  ;  w.'Vks.^  Ainded  wheat,  wheat  with  bearded  chaff. 

[Anes,  awns,  spires  or  beards  of  barley  and  other 
bearded  grain,  Bailey  (1770)  ;  Flaxen  wheate  hath  a 
yelowe  eare,  and  bare  without  anis,  Fitzherbert  Hus- 
bandry (1534)  40.    OE.  ttgnan,  pi.,  chaff  [Corpus  CL,  1526J.] 

AIN,  see  Hen. 

AINS,  see  Even. 

AINT,  see  Anoint. 

AIN'T,  see  Be. 

AIR,  sb}  In  var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  Eng.  [er, 
e3(r),  yea:r).] 

1.  The  sky,  clouds. 

Chs.'  The  air  broke  red  [of  an  aurora  borealis].  It  shows  for 
rain,  the  air  is  so  low.    'V/ar.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  A  current  of  air  in  a  mine. 

Nhb.&Dur.  Air,  the  current  or  volume  of  air  circulating  through 
and  ventilating  a  mine,  GKEtNWELL  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  ^1849'). 

3.  Air  of  Ihe  fire,  the  heated  atmosphere  surrounding  a 
fire  ;  lo  lake  an  air  of  Ihe  fire,  to  warm  oneself. 

Don.  Come  in,  good  woman,  an'  tak'  an  air  o'  the  fire,  Contli. 
Mag.  [Ych.  1877')  Flk-Lore.  Cav.  Take  an  air  of  the  fire  this 
snowy  day  (M.S.M.l.  Con.  'Won't  ye  take  an  air  of  the  fire, 
O  Toole  ?  LVCAS  Roiiiaii/ic  Loi'er  in  Chapiiiait's  Mag.  (Oct.  1895). 
s.Chs.'  Come  thy  wees  (^ways i  within  air  o'th  fire,  fur  raly  tha 
looks  heef  starved  jeth  [half  frozen  to  death]. 

4.  The  chill,  in  phr.  lo  lake  Ihe  air  off  llie  drink.  (In  e.An. 
they  say  to  take  the  aam  oft'  the  drink.     See  Aam.) 

Shr.2  To  take  the  chill  from  beer  is  usually  denoted  by  the 
phrase  '  tak  the  hair  off  the  drink.'  Its  coud,  jist  out  o'  the  cellar, 
yoden  [you  hadden]  better  tak  the  yare  off  it. 

5.  A  small  quantity  of  anything  ;  a  '  whiff' ;  a  taste. 
S.&Ork.'  A  pcerieair,  a  mere  tasting.     Air,  a  very  smallquanlity. 

Cr.LEre,.^r,  a  very  small  quantity  (S.  A. S.\  Bnff.' Gee  me  an  air 
o'  yir  mill.  Tack  in  by  yir  chair,  sit  doon,  an'  tack  an  air  o'  the 
pipe,  an  gee's  a'  yir  uncos. 

6.  />/.  Fits  of  iil-humour  ;  fretfulness. 

Cum.'  He's  in  his  airs  to-day.  n.Lin.'  She's  in  her  airs  to-daay. 
Nhp.'  Let  us  ha\'e  none  of  your  airs  [applied  to  the  humoursome 
fretfulness  of  cliildren].  e.Ken.  She  has  just  got  her  airs,  and  when 
saucepans  fly  I  walk  out    G.G. ). 

7.  Co;;;/>.  and  n//;-;'A.  Air-bleb  ;• -box:  -course;  -crossing; 
■gate,  -head,  in  mining:  a  passage  for  ventilation  ;  -peg  ; 

n.Yks.'  Air-blebs,  (i)bubble5  ;  Ts^insound schemes.  n.Lin.'Air 
bleb,  a  bubble.  Nhb.'  Air-boxes,  tubes  of  wood  used  for  ventila- 
tion in  a  pit  where  there  is  only  one  passage  or  opening,  Min.  CI. 
A'ewc.  Terms  ,1852).  Nhb.  &  Dur.  Airbox,  a  square  wooden  tube 
used  to  convey  air  into  Ihe  face  of  a  single  drift,  or  into  a  sinking 
pit.  GrEENWELL  Coal  Tr.  CI.  1849)  ;  Air-course,  see  Air-way,  ib. 
Khb.'  Air-crossing,  an  arch  built  over  a  horseway  or  other  road,  with 
a  passage  or  air-way  above  it,  il//".  Gl.  Neivr.  Terms  1852  •.  w.Yks. 
Air  gate,  a  road  or  way  driven  in  the  coal  for  purposes  of  ventilation 




(S.J.C.V  s.Stf.  Air-head,  a  channels  feet  3  inches  by  3  feet  6  inches, 
driven  on  a  level  with  the  topof  the  gate-road  [i.e.  the  passage  along 
which  the  coals  are  carried].  MiiiiiiirGl.{i852\.  nXin.'  Air  peg, the 
vent-pegof  a  barrel ;  also  called  spile-peg  in  Nhp.  Nhp.'  Nhb.>  Air- 
way, a  passagealong  which  thecurrent  of  airtravels  in  a  colliery.  Nhb. 
&Dur.  Air-course  or  Air-way.GREENWELi.  Coal  Ti.  Gl.  (1849  i.  [Air- 
ways, headings  or  passages  in  a  mine  along  which  there  is  a  constant 
circulation  of  fresh  air  between  the  down-cast  shaft,  tlie  working 
places,  and  the  up-cast  shaft,  Gl.  Lab.  (1894).] 

[1.  Where  should  this  music  be .'  i'  the  air  or  the  eartii  ? 
Shaks.  Temp.  i.  ii.  387  ;  When  the  sun  sets  the  air  doth 
drizzle  dew,  ib.  R.  dr'  J.  in.  v.  127  ;  Nicholas  . . .  ever  gaped 
upward  in-to the eir,  Chaucer  C.  7".  A.  3473.  6.  Hoity!  toity! 
cries  Honour,  Madam  is  in  her  airs,  I  protest,  Fielding 
ToDt  Jones,  viii ;  You  will  get  cured  of  all  these  whims  and 
airs  ofyours  some  day,  Black  Madcap  V.  v.  41.  This  usage 
in  the  pi.  is  of  Fr.  origin  ;  cp.  1  Iatzfeld,  Pieiiiire,  xedotiner 
des airs,  affecter  line  certaine  maniae d itie.    Fr.  air,  Lat.  aer.\ 

AIR,  sb.^  Or.  and  Sh.  I.  Also  in  Wm.  and  Lan.  |er, 
e3(r).]  A  sandbank,  or  ridge  made  by  the  action  of  water; 
a  beach. 

Or.  &  Sh.I.  They  have  some  Norish  woods  .  .  .  such  as  air,  a  sand- 
bank. Brand  Zetland  (i-)ai\  70  (Jam.);  Most  of  the  extensive 
beaches  on  the  coast  are  called  airs;  as  Slour-air, Whale-air,  Ed- 
MONSTON  Zctl.  (1809)  I.  140  (16.).  Or.I.  By  beach  and  hy  cave.  . . 
By  air.  and  by  wick,  and  by  helyer  and  gio,  And  by  every  cold  shore 
which  the  northern  winds  know,  Scott PiVa/cv  1822  1  xix.  S.  &Ork.' 
Aer,  a  sandbank  or  beach  ;  sometimes  a  stone  aer.  Aer,  applied 
to  several  places  having  extensive  *  Aers'  or  smooth  beaches  near 
them  ;  ex.  the  Aers  of  Sellivoe,  the  Aers  of  Strom.  Wm.*  AjT, 
a  low  headland,  ne Xan.*  Aire,  land  warped  up  by  floods  or  tides, 
and  liable  to  be  overflowed  by  them. 

[ON.  eyrr  (mod.  eyri),  a  gravelly  bank,  a  small  tongue  of 
land  running  into  the  sea;  cp.  Dan.  Ore,  Sw.  or,  found  in 
Helsiiig-6r  ( Elsinore).] 

AIR,  adj.  and  adv.    Sc.     [er.] 

1.  adj.  Early. 

Sc.  Come  it  air,  come  it  late,  in  May  comes  the  cow-quake, 
Ramsay  Prov.  (1737)  ;  Air  day  or  late  day  the  fox's  hide  finds 
aye  the  flaying  knife,  Scorr  Rob  Roy  ( 1817)  xxvii;  An  air  winter's 
a  sair  winter,  Swainson  Weather  Flk-Lore  (1873)  8.  Abd.  'You 
wou'd  na  hae  kent  fat  to  mak  o'  her,  unless  it  had  been  a  gyr-carlen, 
or  to  set  her  up  amon'  a  curn  air  bear  [early  barley]  to  fley  away 
the  ruicks,  Forbes  y/v;.  (1742)  2  (Jam. j. 

2.  adv. 

Sc.  What  brings  you  out  to  Liberton  sae  air  in  the  morning, 
Scorr  Midlothian  1 1818  xxvii  ;  Let  us  awa'  air  til  the  vineyairds, 
RoBSON  Sng.  Sol.  (i860)  vii.  la.  Rnf.  Vext  and  sighin'  late  and  air, 
Wilson  Watty  (1792^  9,  Newc.  ed.  Ayr.  I  m  weary  sick  o't  late 
and  air!  Burns  To  Dr.  DIacklock  (1789  .  Lnk.  She  jeers  me  air 
and  late.  R.^msay  Gmllc  Shep.  i  1725)  I.  i.  e  Lth.  Blinkin'  like  an 
air-up  hotilet.  Huntkk  J.  Imvick    1895:  105. 

Hence  Airness,  sb.  the  state  or  condition  of  being  early 

Sc.  The  airness  of  the  crap. 

[Quha  is  content  rejoycit  air  or  lait,  Douglas  Pal.  Hon. 
II.  xxix ;  0?er  ich  hit  do  ungledliche,  o¥er  to  er  o>er  to 
late,  Ancren  Riwle,  338.  OE.  dr,  adj.  and  adv.,  former,  for- 
merly, early.] 

AIR,  V.  Or.  and  Sh.I. w.Yks.  Lan.  Der.  War.  Shr.  feafrVl 

1.  To  warm,  '  take  the  chill  oft".'     e.An.  aain  is  used  with 
the  same  meaning. 

e.Lan.'  Air,  to  warm  moderately,  as  drink.  When  excessively 
cold  it  is  aired  at  the  fire.       Shr.*  Hair. 

Hence  Aired,  ppl.  adj. 

Yks.  You  must  use  aired  water  for  the  tea-cakes  (F.  P. T.'l.  Der.* 
Aired  water,  water  with  the  chill  taken  off.    War.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  To  taste. 

[1.  This  is  a  specific  use  of  the  vb.  in  the  usual  sense 
of  to  warm,  applied  usually  in  lit.  E.  to  the  drying  of 
damp  linen.     See  Air,  si.'  4.     2.  See  Air,  sb.^  5.] 

AIR,  see  Ere. 

AIRD,  see  Ard. 

AIREL,  sb.    Obs.     Sc.  (Jam.) 
1.  An  old  name  for  a  flute;  properly  applied  to  a  pipe 
made  from  a  reed. 

Arg.,  SIk. 
VOL  I. 

2.  Musical  tones,  of  whatever  kind. 

Rxb.  Tlie  beetle  began  his  wild  airel  to  tune  And  sang  on  the 
wynde  with  ane  eirysome  croon.  Whit.  Et:  Tales,  II.  203. 

I  Probably  a  deriv.  of  air,  Fr.  air,  a  tune,  sound  or  air  in 

AIRESS,  sec  Hairif. 

AIRE,  AIRFISH,  see  Argh. 

AIRISH,  m//.  Sc.  n.  ande.Yks.  [e'ri/,  ea'rij.]  Chilly, 

Sc.  Airish  is  still  commonly  used  all  over  Scotland  for  chilly 
(H.IC.  F.  \  n.Yks.  Airish  is  used  in  the  dales,  but  not  commonly 
i  R.H.H.V  e.Yks.  The  mornings  are  airish.  Best  Rnr.  Eton.  1641) 
18;  iS.K.C.) 

[This  word  is  found  in  Chaucer,  but  only  in  the  sense 
of  aerial,  belonging  to  the  air  :  (1;  beheld  the  eyrish  bestes, 
Hoiis  /■'.  964.     .lir+'isli.] 

AIRTLING.  sceEttle. 

AIRUP,  sec  Hairif. 

AlVCi ,  adj.     Cum.  n. Lin.     [eTi,  eaTi.]     Breezy. 

Cuni.i  It's  rayder  airy  to-day.      n.Lin.' 

[O'er  airy  wastes  to  rove,  Pope  Windsor  F.  167.  Air+-y.] 

AISE,  see  Ash. 

AISH,  sA.  Dor.  [aij.]  One  of  the  strata  of  Purbeck 

Dor.Though  associated  with  the  Burr,  this  bed  [aish]  from  its  fissile 
or  slaty  character  is  easily  separated  from  it.  Damon  Gail.  Weymouth 
(1860)98.  Dor.  The  tops  of  the  longer  stumps  of  trees  passthrough 
the  burr  into  the  aish.  the  uneven  surface  of  which  often  ser\'esto 
indicate  the  presence  of  trees  beneath,  ib.  115,  ed.  1884  ;  The  aish 
bed  is  above  the  soft  burr  and  under  a  bed  of  clay  i,J.H.  M.). 

AISH,  see  Arrish. 

AISLE,  56.     Sc.  Yks.  Lan.Chs.Wil.Som.  Amer.    [ail.] 

1.  A  space  for  passage  in  any  building ;  esp.  the  central 
thoroughfare  in  a  mill,  shop,  &c.    Cf.  alley,  si.'  1. 

w.Yks.  Aisle  is  used  in  Keighley  for  any  passage  between  pews  in 
a  chapel,  and  the  alley  past  the  ends  of  looms  ;  the  interval  where 
the  weaver  stands  when  at  work  being  kntiwn  as  the  gate  (J.R.); 
Aisle,  a  passage  between  seats  in  any  building.  Aisle,  Alley,  are 
also  used  for  the  principal  thoroughfare  in  a  workshop,  and  must 
not  be  confused  with  loom-gate,  nor  with  gangway  the  thorough- 
fare between  two  buildings  built  overhead),  nor  with  passage  (a 
narrow  way  between  two  buildings).  Gangway',  passage,  aisle,  and 
alley  have  distinct  meanings  in  our  vernacular  ^B. K. ).  Lan.  The 
passage  between  pews  in  a  church  is  always  called  an  aisle  S.W.); 
I  have  heard  the  space  between  the  counters  of  a  shop  called  the 
aisle  in  Liverpool,  N.  &  Q.  (1890)  7th  S.  x.  53.  s.Chs.  Any  pas- 
sage between  pews  (T.  D. ),  w.Som.'  Aisle,  the  passage  between 
the  pews  in  a  church  or  chapel.  No  distinction  is  made  between 
nave  and  aisles  ;  but  there  is  u  aa-yid  to  every  church  :  see  Alley. 
[Amer.  Instead  of  shopping  they  trade,  and  while  thus  engaged 
recognize  a  friend  across  the  aisle,  A'.  &  Q.  1,18901  7lh  S.  ix.  406.] 

2.  A  projection  from  the  body  of  a  church,  one  of  the 
wings  of  a  transept. 

Pe"r.  iG.W.) 

3.  An  enclosed  and  covered  burial-place,  adjoining  to  a 
church  though  not  forming  a  part  of  it. 

Sc.  Donald  was  buried  in  the  laird  of  Drum's  aile.  Spalding 
Hist.  Troubles  in  Sc.  (1792'!  II.  282  ,  J'^M- '•  Abd.  &  Per.  The  burial- 
place  of  the  laird's  family  is  frequently-  called  the  aile    G.W.). 

4.  Double  rows  of  wheat-sheaves  set  up  to  dry. 
s.Wil.  Marshall  Retieiv    1817)  V.  218. 

[1.  As  up  the  ayle  with  mind  disturb'd,  I  walk,  Richard- 
son Pamela  (N.E.D.).  Fr.  aile,  Lat.  Ula,  a  wing.  For  the 
sense  cp.  Bailey  (17.S5)  :  Isle,  a  long  passage  in  a  church 
or  public  building.  This  is  the  same  word  as  M  E.  He  iyle), 
Fr.  He,  often  Latinized  as  insula  in  legal  documents.  E. 
aisle  owes  its  spelling  to  F"r.  aile,  and  its  pronunc.  to  Fr.  He.] 

AISLE,  see  Hazzle,  v. 

AISLE-TOOTH,  sec  Axle-tooth. 

AIT,  si.'  \'ar.  dial.  Also  written  eyot.  See  below, 
[ait  ]     An  island  in  a  river  ;  an  osier-bed. 

s.Not.  The  osier  ait  above  the  weirs.  Aot.  Guard.  ^Aug.  8. 1895^  7. 
Wor.Ait.  Nait,  Eyot, island.  Alsoapplied  to  an  osier-bed,  whetlier 
an  island  or  not  (H.K.');  The  island  now  called  the  Neight  at 
Deerhurst  on  the  Severn,  Allies  Antiq.  118401  188.  8.Wor.' 
se.Wor.'Naight,an  eyot,  an  osier  bed.  Brks.'Ait.orAayte,  a  river- 
island,  or  flat  on  the  bank  with  osiers  growing.  Mid.  Fog  up  the 
river  where  it  flows  among  green  ails  and  meadows,  Dickens  Bleak 




//o«Sf  (1853)  i.  Hmp.  They  roosted  in  the  aits  of  that  river,  White 
5c/Aora«  (,17881  31,  ed.  1853. 

Hence  Eyoty,  adj.     Of  the  nature  of  an  ait  or  island. 

Hmp.'  That  ej-oty  piece  near  the  ford. 

[He  enjoyed  a  party  of  pleasure  in  a  good  boat  on  the 
water  to  one  of  the  aits  or  aislets  in  the  Thames,  Edge- 
worth  Patronage  (1814)  xix  (Dav.)  ;  Ait,  a  little  island  in 
a  river  where  osiers  grow,  Bailey  (i72iK  Merc,  egeod, 
OE.  'igeoi,  an  islet,  deriv.  of  T^,  leg,  Merc,  eg,  island.  The 
termination  with  /  is  prob.  due  to  French  influence ;  cp. 
Fr.  -et,  -o/.] 

AIT,  sb?-  Obs.  (?)  Rnf.  A  custom,  a  habit ;  esp.  used 
of  a  bad  one  (Jam.). 

AITCH,  sb.    w.Yks.     [eat/.]     A  mantelpiece. 

w.Yks.  The  universal  name  for  a  mantelpiece  in  the  villages  about 
Wakefield  and  towards  Leeds  (S.  O.A. ). 

[Possibly  this  word  is  a  peculiar  use  of  the  name  for  the 
letter  /;.] 

AITCH  see  Ache. 

AITCH-BONE,  sb.  Yks.  Der.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Mid. 
Hnt.  Suf.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  Dev.  [etj-bon.]  The  bone 
of  the  rump  of  beef ;  the  meat  which  this  bone  includes. 

w.Yks. ^  Nache-bone.  Der.^  Nhp.^  The  extreme  end  of  a  rump 
of  beef,  cut  obliquely.  Lei.'  War.^  While  there  is  no  joint  called 
aitch-bone  cut  from  the  carcase  of  the  sheep,  the  haunch-bone  in 
a  haunch  of  mutton  is  by  butchers  also  called  the  aitch-bone.  Mid. 
Ache-bone,  part  of  y  rump,  Ray  (1691)  MS.  add.  (J.C.)  Hnt. 
(T.P.F.),  Suf.'  Ken.=  Ach-bone.  Sus.^  Hmp.' Aich-bone.  Dev. 
A  saddle  of  mutton  at  one  end,  and  an  aitch-bone,  not  over-boiled, 
at  the  other,  Blackmore  AV<  (18901  III.  x. 

[The  proper  form,  being  that  identical  with  theorig.  Fr., 
is  nache. — The  '  nache  '  in  some  writers,  also  the  '  tail- 
points'  by  others.  Young  (Britten,  97);  Upon  the  hue 
bone  and  the  nache  by  the  tayle,  Fitzherbert  Hiisb. 
(1534)  53.  The  dial,  forms  have  mostly  lost  the  initial 
n  through  coalescence  with  the  indef  adj.  an,  hence  ache, 
aich,  aitch.  The  earliest  example  of  the  word  found  with- 
out the  n  is  in  Bk.  St.  Albans,  where  hacli  boon  occurs  ;  see 
Skeat,  777.  The  ache  bone,  os  co.xrndicis.  Coles  (1699). 
The  word  does  not  occur  in  Johnson  in  any  form.  OF. 
nache,  a  buttock  ;  Rom.  natica,  adj.,  from  natis,  a  buttock.] 

AITCHORN,  see  Acorn. 

AITCH-PIECE,  sb.  Cor.  [e-tj-pls.]  The  catch  or 
tongue  of  a  buckle. 

Cor.' 2 

[Named  from  the  shape,  like  that  of  the  letter  H.] 

AITEN,  sb.     Obs.     SIk.  (Jam.)     A  partridge. 

[Prob.  ait,  oat  +  hen.  Many  names  of  this  bird  contain 
some  equiv.  oi  lien  as  the  latter  element  of  the  comp.  ;  cp. 
Sw.  rapphona,  G.  rebhuhn,  feldhuhn,  Du.  rap-hoen,  EFris. 

AITH,  sb.    Obs.     Sc.  (Jam.) 

Frt  Aithor  Aiftland.that  kind  of  land  called  infield,  which  is  made 
to  carry  oats  a  second  time  after  barley,  and  has  received  no  dung. 

AITH.  see  Earth. 

AITHER,  see  Arder,  Either-. 

AITNACH,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  Also  in  the  forms  etnach, 
eatin.aiten.  J unipents communis ;  in/>/.thejuniperberries. 

Abd.  [She]  spies  beneath  a  buss  of — what-ye-ca't  ?  Ay,  etnagh- 
berries  [ist  ed.  eatin-],  and  yeed  down  the  brae,  And  there  she 
gets  them  black  as  ony  slae,  Ross  Helenore  (1768)  6a.  Ags. 
Etnagh  berries,  juniper  berries  ;  also  called  eatin  berries  (Jam.). 
s.Sc.  Brave  Jessy,  wi'  an  etnach  cud  rstafrj,Than  gae  her  daddie  sic 
a  thud,  As  gar'd  the  hero  squeel  like  wud,  Taylor  Poemsij'fii) 
26  (Jam.). 

[Of  Gael,  origin.    Cp.  ailcal,  juniper  (M.  &  D.).] 

AITREDAN,  sb.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Glo.  Also  written 
hatredans  Glo.     [e'tradan.] 

1.  A  madcap  frolic,  a  foolish  prank. 

War. 2  Shr.'  I  warrand  yo'  bin  olT  now  on  some  wild  aitredan 
or  other. 

2.  '  Tantrum  ' ;   a  noisy  quarrel,  a  fuss. 

War.2  s.Wor.  Hatredan  (H.K.).  Glo.  Hatredans,  Northall 
FlkPhr.  fi894). 

AITTRIE,  sb.  and  adj.  Sh.I.  Cold,  bleak  weather  ;  also 

S.  &  Ork.'  ;  Aitrie,  Aittrie  (Jam.  Suppl.). 

AIVER,  see  Eaver,  Havour. 

AIVERIE,  adj.     Sc.     [e  vsri,  ye'vari.] 

Abd.  &  Per.  Aiverie  is  a  very  well  known  word  meaning  not  very 
hungry,  but  eager  to  get  at  food,  &c.  They  are  a'  yevery  to  be  fed. 
Dinna  eat  sae  yivvery  like  [greedily]  (G.W.j.  Rxb.  Aiverie,  very 
hungry;  a  term  nearly  obs.  (Jam.) 

Hence  Yevrisome,  adj. 

Dmf.  Yevrisome,  having  an  appetite  perpetually  craving  (Jam. 
s.v.  Yevery), 

[Aver,  goods,  possessions  (Pi.¥r.  aveir, 'Lai.  habere) +  -y. 
So  a~i>cry  would  mean  covetous,  hungry,  'eager  to  have.'] 

AIVERING,  prp.  Sc.  Written  yivverin'  Abd. 
[e'varin,  yi'varin.]     Eager  for,  hungeringjyJg'. 

Abd.  Tm  yiverrin'  sair  for  a  kiss  (G.W. ). 

AIVRIN,  sb.    Sc.     [i'vrin.]     The  larboard. 

Bnff.'  In  the  deep-sea-fishing  boatsthere  are  eight  fishermen,  each 
of  whom  has  his  ovi^n  seat  in  the  boat.  The  skipper  holds  the 
aivrin  hank  ;  the  second  man,  the  aivrin  mid-ship  ;  the  third,  the 
mid-aivrin  boo  ;  and  the  fourth,  the  foremast-aivrin  boo. 

[Aivrin,  aifteran,  prob.  for  after-hand,  near  the  hinder- 
part  of  the  ship.] 

AIVY-KAIVY,  see  Havey-quavey. 

AIWAL,  see  Awald. 

AIXES,  see  Access. 

AIXTREE,  see  Ax. 

AIYAH,  see  Near. 

AIZAC,  see  Haysuck. 

AIZAM- JAZAM,  adj.  and  adv.  Stf  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Glo. 

1.  adj.     Equal  in  weight,  size,  or  value. 

Shr.'  Theer  wuz  fifteen  faggits  i'  one  lot,  an'  sixteen  i'  the 
tother,  an'  I  pCit  'em  little  an'  big  together,  to  mak'  'em  as  'asam- 
jasam  as  I  could. 

2.  adj.  and  adv.  (i)  Fair  and  square,  equitable;  (2)  in  an 
equitable  manner. 

Stf.,  War.,  Wor.,  Glo.  Ayzam-jayzam.  '  Upright  and  downstraight' 
is  an  old  term  of  the  same  meaning,  Northall  Flk-Phr.  (1894). 
War.2  ne.Wor.  Aizam-jaizam,  honest,  '  jannock.'  [Of  a  dishonest 
bargain]  That  job's  not  quite  aizam-jaizam  (J.W.P.).  (2)  Stf.,  War., 
Wor.  I  shouldn't  care  if  he'd  only  act  hasum-jasum  with  me  \  H.  K. ). 

[Prob.  a  colloq.  formation  from  lit.  E.  easy.  For  '  easy '  in 
the  sense  of  equal,  even,  cp.  the  familiar  phrase  in  Whist, 
'Honours  easy.'] 

AIZE,  sb.     Sh.I.     [ez.]     A  large  blazing  fire. 

S.  &  Ork.'  Aze. 

[ON.  eysa,  glowing  embers,  cognate  with  iisii,  a  confla- 
gration ;  OV..ysle,  embers.] 

AIZIN',  see  Easing. 

AIZLE,  see  Hazzle,  v.,  Easle. 

AIZLE-TOOTH,  see  Axle-tooth. 

AJY,  see  Agee. 

AKE,  sb.    Cor.     [ek.] 

Cor.'  Ake,  a  groove  in  a  stone  used  for  an  anchor  (peculiar  to 
Cornwall)  to  receive  a  rope  or  iron  band  to  prevent  it  from  slipping. 
Mousehole  fishermen  ;  Cor.^ 

AKERATE,  v.     Lin.     [a'karet.] 

1.  To  rust  as  iron  does. 

n.Lin.'  We  fun'  sum  shackles  sich  es  thaay  ewst  to  put  upo' 
prisoners  e'  ohd  times.  Thaay  was  o'must  all  akeraated  awaay, 
bud  oor  Squire  thoht  a  great  deal  on  'em. 

2.  To  blight. 

n.Lin.'  His  crops  was  that  akeraated  last  year  [1879]  thaay  was 
wo'th,  in  a  waay  of  speaking,  noht  at  all. 

AKERMAST,  see  Acom-mast. 

AKETHA,  int.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  akether, 
[ake'^.]     Quoth  he  ;  forsooth  !  indeed  ! 

Dev.  Akether,  bin  ma  kit's  ago.  Rock  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  St.  68  ; 
*  Giggling  akether  I '  shrieked  the  old  woman,  wild  with  resentment, 
'giggling  akether!'  Madox-Brown  Dwale  Blulh  (1876)  I.  i; 
Dev.' An  zo  you  zim  a  is  maz'd,  I'll  warnis ; — no  more  lookee- 
dezee  than  you  be.  I  say  maz'd  akether,  pt.  i.  3  ;  Dev.^  n.Dev. 
Bet  es  tell  en.  Marry  a-ketha,  Exiit.  Crtshp.  (1746)  1.  456;  Grose 
(17901JI/5.  add.  (C.)  Cor.  Thee  baan't  St.  George,  no  moore  than 
me;  St.  George  aketha  !  J.  Trenoodle -S/>ff.  Z>/o/.  (1846)  55  ;  Cor.' 2 

[Prob.  eauiv.  to  'Ah,'  quoth  he.  With  kcth  cp.  ME. 
cweS,  qued,  koth,  pret.  of  queien,  OE.  aveSan,  to  speak.  Fur 
the  final  a  see  A  (pronunciation  V.  1  &  2).] 

AKEYBO,  see  Acabo. 




AKKA-MANNAA,  see  Cakkamanah. 

AKKER,  sh.     Pem.     [akafr).] 

s.Peni.  Akkcr,  a  boat  used  lor  carrying  limestone  on  the  Cleddy, 
Laws  LMe  Ktig.  {1888!  419. 

AKKERN^  see  Acorn. 

AKLIN,  sb.    Sh.I.     [aklin.]     A  sullen  person. 

S.  &  Ork.> 

[Cogn.  with  Du.  akelig,  dull,  gloomy,  and  MDu.  akel, 
grief,  harm.] 

AL,  see  Alley. 

ALABLASTER,  fb.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan. 
Chs.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Wor.  Oxf.  Also  written  ali- 
blaster  Dur.'  Wm.'  ne.Lan.'  nw.Der.'  Oxf.' ;  allablaster 
Chs.' ;  alleyblaster  Nhb.' ;  allyblaster  se.Wor.' ;  all- 
plaister  w.Yks.'     [al3blast3(r).]    Alabaster. 

Nhb.',  Dur.'  Cum.  Sall^-'s  just  like  allyblaster,  Her  cheeks  are 
twee  rvvosebudsin  May,  ANDERsoNSf?//rt(/s(i8o5)  16.  Wm.'  w.Yks. 
Duringa  fall  of  snow,  children  often  sing  'Snow,  snow  faster,  White 
alablaster'iS.K.C);  'E'sasfairasalleyblaster(F.P.T.);  w.Yks.' 245^ 
ne.Lan.',  Chs.',  nw.Der.'  n.Lin.' Thaay  fun  alablaster  at  GainsbV 
when  thaay  dug  railroad, bud  it  wasn't  wo'th  oht.  It's  a  straange  nist 
bairn,  it's  skin's  that  clear  it's  like  alablaster.  Lei.',  Nhp.',  War.^ 
s.Wor.  Her  dear  flesh  was  allis  as  white  as  halablaster,  Porson 
Quaint  IVds.  (1875^1  23.  Oxf.'  Dhaa-r  bent  noa  guod*luok*n  gyuuriz 
ubuuwt  -nuuw;  wen  -uuy  wuz  yoor  aij  uuy  wuz  U2  faa'r  uz  al-i- 
blaa'stuur  [Thar  ben't  no  good-lookin'  girls  about  now ;  when  I 
was  your  age  I  was  as  fair  as  aliblaster]. 

[Why  should  a  man  whose  blood  is  warm  within  Sit 
like  his  grandsire  cut  in  alablaster,  Shaks.  M.  Viii.  i.  i. 
84  ;  Albaster,  allablaster,  Albastiiii,  white  as  allablaster, 
CoTGR. ;  Alabaslriiio,  made  of  alleblaster,  Florio  (i6u). 
In  an  inventory,  temp.  Hen.  VIH,  of  the  furniture  of  St. 
Martin's  at  Dover  is  the  following  entry  :  Item,  ij  imagees 
of  whytealleeblaster,  .A/o;;(7*7. IV.542(Boucher).  The  form 
alablaster  IS  found  in  Sydney's  y/r(-f7rf/n,  319  (ed.  Friswell). 
ME.  An  alablaster,  alahlaslnim,  Catli.  Aug/.  This  was 
the  gen.  spellino;  of  alabaster  in  the  16th  and  17th  cents. 
The  bl-  is  doubtless  due  to  sense-association  with  bleach, 
blanch,  and  other  i/-forms  denoting  whiteness.] 

ALACK,  int.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Som.  Also  written 
alacke,  alake,  allake.    [sla'k.] 

1.  Alas! 

S.  &  Ork.'  Alake.  an  exclamation  denoting  sorrow  or  regret. 
Sc.  He  says  how  now  how  now  Cliildc  Maurice,  Alacke  how  may 
this  bee,  Jamieson  Pop.  Ballads  (1806)  Cliildc  Maurice.  Ayr. 
Alake,  alake,  the  meikle  Dcil  Wi'  a'  his  witches,  Burns  To  Mr. 
Mitcliell  (i-]^^).  Lnk.  Alake  !  poor  pris'ner,  Ramsay  Gc>i//£' S/ic/>. 
(1725)  38,  ed.  1783.  n.Cy.  Alake.  alas.  Border  Gl.  {Coll.  L.L.B.) 
w.Yks.  Alack,  a  form  of  'alas,' ////Cv.  ll^ds. ;  w.Yks.*  [Allake,  a 
sigh,  bitter  exclamation  (K.).] 

2.  In  fo;«/>.  Alack-a-day,an  exclamation  ofgriefordistress. 
w.Yks.  Alack-a-day,  a  form  of  alas  the  day,'  Hl/.r.  IVds.    w.Som.' 

Alack-a-day  !  an  exclamation  of  sorrow  or  regret.  Alas-a-day  I  or 
Alas  I  are  not  heard. 

[Nay,  what's  incredible,  alack  !  I  hardly  hear  a  woman's 
clack.  Swift  (Johnson);  Alack  the  heavy  day,  That  I 
have  worn  so  many  winters  out  I  Shaks.  Rich.  II,  iv.  i. 
257;  She's  dead,  deceased,  she's  dead  ;  alack  the  day  !  ib. 
K.  St'  J.  IV.  v.  23.     Perhaps  A  (int.)  +  lack,  failure,  fault.] 

A-LADY,  adv.  phr.     e.An.     [ale'di.]     On  Lady-day. 

e.An.  She  gan  her  missis  notidge  last  A'Lady,  N.  &  Q.  (1855"! 
ist  S.  xi.  184  ;  e.An.'  e.Nrf.  A-Lady  (in  common  use),  Marshall 
Nur.  EiOit.  (1787X     Suf.'  A'l  go  out  of 'as  farm  next  a-Lady. 

[A-,  on  +  Lady  (for  Lady-day).] 

ALAG,  adv.  Nhb.  Cum.  n.Yks.  [ala-g.]  Not  suffi- 
ciently upright ;   too  horizontal,  as  in  placing  a  ladder. 

Nhb.It'sallalag.outof theperpendicular(R.O.H.).  Cum.'  n.Yks. 
It  lies  alag.  T'stick  laid  alag  ageean  t'wall  [stood  at  an  angle  of 
45°]  (I-W.). 

A-LAG,  sb.  Cum.  [ala'g.]  The  sporting  term  for  a 
flight  of  geese  (W.K.). 

ALAIRE,  adv.  Obsol.  w.Cor.  Also  written  alare.  A 
short  time  ago. 

Cor.  A^.  &  Q.  (1854')  ist  S.  X.  178  ;  Cor.» 

ALAKANEE,  int.    Obs.    Sc.  (Jam.)    Alas ! 
Rnf.  The  cheeriest  swain  that  e'er  the  meadows  saw ;  Alafcanee  ! 
—  is  Robin  gane  awa'  ?  Picken  Poems  (1788)  ao  ('Jam.). 

ALAMONTI,  see  Allamotti. 

ALANGE,  sec  Elenge. 

ALANNAH,  sb.  Ircl.  Also  written  alanna,  alanah, 
alana.  My  child  !  A  form  of  address,  a  term  of  endear- 

Ir.  Miss  Betty,  alanah,  Lever  //.  Lorr.  (1839')  iii  ;  Whose  then, 
alannah  !  ib.  Ch.  O' Atai'liy  ( tS^i)  iii;  He's  well  enough — that's  it, 
alannah,  Carleton  Trails  Peas.  (1843)  L  95;  Well,  alana,  I  could 
not  help  it.  Flk-Lore  Rec.  (1881)  IV.  117  ;  Have  ye  all  now,  ma'am  ? 
— I  have,  alanna,  God  bless  ye  !  Francis /"««(-  (1895I  21 ;  Alana, 
properly  '  my  child  ' ;  used  as  a  friendly  or  affectionate  word  of  ad- 
dress, especially  to  the  speaker's  junior  1  G.M.H.).  a  Jr.  Whisht  I 
alanna.  .  .  .  There's  no  fear  of  you,  Croker  Leg.  (i86a)  28. 

[Ir.  a  Icanbh  (prop,  a  leinbh)  my  child  !] 

ALANTOM,  adv.  Obs.  Nhb.  Yks.  Also  written 
alantum,  alantem.     Freq.  used  with  off.     At  a  distance. 

n.Cy.  I  saw  himat  alangtum  I  saw  him  alantom  off  K. );  N.Cy.'^, 
Nhb.'      w.Yks.'  I  spies  alantum  off  two  shooters,  ii.  296. 

[Some  of  our  lads  b'ing  very  kind,  Alantom  followed 
nie  behind,  Stv art  Joco- Serious  Disc.  (i686j  72.  Alantom 
prob.  repr.  Fr.  en  loinlain,  in  the  distance.] 

ALARM,  sb.  Irel.  Wil.  [alam.]  A  cry  of  a  bird  or 

Wmh.  What  soort  of  alarm  has  an  otthcr!  (S.A.B.) 

Hence  Alarm-note,  the  note  of  a  bird  when  startled. 

n-Wil.  If  you  should  disturb  the  blackbird  he  makes  the  meadow 
ring  with  his  alarm  note,  Jefferies  Wild  Life  (1879)  163. 

[Fr.  alarnie,  excitement  caused  by  the  approach  of  the 
enemy  ;  OP>.  a  I'arnie  !  the  cry  to  arms.] 

ALARMING,  adv.     Suf.  Wor.     [alaniin.] 

1.  In  an  unusual  manner. 

Suf.  He  went  on  wholly  alarmin',  i.e.  acted  or  spoke  out  of  the 
usual  way,  not  necessarily  greatly,  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892). 

2.  Extensively,  very,  exceedingly. 

w.Wor.  [It]  grows  in  woods  alarmin',  S.  Beauchamp  Gianlley 
Grange  '  1874I  II.  104  ;  They  bin  orl  good  uns,  most  alarmin'  good 
uns.  ib.  K.  Haniillon  (1875)  1.  127. 

ALARUM,  sb.    n.Yks.    [aleram.]    Disturbance. 


[A  blanket  in  th'  alarum  of  fear  caught  up,  Shaks.  Ham. 
II.  ii.  532.     See  Alarm.] 

ALAS-A-DAY, /;;/.  Oiso/.  Yks. and  Som.  Alas!  a  form 
of  pitj'ing. 

Yks.  TnoRESBYif«.  (1703).  W.Yks."  Som.  Jennings  0*s.  Z)/<i/. 
w.Eng.  (18251. 

[Alas  a  day  !  you  have  ruined  my  poor  mistress,  Con- 
GREVE  Old  Bachelor  {}outi?,OK) ;  Alas  the  day  !  I  never  gave 
him  cause.  Siiaks.  Olh.  iii.  iv.  158  ;  Alias  !  that  harde  day  ! 
Chaucer  C.  T.  f.  499.  OFr.  a  las  (mod.  he'las),  orig.  Ah, 
weary  !    Cp.  It.  ahi  lasso,  Lat.  lassiis,  weary.] 

ALAS-ATEVER,  int.  Obs.  Yks.  An  exclamation  of 

Yks.  Thoresby /.f//.  (i703\      w.Yks.* 

[Equiv.  to  alas  that  ever .'] 

ALASSEN,  conj.  Dor.  Also  written  alassn.  [alaesan.] 

Dor.  Gl.  (1851);  Dor.l  Alassen  I  mid  want  to  stSy  Behine' var 
thee.  79. 

I  Equiv.  to  on  less  'en  for  on  less  than,  whence  lit.  E.  unless. 
Onlesse  this  be  done,  si'  ce  nest  que  cela  se  face,  Palscr. 
882.     OE.  on  laspanne,  lit.  on  a  less  supposition  than.] 

ALATE,  arfR     Yks.  Lan.  Wor.    [ale  t,  alea't]     Lately. 

w.Yks.'  Alatt,  of  late.      ne.Lan.'  Alayat.    se.Wor.' 

[Alate,  niiper,  Coles  (1679).  The  form  occurs  in  ME. as 
in  Destr.  Troy  (c.  1400),  4176.     A-,  of+late.] 

ALAU,  sb.  Cor.  [alau-.]  Nymphaea  alba,  or  water- 

ALA-WK,  /■;//.  Der.  War.  Suf  [319k.]  An  exclama- 
tion of  sorrow ;  alas  ! 

Der.2,  nw.Der.',  War.  (J.R.W.)     Suf.»  [Hence]  Alawkus. 

\A-,  ah  !  +  laivk.  q.v.] 

ALAY.  see  AUy. 

ALBUIST,  conj.     Obs.     Abd.     Though,  albeit. 

Abd.  An"  our  ain  lads,  albuist  I  say't  my  sell,  But  guided  them 
right  cankardly  an'  snell,  Ross  //f/<-iiorf  ( 1 768 ,  62  (in  the  edd.  1789 
and  1812  '  although'  is  printed  instead  of 'albuist'). 

[Etym.  unknown.] 

F  2 




ALD,  see  Old. 

ALDER,  sh.  [o'ldafr).]  Besides  its  usual  meaning 
(Alniis  g/ii/iitosa),  the  name  a/c/er  in  comb,  is  applied  to 
several  other  trees,  (i)  Death  alder,  Euonyiitiis  eiiropaetis 
or  spindle-tree  (Bck.) ;  (2)  Wild  alder,  Aegopodiuin  poda- 
grnria  (Lin.). 

n.Bck.  It  is  thought  unlucky  to  bring  it  [Death  alder]  into  the 
house.  S.Lin.  Wild  alder.  Alder  =  elder,  from  the  superficial 
resemblance  between  the  leaves. 

[OE.  (7/or.     The  form  (r//er  is  still  geit.  in  dial.] 

ALDERCARR,  sb.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Nrf.  Suf.  Also 
written  owdaker  nw.Der.'  A  piece  of  bog-  or  fen-land 
overgrown  with  alder-trees. 

Der.^  Aldcr-carr,  a  plantation  of  alders;  carr  being  common  for 
a  plantation  in  a  low  or  flat  situation.  nw.Der.'  Lin.  Alder-carr, 
an  islet  overgrown  with  'the  waterside  tree,'  A^  &  Q.  (1873) 
4th  S.  -xii.  297.  War.  (J.R.  \V.)  Nrf.  Wet  pieces  of  land  in  the 
marshy  districts  planted  with  .  .  .  alders,  and  hence  called  .  .  . 
alder-carrs,  N.  iSr"  Q.  (1874^  5th  S.  i.  132.  Suf.  A  moist  wood  of 
alders,  e.Ati.  Dy.  Times  (1892). 

[Aldyr-kyr  (Alder-kar  in  Pynson's  ed.),  Alnetum,  viz. 
locus  ubi  alni  et  tales  arbores  crescunt,  Prompt.  Alder  +  carr, 

ALDERLING,  56.  Obs.  Suf.  A  fresh-water  fish  which 
haunts  that  part  of  the  stream  overhung  by  alder-trees. 
See  Aller-trout. 

Suf.  No  longer  u.sed,  but  still  known  to  very  old  people  here 
(F.H.).  Not  known  to  any  of  our  correspondents  in  other  parts 
of  the  country.  A  kind  of  fish  said  to  be  betwixt  a  trout  and  a 
grayling  (Hall.). 

ALE,  sb}    Var.  dial.     See  below,     [el,  eal,  yel.] 
L  A   liquor  brewed  from  malt  and  distinguished  from 
ordinary  beer  by  its  strength.     In  Cum.  and  Som.,  how- 
ever, ale  is  weak  beer  brewed  from  the  malt  after  the  beer 
has  been  extracted  from  it. 

Cum.iJ.Ar.)  Brks.'  OoU 'ehevaglasso'aayle  era  glass o' beer? 
Som.  A  liquor  brewed  with  a  proportion  of  malt  from  about  four  to 
six  bushels  to  the  hogshead  of  63  gallons;  if  it  contain  more  malt  it  is 
called  beer  ;  if  less,  it  is  usually  called  small  beer,  Jennings  Obs. 
Dial.  w.Eiig.  tt825).  w.Som.i  Ale  is  usually  sold  in  the  public- 
houses  at  half  the  price  of  beer ;  at  Burton  this  is  precisely  re- 

2.  A  country  festival,  in  which  ale-drinking  forms  the 
chief  part  of  the  delight. 

N.Cy.i  A  merry  meeting  of  country-people,  a  rural  feast,  bride- 
ale,  church-ale.  ne.Lan.i  Oxf.  The  Whitsun  ales  are  common  in 
Oxfordshire,  Wright. 

3.  Coinp.  Ale-bink,  -brains,  -brewis,  -brussen.see  below  ; 
-Conner,  -finder,  a  manorial  officer  whose  duty  it  was  to 
look  to  the  assize  and  goodness  of  bread  and  ale  within 
the  precincts  of  the  manor  ;  -feast,  a  public  festival  gener- 
ally held  at  Whitsuntide  ;  -jawt,  -master,  -peg,  see  below ; 
-posset,  a  curd  made  by  pouring  old  ale  over  boiling 
milk  ;  -scalp,  see  Ale-brains  ;  -score,  a  debt  at  the  ale- 
house ;  -settle,  see  Alebink ;  -shot,  see  Ale-score ; 
-silver,  -soaked,  -soaker,  see  below;  -sop,  (i)  a  refection 
consisting  of  hot  strong  ale  and  toast  or  biscuits,  (2)  a 
drunkard;  -spinner, -stake,  see  below  ;  -stalder,  the  stool 
on  which  casks  are  placed  in  a  cellar  ;  -stall,  -swab,  -swat- 
tier,  -swizzler,  see  below ;  -taster,  an  officer  appointed  to 
prevent  the  adulteration  of  ale,  see  Ale-conner ;  -Tuesday, 
Shrove  Tuesday;  -weean,  see  below;  -whisp  {obs.),  the 
bush  hung  in  front  of  an  inn  to  show  that  ale  was  sold 
there;  -wife,  (i)  a  woman  who  keeps  an  inn,  (2)  a  local 
name  of  the  Allice-shad,  Alosa  communis;  -wort,  an  in- 
fusion of  malt ;  -yottler,  -yottling,  see  below. 

n.Yks.2  Yal-bink,  also  called  Yal-settle,an  ale-bench  ;  like  those 
in  front  of  country  inns  for  outside  smokers.  Yal-brains,  one  who 
has  to  take  his  glass  before  he  can  set  his  wits  to  work.  Yal-brewis, 
ale-posset  stiffened  with  bread.  Yal-brussen,  distended  or'  blown 
up  '  with  ale  or  liquor.  n.Lin.i  Ale  Conner.  Ale-feast  (obso/.),  a 
public  drinking  usually  held  at  Whitsuntide.  Cum.'  Yal-jaw't, 
sickened  by  drinking  ale.  n.Ltn.i  Ale-master,  the  chief  man  at  the 
ale-feast.  Ale-peg,  the  vent-peg  of  a  cask.  Lan.  There's  some 
nice  bacon-collops  o'th  hob.  An'  a  quart  o'  ale-posset  i'th  oon, 
Waugh  Come  IVhoam  (1859).  m.Lan.»  He's  ne'er  hed  a  sup  o' 
ale-posset,  hesn'd  mi  pertner.  Fooaks'  givin'  o'er  suppin'  id,  for 
a  varra  good  reeason  ;  there's  nooan  so  mony  wimmen  con  mek 

id  gradely.  s.Chs.^  Shr.*  Jack,  you  had  better  take  care  of  that 
cold,  ril  make  you  an  ale-posset  to-night. — Thank  yo'.  Missis, 
that'll  tak  car  o'  me,  nod  the  caud.  Lan.'  Hast  paid  thi  ale-score 
at  th'  Blue  Bell  yet  ?  Stf.'^  'E's  got  a  ale-score  on  at  that  ale-us. 
n.Lin.'  Ale-score,  the  debt  for  drink  at  an  ale-house  recorded 
with  chalk  marks  on  the  door.  Shr.^  Tum's  a  cliver  workman 
an'  gets  good  money,  but  agen  'e's  paid  'is  ale-score  every  wik 
theer  inna  much  let'  to  tak  wham.  Lan.'  He's  an  ale-shot  at  th' 
back  o'  th'  door  yon,  th'  length  o'  my  arm.  [Ale-silver  {obs.), 
a  rent  or  duty  annually  paid  to  the  Lord  Mayor  of  London  by 
those  who  sold  ale  within  the  City,  Bailey  (1721").]  n.Yks.2  Yal- 
sooak'd,  full  of  beer,  drunk.  Yal-sooaker,  an  ale  bibber,  a  sot. 
Sc.  Ale  saps,  wheaten  bread  boiled  in  beer  (Jam.  s.v.  Saps). 
Ken.  Tea  biscuits  are  sometimes  soaked  in  strong  ale  and  called 
ale-sop  or  beer-sop  (P.M.) ;  Ken.^  Ale-sop  is  customarily  partaken 
of  by  the  servants  in  many  large  establishments  on  Christmas  Day. 
w.Yka.2  Ale-sop,  a  drunkard.  Slang.  Ale-spinner,  a  brewer  or 
publican.  Farmer.  [Ale-stake  (obs.),  a  may-pole,  Grose  (1790) 
MS.  add.  (P.)]  e.Sus.  Ale-stalder,  or  stolder,  stillion,  Holloway, 
Suf.' Ale-stall,  the  horse  or  stool  on  which  casks  of  beer,  wine,  &c. 
are  placed  in  cellars.  I  do  not  recollect  the  word  stall  applied  to 
any  other  description  or  stool.  n.Yks.''  Yal-swab,  -swattler, 
-swizzler,  an  ale-bibber,  a  sot.  Chs.'  At  the  court  leet  for  the 
manor  and  lordship  of  Over,  held  Nov.  1880,  ale-tasters  were 
elected  for  each  of  the  townships  of  Over,  Marton,  and  Swanlow 
(see  JVarnngion  Guardian.  Nov.  20,  1880).  n  Lin.*  The  ale  taster's 
oath  is  given  in  Sir -William  Scrogg's  Practice  of  Court  Leet  (1714I 
15.  w.Som.'  Ale-taster,  an  officer  still  annually  appointed  by 
ancient  court  leet ;  at  Wellington  his  duties,  however,  have  entirely 
fallen  into  disuse.  Dev.  The  last  day  of  the  carnival  would  be 
the  '  wettest,'  and  might  well  be  called  Ale  Tuesday.  Every 
parish  had  its  church-ales  on  several  anniversaries,  of  which  that 
at  Shrove-tide  was  usually  one,  Reports  Provinc.  (1893).  n.Yks.*,  the  female  publican.  n.Lin.' Ale-whisp,  the  bush  which 
was  suspended  in  front  of  a  public-house  to  indicate  that  drink 
was  sold  there  {obs.\  A  bush  of  ivy  or  other  evergreen  was  for 
ages  the  sign  of  a  tavern  both  in  England  and  the  neighbouring 
continental  lands.  There  is  an  engraving  of  a  mediaeval  inn  with 
a  bush  hanging  before  it  in  Cutts'  Scenes  and  Characters  of  the 
Middle  Ages,  p.  543.  [Ale-wife,  Alosa  communis,  Satchell. ] 
Yks.  If  you  have  any  ale-wort  near  you,  make  strong  tea  of  it, 
Knowlson  Cattle  Doctor  (1834)  84.  n.Yks.^  Yal-yottler,  an  ale- 
bibber,  a  sot.      Yal-yottling,  given  to  pot  companionship. 

[1.  Ale  and  beer  have  been  in  common  use  as  names  for 
the  same  intoxicating  drink  among  the  various  tribes  of 
Germanic  people  from  the  earliest  times.  The  Alvisitidl 
says  :  'Tis  called  ale  (6t)  among  men,  beer(bjorr)  among  the 
gods;  'beer'  being  the  Southern,  'ale'  the  Northern 
Germanic  word.  2.  For  information  about  country  ales, 
esp.  the  Whitsun-ale,  see  Brand  Pop.  Antiq.  \.  279.  Douce 
says  that  Ale  means  a  feast  or  merry-making,  as  in 
the  words  Leet-ale,  Lamb-ale,  Whitsun-ale,  Clerk-ale, 
Bride-ale  (whence  Bridal),  Church-ale,  Scot-ale,  Mid- 
summer-ale, &c.  (Brand,  I.e.)  Lesfestes  du  village,  wakes, 
ales,  ploughmens  feasts,  or  holy  dales,  Cotgr.  OE.  ealu, 
ON.  67,  ale  ;  also,  a  feast,  a  banquet,  freq.  in  comps.,  as  in 
ON.  erfi-6l,  awake,  a  funeral  feast ;  OE.  bryd-ealu,dL  bride- 
feast,  the  marriage  feast,  a  '  bridal.'] 

ALE,  see  Old. 

ALE-BERRY,  sb.  Cum.  [ye-lbsri.]  A  dish  consist- 
ing of  ale  boiled  with  butter,  sugar,  and  bread. 

Cum.'  Yel-berry,  formerly  given  at  funerals  for  dinner. 

[Aleberry,  a  beerage  or  kind  of  food  made  by  boiling 
ale  with  spice,  sugar,  and  sops  of  bread,  or  with  oatmeal, 
Bailey  (1755).  ^^E.  Albery  vel  alebrey,  alebrodium, 
Prompt. — Ale  +  berry.  ME.  bery  for  brey,  bre,  OE.  brlw, 

ALE-DRAPER,  s6.  Obs.  Yks.  Lin.  An  innkeeper  or 

n.Yks.' Ale-draper,  a  term  now  oAs.,  but  occurring  in  the  Whitby 
parochial  register  a  century  ago.  n.Lin.'  July  8th  (1747)  Thomas 
Broughton,  farmer  and  ale-draper,  Scottcr  Par.  Reg.  Burials. 

[Ale-draper,  a  seller  of  malt-liquors:  an  alehouse- 
keeper  or  victualler,  Bailey  (1721) ;  No  other  occupation 
have  I  but  to  bean  ale-draper,  C\\^^-n.v. Kind-Harts Dreame 
(1592)  ;  Two  milch  maydens  that  had  set  up  a  shoppe  of 
ale-drapery,  ib.  (Nares).  ./^/c-f  n'/w/>fr  (humorously  ap- 
plied to  the  alehouse-keeper's  business).] 




ALEER,  adj.     I.W.     [alia-fr).]     Empty ;  unladen. 

I.W.'  Goo  whooam  \vi'  the  wagon  alccr. 

{^A-  prob.  repr.  OE.  ge\  cp.  gekfre,  empty  ;  or  the  pre/. 
maj'  =  on  (the  pref.  of  state  or  condition).     Sec  Leer.] 

ALEGAR,  sb.  Obsol.  n.Cy.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Lei.  Wor.  e.An.  Also  written  allekar 
Wm.';  alliker  n.Yks.2  ;  elliker  w.Yks.';  elekar  w.Yks.^  ; 
aliker  e.Lan.'  ;  allegar  Chs.'  s.Chs.'  Stf.' ;  allecar,  alle- 
kur  n.Lin.'  Vinegar  made  from  ale  ;  malt  vinegar  ;  sour 
ale  used  as  vinegar. 

N.Cy.',  Cum.  Gl.  (1851).  Wm.  Ya  drop  o  alligar  may  be  an 
ocean  tosictiny  inhabitan(t1s,  HurroN  Bran  New  IVark  (1785)  1-  91 ; 
An  gav  him  sum  allcker,  Wheeler  Dial.  (1790)  56  ;  Wm.'  w.Yks. 
Elekir,  Lerds  Meix.  Siippl.  (Mar.  16,  1889'!  ;  Fetch  a  pint  of  allica 
(F.P.T.)  ;  Born  wi'  soa  mich  eliker  i'  ther  blooiil,  Hartley  Piiiiiliti 
(1876)  358  ;  Her  face  turned  as  sahr  as  eilikcr,  Saunterer  s  Satchel 
(1879)  ai  ;  T'privates  is  allaud  rost  mutton,  an  a  bottle  a  helligar 
an  watter,  wha  wine  they  call  it,  Tom  Treddlehoyle  Bairtisia 
Ann.  (1847")  46  ;  Sittin  astride  of  a  barril  at  we  used  to  mack 
helliger  in,  li.  M.  Miiffindoa/^iS^'^)  ^^■,  Saltan  pepper,  mustard 
an  helliker,  Piidsey  Otm.  (1888)  14.  Lan.  Deeds  as  sharp  as 
alegar  awth' whoile.  BYROMFofH;s(i773)  I.  117.  ed.  1814.  m.Lan.' 
Th'  best  shop  i'  Blegburn  for  alicker  is  a  jerryshop  aside  o'  wheer 
aiw  live  ;  but  yo'  hevn'd  to  ax  for  id  bi  name.  Yo*  simply  sit  deawn 
an'  CO*  for  a  gill  o'  ale  fresh  drawn.  Chs.'  Allegar,  vinegar,  origin- 
ally such  as  was  made  from  ale,  but  now  applied  to  all  kinds  of 
vinegar.  Wilbraham  says  the  word  is  generally  used  with  the 
adjunct  'vinegar* — allcgar-vincgar,  but  it  is  not  so  used  now  at 
Macclesfield.  s.Chs.'  Hey's  shcdden  my  drop  o'  allegar.  Der. 2, 
Not'  Lin.' That  pancheon  is  chock-full  of  alegar.  n.Lin.'  Alegar, 
sour  ale  used  as  a  substitute  for  vinegar.  Lei.'  Alegar  is  to  ale 
what  vinegar  is  to  wine.  '  Malt  vinegar'  is  perhaps  its  modern 
equivalent.     Wor.  Grose  (1790)  A/5,  urfrf.  (M.)     e.An.',  Suf.' 

Altrib.  in  Alegar  skrikers,  thin  gruel  flavoured  with 

Chs.'  3 

[Alegar,  sour  ale;  a  kind  of  acid  made  by  ale,  as  vine- 
gar by  wine,  which  has  lost  its  spirit,  Johnson  ;  Alegar 
(q.d.  Ale-eager),  sour  ale  or  beer,  a  sort  of  vinegar,  Bailey 
(1721);  Aleger,  the  vinegar  made  of  sour  ale,  Blount 
{1681) ;  Alegar,  quo  nomine  ntslici  agri  Line.  &^  per  toliiin 
Angliae  Seplentrioiialis  traclum  Ace/iiin  cerew'siae  non  litpu- 
lalae appellant,  q.d.  Ale  Eager,  vel  Eager  Ale,  i.e.  sour  ale. 
Skinner  (1671) ;  Soure  and  tarte  thj'nges  as  venegre  and 
aleger,  Boorde  Dyetary  (15421  296;  With  venegre  or 
eysel  or  with  alegere.  Cookery  Books  (1430)  28.  Ate  +  egre 
(Fr.  aigre,  sharp,  sour).] 

ALE-HOOF,  sA.  Yks.  Shr.  Sus.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written 
ale-hoove  in  Shr.  and  Sus.,  alliff  in  e.Sus.  [el-iif, 
e  1-uv.]     The  ground  ivy,  Nepeta  Glechoma. 

w.Yks.^  At  Eyam  it  is,  or  was,  used  in  the  brewing  of  ale  instead 
of  hops.  Shr.,  Sus.  Ale-hoove,  i.e.  that  which  will  cause  ale  to 
heave  or  work  [sic].  Dev.  Where  ale-hoof  and  the  borage,  too.  Hold 
forth  their  gems  of  blue,  Capern  Bnl/ads  Ij8$8)  128.  Cor.  Jack 
would  take  the  children  and  collect  bitter  herbs  to  make  the  beer 
keep,  such  as  the  ale-hoof  (ground-ivy),  mugwort, . . .  and  pellitorj', 
HuntP(>/>.  Rom.  w.Eiig.  (1865)  I.  44. 

(Ale-hoof,  ground-ivy,  so  called,  because  it  serves  to 
clear  ale  or  heer—Hedrra  bnestris,  L.,  Bailey  (1721); 
Ale-hoof  (herb),  Hedera  kneslris.  Coles  (1679);  Patle  df 
chat,  Cat's-foot,  ale-hoof,  tune-hoof,  ground  ivy.  Gill 
creep  by  the  ground,  Cotgr.  (1611) ;  '  The  women  of  our 
Northerne  parts,  especially  about  Wales  and  Cheshire, 
do  tunne  the  herbe  alehoof  into  their  ale  ;  but  the  reason 
tlicrcof  I  know  not :  notwithstanding  without  all  con- 
trouersie  it  is  most  singular  against  the  griefes  aforesaid  : 
being  tunned  vp  in  ale  and  drunke,  it  also  purgcth  the 
head  from  rheumaticke  humors  flowing  from  the  brain, 
Gerard  I lerba/l  (1597)  II.  856.  Ale+Aoo/;  /inn/ rcpr.  an 
earlier  /love  {Prompt.  250),  OE.  /lii/r,  the  ground  ivy.  In 
ME.  the  ordinary  name  for  tlie  plant  was  liai-liovc  (/loi/ri  ; 
see  Voc.  786.  29,  Prompt,  (notes)  250,  and  Meals  and 
Manners  (E.E.T.S.  No.  32)  68.] 

ALE-HOUSE,  sb.  Widely  diffused  throughout  the 
dial.  Also  written  aalhouse  W.xf.' ;  alehus  Nhp.'; 
ale'us  w.Yks.^  ;  alus  n.Yks.'  Ken." ;  al-hoos  nc.Yks.' ; 
yalhoose     n.Yks.*     ne.Yks.'    e.Yks.' ;    yale-hus  Nhp'; 

yalus  n.Yks.' ;  yelhusNhp.';  alius  e.An.'    [i'las,  esias, 

yelas.]    A  house  where  ale  is  sold. 

So.  Na,  sir,  1  never  gang  to  the  yill  house,  Scott  Rob  Roy  {i&i-]) 
xiv.  Edb.  We  jogged  on  till  we  came  to  the  yill-housedoor,  MoiR 
Mansie  tVaiich  (,1828)  xiii.  Wxf.'  Yks.  Wi'  lads,  te  t'yal-house 
gangin',  Ingledew  Bfl//o(fe (i860  227.  n.Yks.'*  ncYts.' Ahseed 
him  i  t'yal-hoos  suppin  yal.  e.Yks.'  w.Yks.  Ale'us,  Wk/ld.  IVds. 
Nhp.'  Alehus,  a  small  public-house,  or  beer-shop.  e.An.'  w.Nrf. 
Shaking  off  the  ashes  from  his  short  black  pipe  on  to  the  clean 
sanded  floor  of  the  al'us,  Orton  Beeslon  GhosI  (1884)  4.  Ken. 
An'  dare  was  aluses  by  swarms,  Masters  Dick  and  Sal  (c.  X821) 
St.  63.  Sus.  Dc  butcher  kipt  a  aluss  too.  Lower  Tom  Cladpolt 
1 1831)  St.  54.  Som.  Yal'house,  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825). 
e.Som.  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873). 

[Would  I  were  in  an  ale-house  in  London,  Shaks. 
Hen.  V,  III.  ii.  i2.  _  ME.  The  word  ale-lms  occurs  in  Horn. 
ii.  11.    OE.  eala-hiis  {Laws  0/ Et/ielb.).] 

ALEING,s6.  Obs.  Ken.  An  entertainment  given  with 
a  view  to  collecting  subscriptions  from  guests  invited  to 
a  brewing  of  ale. 

Ken.';  Ken.^  An  aleing,  i.e.  where  mirth,  ale,  and  music  are  stirring; 
'tis  a  custom  in  West  Kent  for  the  lower  class  of  housekeepers  to 
brew  a  small  quantity  of  malt,  and  to  invite  their  neighbours  to  it, 
who  give  them  something  for  a  gratification  ;  this  they  call  an 
aleing,  and  they  do  it  to  get  a  little  money,  and  the  people  go  to 
it  out  of  kindness  to  them. 

[Aleing  or  aling,  vbl.  sb.  from  ale  (taken  as  a  vb.,  see 
A\e)  +  iiig.] 

ALENTH,  adv.  n.Sc.  (Jam.)  In  the  direction  of  the 
length.  In  phr.  to  come  alentli,  to  arrive  at  maturity  ;  to 
gae  far  alenlli,  to  go  great  Icngtlis;  to  be  far  alenlh.  to  be 
far  advanced,  to  make  great  progress  or  improvement. 

[Alength,  at  full  length,  along,  stretched  along  the 
ground,  Johnson  ;  Alength,  inlongtini.  Coles  (.1679).  A-, 
on  +  length.] 

ALEXANDER(S,  sb.  Sc.  Cor.  Written  allsanders 
Cor.'*  ;  alshinder,  elshinder  Sc.  A  plant-name  :  Sniyr- 
nitim  olitsatnim,  or  Horse-parsley. 

Sc.  Dear  me',  there's  no  an  alshinder  I  meet,  There's  no  a  whinny 
bush  that  trips  my  leg  .  .  .  But  woos  remembrance  frae  her  dear 
retreat,  Donald  and  Flora,  82  (Jam.).      Cor.'  * 

[Alexandre,  the  herb  great  parsley,  Alexanders  or 
Alisaunders,  Cotgr.  ;  Herbes  and  rootes  for  sallets  and 
sauce  :  Alexanders  at  all  times,  Tusser  Iliisbandrie  (1580) 
94;  Alysaunder  herbe  orstanmarche,  Macedonia.  Prompt. 
OE.  alexandre  {'m  the  Leechdoms)  ;  also  AFr.  alisanndre, 
the  horse-parsley.  Vr.  alisandre  (Valsgr.).  The  MLat. 
name  was  Petrosetiniim  Ale.xandriniim.] 

ALEXANDRA  PLOVERS,  sb.     e.An. 

e.An.'  Alexandra  Plovers,  Kentish  plovers  (Argiali/is  cantiana), 
so  called  by  Brcydon  gunners,  E.  T.  Booth  in  Rougli  Notes. 

ALGATE,  ALGATES,  ALL  GATES,  adv.  n.Cy.  Nhb. 
Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Ucr.  Lin.  [g-l-get,  9l-ge3t,  Nhb.  ^-l-giat, 
Wm.  9gi3t.] 

1.  In  every  way,  by  all  means. 

N.Cy.'  Nhb.  Aa've  sowt  for'd  all  gj-els  (R.O.H.>;  Nhb.' Aa've 
been  up  and  (loon  aallgates.  Wm.' Augeates,  in  all  ways.  n.Yks.* 
They  tried  all  geeats  to  get  it.  Clis.'  Obs.  Der.*  Lin.  All-gates, 
all  means,  Streatfield  Lin.  and  Danes  1,1884)  315  ;    n.Lin.' 

2.  However,  at  all  events,  at  any  rate. 

[1.  Algates,  by  any  means,  Bailey  (1755) ;  Wyll  you 
algates  do  it  ?  le  votites  vonsfaire  tout  a  force  ?  Palsgr.  829 ; 
Algatys  or  allewey,  Oinnino,  oninimodo,  peniliis.  Prompt. ; 
So  that,  algates,  she  is  the  verray  rote  Of  my  disese, 
Chaucer  Af.  /".  xxii.  43.  2.  Algate,  notwithstanding.  Coles 
(1677);  Algates,  for  all  that.  Kersey;  Algates  songes 
thus  I  made  Of  my  feling,  myn  herte  to  glade,  Chaucer 
M.P.  hi.  1171.  The  older  form  was  alegate,  i.e.  allegate, 
in  every  wnv  ;  see  Gate.] 

ALGERINING,  sb.  Chs.  The  act  of  prowling  about 
with  an  intention  to  steal ;  robbery. 

Chs.  It  were  nobbut  that  algerining  gallows-tang,  Joe  Clarke, 
Croston  Enoch  Crump  (1887)  14  ;  Chs.'  He  goes  about  algerining 
and  begging  [often  said  of  a  tramp]  ;  Chs.^ 

[Prob.  from  Atgerine,  an  inhabitant  of  Algiers.  The 
greatest  commerce  of  the  Algerines  consists  in  the  mer- 




chandize  which  they  obtain  by  the  piratical  plunder  of  the 

Christians  over  the  whole  Mediterranean,  Bailey  (1755).] 

ALIAN,  s*.    Ohs.     Hrt. 

Hit.  A  sheep  suckling  a  lamb  not  its  own,  or  a  lamb  suckled  by 
a  sheep,  not  its  dam,  Ellis  Mod.  Htisb.  (1750")  IV.  i.  115. 

[For  alien,  that  which  belongs  to  another.] 

ALICE,  sh.  Nrf.  Dev,  [seiis.]  In  plant-names:  (i) 
Saucy  Alice,  Polygoiiinn  persicayia  (Nrf.  Yarmouth); 
(2)  Sweet  Alice, ^n7A/s alpina,  Alyssiim  maritiiiiitiii  ( Dev.). 

Dev.*  Sweet  AUce,  Aiyssunt  itiantitnnm.  Alyssum  or  Allison 
has  been  changed  into  (i)  Anise.  . .  and  (2)  Alice. 

{AlyssiiDt,  botanical  Lat.  for  alysson  (Pliny),  Gr.  liXva-anv, 
the  name  of  a  plant ;  oKvaaoi,  curing  madness,  a  (prev.)-l- 
Xi'o-cra  (madness)  Cp.  Coles  (1679):  Alyssoit,  Alyssum, 
wild  hemp  or  madwort  ;  Alyssits,  an  Arcadian  fountain 
curing  the  biting  of  mad  dogs.] 

ALICK,  sh.  Ken.  [aelik.j  Smymium  olusatntm  ; 
also  called  Alexanders,  q.v. 

Ken. [At  Dover]  men,  women,  and  children,  sailors  and  country- 
folk, all  call  it  by  one  name  —  Alick, 

ALIE,  sb.  Sh.  and  Or.I.  A  pet,  a  favourite.  See 
Alie,  I'. 

S.  &  Ork.^  An  alie  lamb, 
2,  Conip.  Alye-caddie.     A  pet  lamb. 

ALIE,  V.     Sh.I.     To  pet,  to  cherish. 

Sh.I.  (W.A.G.)    S.  &Ork.i 

[Supposed  by  some  to  be  connected  with  ON.  ala,  to 
bear,  to  nourish,  spec,  used  of  the  rearing  of  a  pet  lamb, 
but  the  form  is  difficult  to  account  for.] 

ALIE,  adv.  Som,  Dev.  [slai'.]  In  a  recumbent  posi- 
tion, lying  flat. 

w.Som.i  The  grass  is  shockin  bad  to  cut,  tis  all  alie.  Zend  out 
and  zit  up  the  stitches,  half  o'm  be  alie  way  this  here  rough  wind. 

{A-,  on  -^  lie,  sb,from  //i?,vb,,to  be  in  a  horizontal  position.] 

ALISON,  see  Elsin. 

ALIST,  nn'i'.  Obs.  Sc.  To  come  alist,  to  recover  from 
faintness  or  decay ;  used  with  regard  to  one  recovering 
from  a  swoon  (Jam.). 

Sc.  But  well's  my  heart  that  ye  are  come  alist,  Ross  Helenore 
(1768)  8. 

[Perhaps  repr.  OE.  alised  (y,  te)  freed,  let  loose,  pp.  of 

ALIVE,  adj.     Cor.     [alai'v.] 

Cor. 2  When  a  mineral  lode  is  rich  in  tin,  copper,  &c.,  it  is  said 
to  be  alive,  in  conti-adistinction  to  deads,  q.v. 

ALK.  see  Auk. 

ALKIN,  plii:  used  attrib.  n.Sc.  Yks.  Chs.  Also 
written  allkyn,  alkyn  (Jam.)  ;  allkins  n.Yks.*  m,Yks,i 
Of  every  kind, 

Sc,  They  still  say  'aw  kin  kind  '  (Jam,),  n,Yks,l  Of  all  sorts, 
various  and  intermingled,     m.Yks.',  Chs.^^ 

[ME.  alkyn.  Jlere  schall  {)ou  alkynne  solas  see  (solace 
of  every  kind),  York  Plays,  493;  Alkyn  crafty  men  (  = 
craftsmen  of  every  kind),  P.  Plowman  (b,)  vi.  70  ;  more 
commonly  alkynnes  (see  P.  Ploivman,  glossary).  OE. 
ealles  cynnes,  of  every  kind,  gen.  of  eall  cynn.] 

ALklTOTLE,  sb.  n.Dev,  Also  written  alkithole 
(Holloway),     [alkitua'tl.]     A  foolish  fellow. 

n.Dev.  Go,  ya  alkitotle  ?  ya  gurt  voolish  trapes  I  E-^cm.  Ciislip. 
(1746)1.470;  Go,  ya  alkitotle,  why  dedst  tell  zo  ?  16.  1.  577  ;  I  mind 
an  alkitotle  o't  Avore  a  month  had  got  a-quot.  Rock  Jim  an'  Neil 
(1867)  St.  61. 

[I  am  an  oaf,  a  simple  alcatote,  an  Innocent,  Ford 
Fancies  (N.E.D.),] 

ALL,  adj.  and  adv.  Var.  dial.  Also  written  a'  Sc, 
t<j3l,  9I,  9,  Sc,  a,] 

1,  adv.     Entirely,  quite,  fully. 

w.Yks.2  He  fell  down  and  all  dirtied  his  brat.  Sur.'  It's  all  ten 
year  agoo  [meaning  ten  years  and  more].  Som.  I  should  want  all 
vive  poun'toboot,RAVMONDSa»!nnrf5aA/Krt(i894)6o;  w.Som,'  Her 
gid'n  all  so  good's  he  brought.  Her  and  he  be  all  o'  one  mind  about 
it,      Cor,i  All,  used  frequently  as  an  augmentative,  as  '  all  abroad,' 

2,  'With  sb.,  having  the  taste  or  smell  of 

■War.^     Glo.'  This  pan  is  all  onions.     'What  is  this  bottle  all  ? 

3,  All,   not   implying   totality,  but  the   completion  of  a 
series  ;  therefore  equivalent  to  last,  final. 

w,Som.i  Plaise,  sir,  all  the  coal's  a  finished — i.e,  the  last  of  it, 
Aay  shl  dig  au'I  mee  tae-udeez  tumaar'u  [I  shall  dig  all  my  pota- 
toes to-morrow — i.e,  I  shall  complete  the  digging].  This  would  be 
perfectly  intelligible,  even  if  the  speaker  had  been  digging  con- 
tinuously for  weeks  previously.  So,  '  I  zeed  em  all  out '  means  not 
that  I  saw  the  whole  number  depart,  but  the  last  of  them, 

4,  All,  adj.,  followed  by  a  noun  in  the  sing. :  every, 

Sc,  Ane  couldna  hae  een  to  a'  thing,  Scott  Midloiliian  (1818^  xv  ; 
I  thought  you  were  named  Robbie  A'Thing  from  the  fact  of  your 
keeping  all  kinds  of  goods,  Ramsay  Reinin.  (1859)  II.  128.  w.Sc. 
The  world  lay  besotted,  and  swaltering  in  all  sorte  of  superstition, 
Blame  of  Kirkbuiinll,  xiii.  In  Scotland  even  when  'the'  is  used,  the 
noun  that  follows  is  in  the  singular,  as  '  He  has  all  the  kin'  o'  things 
needed,'  The  English  structure  is,  however,  also  used  (Jam. 
Siippl.).  Frf,  He  was  standin'  at  the  gate,  which,  as  a'  body  kens, 
is  but  sax  steps  frae  the  hoose,  Barrie  77u'»;;z5(i889')  211,  ed,  1894. 
Ir.  Is  that  generally  believed  ? — It  is  by  a'  man  (^W.J,K,). 

5.  Comp.  and  phr. 

I.  All-a-bits,  in  pieces  or  rags ;   —  about,   see   below ; 

—  abroad,  —  acock,  see  Abroad,  Acock  ;  —  afloat,  in 
disorder ;  —  ahuh,  see  Ahuh  ;  —  ains,  see  Even  ;  —  along, 
(i)  continuously  from  the  first,  (2)  at  full  length  ;  — along 
of, —  along  on,  see  Along  of;  —  among,  mingled  con- 
fusedly together;  -a-mtiggle,  disorderly,  untidy;  — and 
some,  one  and  all ;  —  as  is,  the  whole  of  the  matter,  all  that 
remains  ;  ■ —  as  one,  the  same  thing ;  —  as  oneas,  just  like  ; 

—  at  a  bang,  —  at  a  slap,  all  at  once  ;  —  at  home,  quite  sane ; 
-aveer,  altogether;  -a-yock,  see  Ahuh;  —  b'ease,  easily, 
quietly;  —  but,  (i)  except,  (2)  almost;  —  ends  and  sides, 
(i)  all  around,  in  every  direction,  (2)  unreliable,  scatter- 
brained ;  —  evers,  hyperbolical  phrase  meaning  for  a  long 
time,  for  all  occasions ;  -fare,  for  good  and  all  ;  —  fives, 
a  game  of  cards  ;  -fore  ;  — for  nothing,  in  vain  ;  -heal,  —  in, 
see  below  ;  —  in  a  charm,  all  singing  or  talking  at  once  ; 
-in-all,  very  intimate  ;  —  in  a  lump  like  a  dog's  breakfast, 
an  Ir,  comparison  ;  —  in  a  niuggle,  see  all-a-muggle ;  —  in 
a  piece,  stiff  with  cold  or  rheumatism  ;  -in-one,  at  the  same 
time  ;  —  intents  and  purposes,  the  best  of  one's  ability,  as 
much  as  possible  ;  -in-the-ivcll,  a  boy's  game  ;  —  makes,  all 
kinds;  —  manner,  (i)  all  sorts,  (2)  see  below,  (3)  in  an  ex- 
traordinary way  ;  —  manner  o' gatherins,  —  manner  o'  u'hat, 
see  below ;  -manners,  all  sorts,  all  kinds  (gen.  used  dis- 
paragingly);  —  my  eye  and  Betty  Martin,  an  expression  of 
incredulity  ;  —  my  lone,  alone  ;  —  my  time,  my  best  exer- 
tions; —  nations,  profusion;  — naught,  of  no  value  or 
importance ;  —  of,  used  with  sb.  in  a  quasi-adjectival 
manner ;  —  of  a  hot,  suddenly,  unexpectedly  ;  —  of  a  huh, 
see  Ahuh  ;  —  of  a  kidney,  much  alike,  of  the  same  kind  ; 

—  of  an  upshot,  unexpectedly;  —  of  a  piece,  (i)  of  an 
eruption  or  sore  :  almost  entirely  covered,  (2)  stiff,  crip- 
pled by  rheumatism,  (3)  evidence  to  prop  up  a  false  story ; 

—  of  a  pop,  swampy  ;  —  of  aquob,  see  below;  —  of  a  rattle, 
at  once;  —  of  a  row,  a  child's  game;  —  of  asken,  (i)  dazed, 
(2)  oblique,  awry  ;  —  of  a  sivim,  very  wet  ;  —  of  a  twitter, 
trembling;  — on,  continually,  without  stopping;  —  one, 
all  the  same  ;  —  one  as,  just  like ;  —  one  for  that,  not- 
withstanding, in  spite  of;  —  on  end,  (i)  eager,  expectant, 
(2)  in  confusion  ;  —  on  for,  in  earnest  for;  -over,  -over- 
hack,  -sales,  see  below  ;  -same,  of  no  consequence ;  —  same 
time,  nevertheless,  notwithstanding;  —  serene,  quite  satis- 
factory :  —  shirt-neck,  see  below ;  -sides,  all  together  ;  -so, 
corruption  of  all-save,  except ;  —  so  be,  all  the  same, 
however;  — so  he  as,  although;  — sorts,  (i)  a  scolding, 
(2)  very  much ;  —  that,  —  to  that,  more  of  the  same  nature  ; 

—  that  ever,  barely,  only  just ;  —  that's  in  it,  merely;  —  the 
birds  in  the  air,  —  the  fishes  in  the  sea,  two  games  played 
by  children  in  Suf  ;  —  the  go,  in  the  fashion  ;  —  the  one, 
the  only  one  ;  —  there,  of  competent  understanding;  —  the 
same  as,\\V.^,^\c\\  as;  — the  kv^;-,  fashionable ;  -to,  see 
below ;  —  to  a  muggle,  see  -a-muggle  ;  —  together  like 
Broivn's  cows,  an  Ir,  comparison  ;  — to  naught,  (i)  quite, 
completely,  altogether,  (2)  see  below ;  —  to  nothing,  see 
all  to  naught  (ij  ;  —to  one  side  like  the  handle  of  a  jug,  an 
Ir,  comparison  ;  —  to  smash,  ruined  ;  —  under  one,  at 
the  same  time ;  —  up,  all  over,  ended  ;  —  upon  heaps, 
in  disorder  ;  -ups,  —  within  itself,  see  below. 




Dnr.*  All-o-bits,  broken.     n.Lin.'  He  brok  my  cheSny  tea-pot  wi' 
John  Wesla'  head  on  it  all  e'  bits,  an  then  said  a  metal  un  wo'd  do 
for  a  ohd  thing  like  me.      A  man  who  has  become  a  bankrupt  is 
said  to  have  tmnbled  all  e'  bits.     Brks.'  A  carriage  badly  smashed 
by  an  accident  is  said  to  be  all  in  bits.      w.Yks.  All  about,  nearly; 
also  close  at  hand.    Ther'd  be  all  abaht  a  score  o'  fowk  at  t'funeral. 
Whear's  yahr  Jim  ? — Aw,  he's  all  abaht  [near  by],  Lerds  Merc. 
Stippl.  (,M.iy  9,  iSgil  ;    It  wor  all  abaht  twenty  thahsand  'at  he 
failed  in  (J. R.).     War.^  All  about,  in  a  state  of  confusion.      We're 
all  about,  we've  got  the  painters  in  the  house.       All  about  it,  the 
whole  matter.     Yo'r  Joe  hot  our  Lizzie,  an'  'er  tank'd  'im  agen  wi' 
th'  broom,  an'  that's  all  about  it.       Hrf.  &  Shr.  In  the  county  of 
Hereford,  to  get  all  about  in  one's  head,  means  to  become  light- 
headed, muddled,   confused.     That's    all    about    it.    Bound   Pmv. 
(1876).     Oxf.i  MS.  add.     w.Yks.3  All  alloits  [all  afloat!,  all  in  dis- 
order,    (i)  w.Yks.2  You  ha\'e  all  along  been  my  friend.   Stf^  n.Lin.* 
Iv'e  gone  on  that  foot-ti'od  all  along  ony  time  this  tho'ty  year.    Th' 
Hea  runs  all-long  o'  west  side  o'  Ketton  Parish.       LeL'  A  wur  a- 
callin'of'im  all  along.    Shr.' 'E's  bin  comin'all  alung  ;  Shr.^  This'ns 
all  alung.     w.Som.' Aay  toa'uld  ee  zoa  aul  ulau-ng  [I  told  you  so 
throughout].     T-u  biin  shau-keen   saar'us  wadlrur   au'l    ulau'ng 
[it  has  been  shocking  harvest  weather  without  change  from  the 
commencement],     (a)  s.War.  A-la-inout  all  alon"  on  the  flur,  IVIiy 
Joliii  i^G.H.T.).     w.SomV  Eeaup  wai  U2  vuys  un  aat-n  aul  ulau'ng 
[he  up  with  his  fist  and  hit  him  down  flat].     A.iy  eech  me  veot  un 
vaald  au-1  ulau-ng  [I  caught  my  foot  and  fell  at  full  length].     Lin.* 
All-amang-pur,  mixed  confusedly  together.      Brks.  'Hev'ee  seed 
aught  o'my  bees?' 'Ee's,lseen  em.'  '  Werbe'em  then?'  'Aalamang 
wi' ourn  in  the  limes.'      *Aal  amang  wi'  yourn!'    exclaimed  the 
constable.    Hughes    T.  Brown   0.\:f.   (1861)  xxiii.       I.W.'    When 
different  flocks  of  sheep  or  herds  of  cattle  are  mixed  together,  they 
are  said  to  be  *  aal  amang  one  another.'      Wil.  Allemang,  Hollo- 
WAY  ;    Wil.*  Zweethearts,  an  wives,  an  children  young,  Like  sheep 
at  vair,   be  ael  among.  Slow  Smi/in  Jatk.    w.Som.*  In  a  muddle, 
confusion.     Uur  ziimd  au'l  tiie  u  muug'l,  pooHir  soal,  aa'dr  ee  duyd 
[she  seemed  all  to  a  muggie.  poor  soul,  after  he  died].     n.Lin.* 
All  and  some,  one  and  all.       Lei.'  Oill  tell  yer  missus  on  yer,  an' 
that's  all  as  is.       War.^  If  yO'  don't  like  it,  yO'  can  lump  it,  and 
that's  all  as  is.     w.Wor.'  The  pot's  purty  nigh  emp.  but  I'll  give 
'ee  ahl-asis.      Shr.'  Now  Turn,  all  as  is  is  this;  if  yo'  dunna  stop 
a-wham  an'  be  tidy  I  mun   lave  yo'  1  so  now  yo'  knovven.     Wil.* 
Aal  as  is  as  you've  a-got  to  do  be  to  volly  on  hoein'  they  turmuts 
till  I  tells  'ee  to  stop !     e.Yks.  Pay  which  of  us  you  lik.  we're  all  as 
yan  (W.IL).      s.Stf.  It's  all  as  one  whichever  did  it,  Pinnock  lilk. 
Cy.  An>t.{\&<)^)\  Stf.2  n.Lin.'  It's  all's  one  to  me  whether  you  paay 
me  noo  oro'  Setterda'  neet.     se.Wor.*  Thee  cunst  g66  ar  stop,  Bill ; 
it'sallasone.     Shr.>It'sallaBoneto  me.      Som.  Gen  Ic  volk  or  poor 
volk,'tisali  as  one,  Raymond  Low  nm/^mfi  LifeiiSg^)  194.     Ir.The 
clergy  lived  upon  the  best  footin' among  one  another,  not  all  as  one 
as  now,  Yeats  Flk-Tales  (1888)  195.       s.Ir.  At  last  he  became  all 
as  one  as  tipsy.  Croker  Leg.  (1862)  247.        w.Yks.  T'stulT  went 
dahn    o'    t'flooar    all    at    a    bang    [or   slap],    Leeds   Mere.    Sttppl. 
(May  9,  1891).       n.Lln,*  He's  all  at  hoamc  when  ther's  oht  to  do, 
but  he  talks  straange  an'  random  when  he's  sitlin'  by  th'  fireside. 
Wxf.' Aul-aveer,  altogether.     Shr.,  Hrf.  He's  going  along  all  b'ease, 
BoundP/ok.  (18761.      Rdn.  All-bcase,  gently,  quietly  :  put  for  '  all 
by  ease,'  Morgan  IVds.  (1881I.      (I'l  -w.Yks. ^  I've  got  'em  all  obbut 
six.     Lan.  All  dacent  folk  can  laugh,  obbut  bnryin  chaps  [under- 
takers], Clegg   Til   Derby  (1890)  36  ;    Aw  cuddcnt  be  moore  cum- 
furtublur  o  whome,  obut   iv  thee  un   me  vvcr'n  wed,  Ormerod 
Felleyfin  Rachde  (1856)  43  ;  Lan.*  'Aw've  finished,'  said  Dick,'  obbut 
polishin  off  wi'  summut,'  Brierley  Irkdate  (1865)  244,  ed.  1868. 
(2)  Nhb.*  When  want  has  aabut  owertyen  us.  She  aaways  keeps 
maa  heart  abuin,  Wilson  PiVmoH's /'nvf  1843^  13.      n.Yks.*    Chs.* 
He's  awbur  done  'is  wark.     (i)  n.Lin.*  Gether  them  things  up, 
thaay're  of  all  ends  an'  sides.     (2)  She's  alus  of  all  ends  an'  sides, 
we  can  niver  fix  her  to  noht.      n.Yks.  He  was  for  all  iv\'ers  in 
finishing  it   I.W.l.     w.Yks.' Tawak  abart  brass!  he's  brass  enifT fur 
awalivvers!      n.Lin.*  He's  bOuks  enif  e'  that  room  for  all-ivers. 
ne.Yks.'  He's  gone  for  all-fare.     Slang.  The  customers  arc  fond  of  a 
'  hand  at  cribbage,'  a  '  cut-in  at  whist.'  or  a  '  game  at  all  fours.'  or 
'all  fives,'  Mayhew  Loud.   Labour  (18641   I.   267.       w.Som.*  All- 
vore,  the  wide  open  or  hollow  furrow  left  between  each  patch  of 
ground,  ploughed  by  the  same  team,  at  the  spot  where  the  work  was 
begun  and  finished.    Dev.  All-vore.  a  trench  left  in  ploughing,  the 
result  of  two  furrows  lying  away  from  each  other  opp.  to  By-vore) 
in  the  final  '  pitch.'    It  is  produced  by  '  throwing  abroad,'  Repoiis 
Pmvinc.  (1884I  32,  s.v.  Throw-abroad.     Oxf.'  Twuz  all  for  nuthin", 
MS.  add.    m.Yk 8.*  All-heal,   a  miner's  term  for  a  new  working. 
w.Yks."  All  in,  the  cry  by  which  school  children   are   summoned 
from    their   playground   to    their   school    business.   .   .   .    Ringers 

still  ring  'all  in"  as  their  last  peal  before  the  commencement 
of  Divine  service.  n.Wii.  The  birds  was  all  in  a  charm  this 
mornin'  (E.H  G.).  Brl  s.'  All  in  a  charm,  a  confused  noise 
as  when  children  are  talking  and  playing  together  around  one. 
Nhp.*  All-in  all,  very  intimate.  n.Lin.*  All  in  a  piece,  stiff  with 
rheumatism,  frozen,  coagulated.  I'm  all  in  a  peace  like  a  stock- 
fish.    nw.Der.'  Aw-i-one,  at  the  same  time.      s.Wor.  Farmer  J 

was  a  bad  mon,  he  cussed  me  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  Porson 
Quaint  IVds.  (i%-i^)  2^.     Nhb.' All-in-the-well.     A  circle  is  made, 
termed  the  well,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  placed  a  wooden  peg, 
with  a  button  balanced  on  the  top.     Those  desirous  of  playing 
give  buttons,  marbles,  or  anything  else,  for  the  privilege  of  throwing 
a  short  stick,  with  which  they  are  furnished,  at  the  peg.      Should 
the  button  fly  out  of  the  ring,  the  player  is  entitled  to  double  the 
stipulated  value  of  what  he  gives  for  the  stick.     The  game  is  also 
practised  at  the  Newcastle  Races,  and  other  places  of  amusement 
in  the  North,  with  three  pegs,  which  are  put  into  three  circular 
boles,  made  in  the  ground,  about  two  feet  apart,  and  forming  a 
triangle.      In  this  case  each  hole  contains  a  peg.  about  nine  inches 
long,  upon  which  are  deposited  cither  a  small  knife  or  some  copper. 
The  person  playing  gives  so  much  for  each  stick,  and  gets  all  the 
articles  that  are  thrown  off  so  as  to  fall  on  the  outside  of  the  holes 
(Hall.).       ne.Lan.*  O-i-t-well,  the  game  '  three  throws  a  penny.' 
Nhb.*  They   he'  fornitor.  an'  crockery,  an'  byuts,  an'  shoes,  an' 
aamacks  o'  things.       Wm.  I'd  fun  ev  o'  macs.  Bayth  cooartin'.  en' 
fej'tin',  Blezard  Suqs.  <  1848'!  33.       w.Yks.  A  common  phrase  is 
'all  maks  an'  manders,'  Leed'i  Merc.  Suppl.  ;May  9.  1891    ;  'Ell  'ev 
au  maks  o'  toys  at  'oam  to  laake  wi'  (F.P.T.).      m.Yks.*  I  went  in 
to  buy  a  bonnet-shape,  and  he  showed  me  au  maks.     Chs.'  Oo  con 
mak  a  dinner  o'  aw  macks;  00  con   mak  one  aht  o'  a  dish-clout. 
I  I  I  nw.Der  *  That  shopkeyper's  aw  mander  a  things  6  his  shop. 
(2)  GI0.2  He  came  and  did  all  manner  [of  insolence  or  injury]. 
Sus.*  All   manner,  undefined  goings-on  of  a  discreditable  nature. 
There's  been  a  pretty  start  up  at  the  forge  this  morning!    Fighting 
and  all  manner.     (3)  Wor.  I've  been  very  bad,  and  the  t'other  night 
a  was    a    talking   all  manner,  and    a    didn't    knaaw  what  a  was 
a    saying    (U.K.).        Nrf.    All    mander   o'    gatherins,    all    mander 
[manner]  o'  what,  otuniutit  gatherutu  (E. M.).     Suf.  All  manner  o' 
what,  all  sorts  of  things  1  C.T.I ;    All   manner  a  wot,  indiscrimi- 
nate abuse  i  Wright).    Brks.*  Thaay  was  a-zaayin'  all  manners  o' 
things  about  her.      I.W.*  I  zid  aal  manners  of  folks.    Dur.*  All  my 
eye  and  Betty  Martin,  a  familiar  expression  used  to  show  that,  as 
regards  some  particular  transaction,  there  has  been  some  deceit,  im- 
position,or  pretence;  it  is  thought  to  have  had  itsorigin  in  the  begin- 
ning of  the  old  Komisli  hymn  —  O  nulii  beate  Maiiine.       Cant.  All 
myeye,  Allmyeye  and  Betty  Martin.     First  used  as  a  contemptuous 
parody  on  a  popish  penitential   praj'er.  Life  B.  M.  Carcw(i-]g\^. 
Slang.  As  for  black  clothes,  that's  all  my  eye  and  Tommy,  Poole 
Hamlet  Travestied,  i.  i  (FarmerX      All  my  eye,  All   my  eye  and 
Bettj'  Martin,  All  my  eye  and  my  elbow.  All  my  cj-c  and  Tommy, 
All  nonsense,  rubbish,  Farmer.      Gall.  Oh,  Patrick,  do  not  faint 
away  again  and  leave  me  all  my  lone,  Crockett  Raiders  (1894)  354. 
N.I*  All  my  lone.  A'  my  lane,  or  All  his  lone,  alone.      [Amcr.  All 
of  my  lone,  a  negro  vulgarism  for  'alone,'  Farmer.]     w.Som.*  1  can 
zee  very  well  til    take  me  all  my  time  vor  to  get  over  thick  job. 
w.Yks.^  There  were  all  nations  of  things  on  the  table.     All  nations 
enough,  superabundance.      w.Yks.  If  a  person  is  telling  a  tale  to 
another,  and  this  latter  knows  it  to  be  untrue,  he  would  probably 
exclaim,  '  Aw,  that  s  all  nowt  I  '     It  is  also  said  when  persons  use 
arguments  (in  advancing  an  opinion)  which  are  of  no,  or  little, 
weight,  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  9,   1891%       Lei.*  All  of  a  heap, 
All  of  a  dither.  All  of  a  mess.  All  of  a  puthei ,  All  of  a  tremble. 
Oi  wur  struck  all  of  a  heap.     Som.  A  witness  came  on  the  prisoner 
all  of  a  hot.  Spectator  (Feb.  16,  1895)  230.       w.Som.' All  of  a  ugh. 
Hmp.  All  of  a  kidney.     Said  of  two  people  or  two  families  whose 
habits,  tempers,  or  tastes  agree  in  most  things,  'Oh  they  are  all  of 
a  kidney,'  with  a  certain  amount  of  depreciation  and  mild  con- 
tempt (H.C.M.B.\       Cor.  All  on  a  nupshot,  unexpectedly,  in  a 
great  hurry,  Thomas  Randigal  Rhymes  (^1895)  66.       (1)  w.Yks. 
His  face  wor  a  sad  seat,  it  war  all  of  a  piece    J.R.).     n.Lin.*  Her 
legs  is  all  of  a  peace  wi'  harvist-bug  bites.     (3^  He  was  a  nim'lc 
yung  man  twenty  year  sin',  but  he's  all  of  a  peace  noo,  and  walks 
wi'  crutches.     (31  Tha'z   no  'keyshun  to  say  no  more— it's  all  of 
a  piece  (J.R.).    Shr.*  That  theer  end  o'  the  yord's  all  of  a  pop 
wuth  las'  neet's  rain.     Jb.  All  of  a  quob.     This  expression,  often 
used  when  speaking  of  boggy  land,  is  sometimes  also  employed 
to  denote  that  peculiar  condition   in  the  body  of  a  calf  or  sheep 
which  has  been  struck,  i.e.  died  of  a  kind  of  apoi)lectic  fit,  where 
the  extravasated   blood  can  be  felt    under  the  skin  by  pressure 
of  the  hand  on  the  parts  affected.     Cor.  An'  then  she  dried  up 
all  of  a  rattle,  an'  snorted  brave,  Forfar    Wisard  ,1871)  38,  1.  7. 




Suf.  Allofarow,achiId'sgame(HALL.);  'AUofarow.'  The  leader 
cries  this  out  when  his  companions  form  a  row  facing  him.  Then  he 
cries  'Face  about,'  then  '  Form  a  circle,'  which  they  form  around 
him.  Then  'March  to  the  right,'  then  'March  to  the  left,'  then 
'  All  of  a  row,'  when  the  game  ends  tF.H.).  Lan.  1 1 1  When  aw  got 
up  aw  wur  o'  of  a  sken,  Cleworth  Da/lie  Dick  (1888)  20  ;  (2)  AH 
of  a  sken  is  applied  to  anything  awry,  whether  lit.  or  fig.  (S.W. ) 
Stf.^  It's  been  reenin'  cats  and  dogs,  an  th'  feld's  aw  of  a  swim.  Lan. 
Hegave  me  such  afright,  I  amallofatwitteryet,GASKELLA/.Z)«)^OK 
{1848)  V.  n.Yks.  We're  despat  thrang  all  on,  Tweddell  CIcvel. 
Rhymes  (1875)  36.  Ken.^  He  kep  all  on  actin'-about,  and  wouldn't 
tend  to  nothin'.  Sur.i  He  kept  all  on  terrifying.  Sus.  While  the 
parson  keeps  all  on  a-preaching,  Egerton  Flks.aiidWays{\i>?,\)iOi,. 
Sc.  It'sa'  ane  to  Dandle,  Scott  Ghv  M  [  iBislxxxvi;  '  It'sa'ane' says 
my  Auntie, WHiTEHEAD/)rt/;/)aj|/ci  1876)238.  Stf.^AUone.  Shr.i 
Brks.i  'Tis  all  one  tome  wher  [whether]  'e  goes  ornot.  Sus.'  Well, 
'tis  all  one  whether  ye  do  or  whether  ye  doant.  w.Som.'  Wur 
aay  goo'us,  ur  wur  aay  doa'un,  t-aez  au'I  waun  tu  mee  [whether 
I  go,  or  whether  I  do  not,  it  is  just  the  same  to  me].  Ir.  Father 
Corcoran  whispered  all  one  as  a  mass .  . .  into  Mrs.  Dempey's  own 
ear,  Barrington  Sketches  (1830)  \\.  v.  Sus.  Wearing  it  was  all 
one  as  if  you  had  your  head  in  the  stocks,  Egerton  Flks.  and  Ways 
([884,  131.  n.Wil.  Simmin  to  I  these  here  vlawers  be  all  one  as 
moondaisies(E.  H.G.).  Wil.^  I  be' tire  ly  bio  wed  up  all  one  as  a  drum. 
GI0.2  All's  one  for  that  [notwithstanding  your  objection,  the  case 
rernainsthesame],  WiL^It  medn't  be  true  allone  for  that.  (i)Som. 
All  on  een,  on  tiptoe,  eager,  W.  &  ].  Gl.  (,1873  ;  w.Som.i  The  writer 
heard  in  reference  to  an  exciting  local  trial :  We  wuz  au'I  un  een 
tu  yuur  tied  u-kaa-rd  dhu  dai  [we  were  eagerly  anxious  to  hear  who 
had  carried  the  day,  i.e.  won  the  trial].  (2)  Stf.^  What  a  muck  mess 
the'st  gotten  th'  hais  into,  it's  aw  on  end.  War.^  Don't  call  to-day, 
we're  all  on  end.  Shr.^  Them  things  bin  all  on  end  agen,  I  see. 
w.Yks.  He's  all  on  for  devvin'  his  best  to  get  Ben  TiUett  inta  Parlia- 
ment this  next  time,  Leeds  Merc.  Siippl.  (May  9,  1891).  Slang. 
All-over,  a  game.  The  games  appertaining  to  the  playground  con- 
sisted of  prisoners'  base,  .  .  .  all-over,  Wickham  Blue-Coat  Boy 
(i84i)x.  w.Yks.s  All-ower-baek,  a  juvenile  game.  Suf.^  All-sales, 
all  times.  w.Som.i  Taez  aul  sae  um  tu  mee,  aay  tuul  ee,  wuur 
yiie  du  buy  un  ur  noa  [it  is  of  no  consequence  to  me,  I  tell  you, 
whether  you  buy  it  or  not],  Aay  zaed  aay  wiid-n,  aul  sae'um 
tuym,  neef  yiie-1  prau-mus,  &c.  [I  said  I  would  not  (do  it), 
nevertheless,  if  you  will  promise,  &c.]  w.Yks.  'AH  serene,' 
said  Sammywell,  Hartley  Sects  (1895)  x.  Colloq.  All  serene, 
all  right,  all's  weU.  'You're  all  serene,  then,  Mr.  Snape,'  said 
Charley,  'you're  in  the  right  box,'  Trollope  Three  Clerks  [iS^-j) 
xlv  (FarmerV  w.Yks.  All  shirt  neck,  cutting  a  great  figure, 
CuDWORTH  Norton  (1880).  I.W.i  Goo  down  to  plough,  allsides; 
I.W.2  We  be  gwyne  to  begin  dreshin  allzides  to-morrow  mornin. 
Hrf  &Midl.  All  so.  A  Herefordshire  woman  stated  in  my  hearing  that 
by 'three  months  all-so  a  fortnight'  she  meant 'two  months  and  two 
weeks,'  N.  &  Q.  (1866)  3rd  S.  ix.  450  ;  Hrf.i  Sixpence  also  two- 
pence [i.e.  all  but  twopence]  ;  Hrf.^  That  row  o'  taturs  was  all  rotton 
all-so  these  few.  Have  you  finished  ? — Yes,  also  that  [i.e.  all  but  that]. 
Dev.  Loose  me  . . .  I'm  not  in  love  with  you.  I  like  you,  all  so  be, 
Mortimer  Tales  Moors  (1895)  22;  I  wouldn't  back  myself  to  vind 
'un,  all  zo  be  as  I  know  the  moor  as  well  as  here  and  there  a  one, 
ill.  200;  '  Maybe,  you'm  better  hand  nor  me,' said  Granfer.  testily; 
'all  zo  be  as  you  wornt  horned  afore  me,'  il>.  289.  N.I.'  (i)  She 
gave  me  all  sorts  for  not  doin'  it.  (a)  She  was  cryin'  all  sorts.  It 
was  raining  all  sorts.  w.Ir.  Let  alone  the  two  towers,  and  the 
bishop,  and  plinty  o'  priests,  and  all  to  that,  Lover  Leg.  (1848)  I. 
91.  Cum.i  She  fand  it  varra  sweet  an'  good  an  o'  that.  Sc. 
Can  you  lift  that  ? — It's  a'  the  tcer  [that  e'er]  Jam.  ).  Sus.  Folk  do 
sey  as  taiint  alt  sinitdis,  Jackson  SoM//ii<;'«)-rf//o  18941I.338  ;  Sus.' 
Alltsinit  [all  that's  in  it],  merely.  nw.Der.'  All  the  birds  in  the 
air,  a  SufTolk  game.  w.Yks.  Broad-brim'd  hats  is  all  t  goa  wi't 
lasses  just  nah.  Banks  IFk/ld.  Wds.  (1865).  N.I.i  Is  this  all  the  one 
you  have?  Wm.  She's  o  t'yan  uv  her  niudd'r,  Richardson  Sng.  Sol. 
(1850:  vi.  g.  w.Yks.  Tha  raves  an'  storms  at  sich  a  rate.  As  if  tha 
worn't  all  theear,  Spencer  Poems,  249;  w.Yks.^  He's  not  all  there. 
s.Not.  Tighten  your  moulh,  Teddy.  Yer  needn't  let  everybody  know 
as  you're  not  all  there,  Prior  Rcine  (1895)  222.  n.Lin.i  He  talks 
straange  an'  random,  but  he's  all  theare  when  one  wants  oht. 
sw.Lin.i  Oh,  he's  all  there,  safe  enough.  She's  not  quite  all  there  ; 
she's  not  right  sharp,  poor  lass.  Dor. '  He's  all  there  ! '  said  number 
four,  fervidly.  Hardy  Madding  Crowd  (iS-h)vu.  Slang.  When  any- 
thing was  wanted  he  was  •  all  there,'  Payn  Thicker  than  Water 
(1883!  XX  I  Farmer.)  Nrf.  All  the  same  as  the  lily  amunst  thorns, 
so  is  my  love  amunst  the  darters,  Gillett5h^.  So/,  (i860 1  ii.  2.  Cor.2 
Oal  the  wor,  in  the  fashion.  Hoods  be  oal  the  wor,  and  bunnets  be 
wered  wai  a  dep.  w.Yks.^All-to,  obs.,  but  appears  in  ancient  inscrip- 

tion, 1522.  Almondbury  Ch. :  W'  a  crown  of  thon  My  hed  all  to 
torn.  w.Som.i  Where  in  other  dialects  they  say  'all  of  or  'all 
in,'  we  say  '  all  to,'  Aay  wuz  u  streokt  aud  tiie  u  eep  [I  was 
struck  all  of  a  heap].  All  to  a  muck.  All  to  a  sweat.  All  to  a  shake, 
AH  to  a  miz-maze,  All  to  a  slatter.  (i)  Myo.  Sure  the  mare  wants 
a  rist,  an'  it'll  shute  her  an'  me  all  to  nothin'.  Stoker  Snake's 
Pass  (1891)  iv.  n.Yks.i  Ah  aims  yon's  t'best  stirk,  Jooan. — Ay, 
man,  it  beats  t'ither  all  to  nowght.  e.Yks.'  Ah  can  beeat  him 
all  tl  walkin,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  Chs.^  He's  all  to  nought 
the  best  man.  n.Lin.'  In  thease  wet  years  top-land  beats  warp 
land  all  to  noht.  (2)  n.Yks.'  All  to  nought,  a  phrase  imply- 
ing an  approach  towards  nothingness  more  or  less  real  and 
effectual.  He  has  gone  away  all  to  nowght,  he  has  wasted  away 
to  a  mere  shadow  ;  n.Yks.^  An  all-to-naught  concern,  a  hollow 
speculation.  w.Yks.  AH  to  nowt,  with  no  definite  aim  or  re- 
sult (J.T.).  [It  will  be  all  to  one  a  better  match  for  your  sister, 
Austen  Sense  and  Sensibility,  xxx.]  N.I.'  AH  to  one  side  like  the 
handle  of  a  jug.  Lan.  Maister,  maister,  dam's  brossen  and  aw's  to 
smash  (Hall.).  Brks.i  All  to  smash,  totally  wrecked.  w.Som'.Au-l 
tiiesmaa'rsh.  [Amer.  All-to-smash.  This  expression  is  often  heard 
in  lowandfamiliarlanguage,  Bartlett  ]  w.Som.lTidn  worth  while 
to  go  o*  purpose  vor  that  there  —  hon  I  comes  up  about  the  plump, 
can  do  it  all  underone.  n.Lin.i  It's  all  up  wi'  them  fine  fine-weather 
farmers  that  keaps  the'r  carriages.  Quite  well  at  ten.  Had  a  few 
friends  to  sup  with  me  ;  Taken  ill  at  twelve.  And  at  one  it  was  all 
up  with  me.  Perversion  (1856)  II.  38.  Oxf.'  'Tis  all  up  wi'n  this 
time  safe  enough.  Slang.  A-double  1,  all,  everything,  a  cobbler's 
weapon  ;  u-p,  up,  adjective,  not  down  ;  S-q-u-double  e-r-s,  Squeers, 
noun  substantive,  a  educator  of  youth.  Total,  all  up  with  Squeers, 
Dickens  A'.  Nickleby  (1838)  Ix  ;  It's  all  up,  thinks  I,  Raby  Rattler 
(1845)  v.  e.Yks.'  All  uppa  heeaps  [all  upon  heaps],  in  a  state  of 
disorder:  used  in  reference  to  the  furniture  of  a  house,  &c.,  MS. 
add.  (T.H.)  [All-ups,  a  mixture  of  all  qualities  of  coal,  excepting 
fine  stack  raised  from  one  seam  (CD.).]  Sc.A  lodging  all  within 
itself,  with  divers  easements  [a  house,  from  top  to  bottom,  and 
having  several  conveniences],  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II.  436. 

P/ir.  II.  For  all,  in  spite  of,  notwithstanding;  for  all  the 
world,  exactly,  precisely;  for  good  and  all,  for  ever,  alto- 
gether ;  like  all  that,  very  well,  very  quickly. 

Ayr.  The  rank  is  but  the  guinea  stamp.  The  man's  the  gowd  for 
a'  that.  Burns  For  a'  that  (1795)  St.  i.  w.Yks.  O  waint  say  there 
wornt  some  stooans  shifted  for  all  that,  Shemnld  Ann.  (1848)  7  ; 
w.Yks.'  I'll  doot  for  all  ye.  e.Yks.'  Ah  wadn't  gan,  for  all  maisther 
said  Ah  was,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  Lei.'  Fur  all  a's  a  paa'son,  adoon't 
justly  knoo  'aow  to  tackle  an  o'd  wench  loike  may  ^me].  She  would 
for  all  anything  go  for  a  little  walk.  Nhp.'  I'll  do  it  for  all  you. 
Oxf.'  For  all  thee,  in  spite  of  you.  w.Som.'  Her's  a-got  about 
again  nice,  thankee,  and  her's  a-go  to  work  again,  for  all  twadn 
but  dree  weeks  agone  come  Vriday,  the  cheel  was  a-bornd.  Vur 
au-1  yiie  bee  su  kliivur,  yiie  kaa-n  kau-m  ut  [notwithstanding  that 
you  are  so  clever,  you  cannot  accomplish  it].  Aa-y  du  yuur  want 
yiie  du  zai,  bud  vur  au'l  dhaa't,  aay  zum  t-oa'n  diie  [I  hear  what 
you  say,  but  nevertheless,  I  seem  (am  convinced)  it  will  not  do]. 
s.Ir.  It  came  on  .  .  .  mighty  dark  all  of  a  sudden,  for  all  the  world 
as  if  the  sun  had  tumbled  down  plump,  Croker  Leg.  (1862)  285. 
Ir.  Shut  of  them  I'll  be  for  good  and  all,  Barlow  Lisconnel  {iBg^) 
205.  w.Yks.'  He's  gaan  for  good  and  all.  Hnt.  For  good  and  all 
(T.P.F.).  w.Som.'  Fes,  shoaur!  uur-v  laf-m.  naew  vur  geod-n 
au'l  [Yes,  sure  !  she  has  left  him  now  for  ever],  n.Lxn.'  To  do 
anything  '  like  all  that '  is  to  do  it  very  well  or  very  quickly. 

[1.  It  is  all  full  of  lies  and  robbery,  Bible  Nahiim  iii. 
I  ;  This  gallant  Hotspur,  this  all-praised  knight,  Shaks. 
I  Hen.  IV,  III.  ii.  140.  2.  Like  Niobe,  all  tears,  ih.  Ham. 
I.  ii.  149.  4.  Do  all  thynge  without  murmurynge,TiNDALE 
Phil.  ii.  14  ;  Vndire  his  lordship  and  his  niyght  thou  has 
kasten  all  thynge,  Hampole  Ps.  viii.  7.] 

ALLAGRUGOUS,  see  Malagrugous. 

ALLAGUST,  sb.     Obs.     Sc.     Suspicion. 

Abd.  Fan  they  saw  us  a'  in  a  bourich  they  had  some  allagust 
that  some  mishanter  had  befaln  us,  Forbes  y)«.  (1742)  16;  Grose 
(1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) 

[Prob.  due  to  a  phr.  in  i6th  cent.  Fr.  Cela  a  le  goust 
(mod.  gout),  that  has  the  smack,  the  taste,  the  '  soupcjon.' 
Const,  the  taste  ;  also  a  smack  or  savour.  Goitster,  to 
taste,  also  to  have  some  experience,  a  little  insight,  mean 
knowledge  in,  Cotgr.] 

ALLAMOTTI,  56.  Or.I.  Also  written  alamonti ;  ala- 
motti  S.  S:  Ork.'     The  Storm  Petrel,  Procellaria  pelagica. 

Or.I.  SwAiNSoN  Birds  (,1883;  211.     S.  &  Ork.' 




ALLAN,  i7).    Cum.    [a-lsn.] 

Cum.*  A  bit  uf  land  nearly  surrounded  by  water;  an  island. 
ALL-ANERLY,  adj.  and  adv.     Also  written  alanerlie, 
allanerlie,  allenarly,  allenarlie. 

1.  adj.  used  as  sb.     Only,  sole. 

Sc.  My  doo,  my  unfylet  ane  is  but  ane,  she  is  the  all-anerlie  o' 
her  mitlicr,  RonsoN  Stig.  Sol.  (i860)  vi.  9. 

2.  adv.    Only,  solely. 

Sc.  Who  are  accustomed  to  paj-  to  their  own  chiefs,  allenarly, 
that  respect,  Scott  Leg.  Mottt.  (1830)  iii.  Edb.  Scotland  ...  is 
not  like  Goshen  in  Egypt,  on  whilk  the  sun  of  the  heavens  and  of 
the  gospel  sliineth  allenarly,  Scott  Miillotliian  (,1818)  x.sxviii. 

[1.  James  our  second  and  allanerlie  son,  Holinshed  Scot. 
Chton.  (\^Ql\  II.  51,  ed.  i8o6(N.E.D.).  2.  That  the  licence 
granted  to  beneficed  persons  to  sett  tacks  be  restrained 
cither  to  liferent  tack  or  to  a  nineteen  vearetack  allanerlie. 
Row  Hist.  Kirk  Scut.  (1650)  218,  Wodrow  See.  AII  + 
a/ier/v,  q.v.] 

ALLAN  HAWK.  sb.  Or.  and  Sh.I.  Sc.  Irel.  Also 
written  holland  hawk  Ayr.  N.I.' ;  oilan  auk  Ant. 

1.  The  Great  Northern  Diver,  Co/vinbiis  f^//u-ia/is. 

Ayr.  SwAiKSOK  Birds  1885  213.  N.I.'  Ant.  Oilan  auk.  Allan 
or  Hollaiul  liawk  is  used  by  tb.ose  who  are  ignorant    S  A.B.  i. 

2.  The  Red-throated  Diver,  Colyiiibiis  sepleiilrioiialis. 

3.  Richardson's  Skua,  Slercorarius  crepidatus.  See 

e.Sc.  Allan  hawk,  the  aulin.  so  called  on  the  shores  of  the 
Solw.Ty  Krith  (Jam.  Siif>J<l.}.  NI.'  The  skua  was  called  allan-hawk 
in  Mourne,  co.  Down. 

ALLAVOLIE,  ALLEVOLIE,  adv.  and  adj     Sc.  (Jam.) 

1.  adv.    At  random. 

Sc.  I  spoke  it  quite  allcvolie. 

2.  adj.    Giddy,  volatile. 

Sc.  An  alle-volie  chield,  a  volatile  fellow. 

[Repr.  the  Fr.  phr.  a  la  voile,  in  full  sail.  Cp.  Cotgr. 
(s.v.  Voile),  Navire  friand  a  la  voile,  an  excellent  sailer.] 

ALLECAMPAGNE,  see  Elecampane. 

ALLEECOUCHEE,  fhr.  Cor.  Also  written  alley- 
couchey.     fee'li-kuji.]     To  go  to  bed. 

Cor.  Look  'ere,  I'm  a-goin'  to  allce-couchee  ef  et  lasts  like  this, 
*  Q.*  Troy  Toivn  t  18881  v  ;  About  ten,  as  we  W'as  thinkin*  to  alley- 
couchey,  there  comes  a  bangin'  on  the  door,  ib.  Avtij^lits  ami 
Crosses  (1891)  211  ;  Cor.' 

[Fr.  aller  (.v)  cuiiclier,  to  go  to  bed  ] 

ALLEGATE,  v.     Irel.     [aliget]    To  argiie,  dispute. 

Ir.  They'll  bicker  and  allegata  about  every  hand's  turn,  Barlow 
Idylls  {iSgn)  180. 

[Why,  belike  he  is  some  runagate,  that  will  not  show 
his  name.  Ah,  why  should  I  thus  allcgate?  he  is  of 
noble  fame,  Peele  (1599)  III.  68,  ed.  1829.  A  by-form  of 
allege,  to  adduce,  to  bring  forward,  formed  from  the  ppl. 
stem  of  Lat.  allei;are.] 

ALLEGATION,  sb.     Ldd.    A  dispute,  quarrel. 

Ldd.  The  country  people  would  say  ■  No  more  of  your  alligations' 

ALLEGOGER,  vb.     Ess. 

Ess.  Allegoger,  to  go  out  to  a  ship  to  sell  provisions,  £ss.  Ar  h. 
Sac.  (1863)  II.  183.  [Failed  to  obtain  further  information  about 
the  word.] 

ALLEKAY,  sb.  Sc.  1 0bs.  Also  written  allakey, 
allekay,  alikay.  The  bridegroom's  man,  he  who  attends 
on  the  bridegroom,  or  is  employed  as  his  precursor,  at  a 
wedding  (Jam.). 

Sc.  The  bridegroom  appoints  two  male  attendants,  termed  e.xojjicio 
allekeys,  Edb.  Mag.  'Nov.  1818)  4121  Jam.)  ;  On  Friday  next  a  bridal 
stands  At  the  kirklown  :  I  trow  we'll  hae  a  merry  day.  And  I'm  to 
be  the  alik.iv,  The  Farmer s  Ha.,  st.  51,  53  , Jam.V     Frf. 

[Prob.  the  same  word  as  OFr.  alacay,  a  term  applied  to 
crossbow-men  in  tlie  15th  cent.  See  Ducange  (s.  v. 
Laciiioiies).  Hence  Fr.  laqiiais,  a  valet,  a  body-servant,  a 
lacquey.     See  Littre  (s.v.I.] 

ALLELUIA,  or  ALLELUIA  PLANT,  sb.  [ffililfiya.] 
(i)  Genista  tinctoria  (Shr.);  (2)  Oxalis  acetosella  (Dor.). 

Shr.*  Alleluia,  Genista  /»/f/o;7rt.  dyer's  green-wood.    Dor.  Wood- 
sorrel  at  Whitchurch  is   Alleluia  Plant,  Saniiii  Dioc.  Gas.  (Jan. 
1891)  14;  (G.E.D.). 
VOL.  I. 

[Ailelujah,  the  herb  wood-sorrel,  or  French  sorrel, 
Bailey  (1755) ;  Ailelujah,  wood-sorrcl,  0.i;)'s,  Coles  11679I. 
Fr.  alleluia,  filaiite  de  la  faiiulle  dcs  O.xalidces,  qui  fleuiit  an 
temps  pascal,  IIatzkeld.  The  plant  was  so  called  because 
it  blossoms  between  Easter  and  Whitsuntide,  when  in 
the  Catholic  Liturgy  psalms  ending  with  'alleluia'  were 
sung  in  the  churches.  The  plant  bears  the  same  name 
in  G.  (Sanders),  Fr.  (Littre),  It.  (Florio),  Sp.  aleliiya 
(Barciai.  From  MLat.  alleluia,  the  '  Ilallekijah  '  season. 
Ileb.  hallrlTi-jdh,  i.e.  praise  ye  Jah  (or  Jehovah).] 

ALLEMAND,  v.  Obs.  Ayr.  To  conduct  in  a  formal 
and  courtly  style. 

Ayr.  He  presented  her  his  hand  and  allemandcd  her  along  in 
a  manner  that  should  not  h.Tve  been  seen  in  any  street  out  of 
a  king's  court,  Galt  Ainials  (1821)  308. 

[A  vb.  formed  from  Alleiitairde,  a  name  given  to  various 
German  dances.  These  outlandish  heathen  allemandes, 
Sheridan  Rivals,  iii.  iv.  130.  Fr.  alleiiumde,  (i)  Air  lent 
a  quatre  temps,  12)  Daiise  a  deii.v  temps  dun  tiwuvement  vif 
(Hatzfeld).  Allemand,  a  native  of  Germany ;  Lat.  .<-//<i- 

ALLEBIASH-DAY,  sb.     Obs.     Ken.     See  below. 

Ken.i  Allemash  day,  the  day  on  which  Canterbury  silk-weavers 
began  to  work  by  candlelight.  This  word  is  certainly  obsolete 
now  I  1895]  iP.M.i ;  Grose  i  1790^. 

[Grose  (1790)  suggests  that  allemash  repr.  Fr.  allumage, 
a  lighting ;  from  alluiucr,  to  light,  set  on  fire.] 

ALLEN,  see  Old-land. 

ALLER,  ALLER-TREE,  sh>  \\'idcly  diffused  through- 
out the  dialects.  Also  written  ellarCum.';  ellers.Sc.  1 1  am.) 
N.Cy.'  Nhb.'  Dur.'  n.Yks.'^  ne.Yks.'  w.Yks.'^  n  Lan.' 
ne.Lan.'  Sus.^;  owler  w.Vks.^^^''^  ne.Lan.'  e.Lan.' Chs.'* 
s  Chs.'  Der.^nw.Der.'  n.Lin.'  Shr.'  Hrf.' ;  owlder  w.Vks.^  ; 
oiler  Nhb.' Won  ;  cllernShr.';  olerChs.'  [e  lair ,1,  o  la  ri.j 

1.  The  alder,  Aliius  glittiiwsa. 

Bwk.  He  used  no  coals,  hut  a  few  green  allers,  Henderson  Pop. 
Rhymes  (1856')  8.  N.Cy.'  Aller,  the  alder-tree.  Nhb.  Beneath  the 
allers,  darklin',  Co^Kf/ !?<?/<■  Sh<^.5.  (1852;  120;  Nhb.'  w.Yks.  Yen's 
an  owler-tree,  doon  by  t'beck  vF.P.T.).  Lan.  Th'  poke  wur  .  .  . 
i'th'  tip  top  un  o'  hee  owler-tree,  Butterwoktii  Sequel  ,1819'  13; 
My  foot  is  on  my  native  heath  once  more,  barring  that  there  are 
two  inches  of  solid  owler  inten-ening  betwixt  the  two,  Brierlev 
Marloeis  (1867)  6;  There  is  an  old  rhyme  which  mentions 
peculiar  boughs  for  various  tempers,  as  an  owler  [alder]  for  a 
scolder,  Harland  &  Wilkinson  Flk-Lore  ( 18671  238  ;  Aw  could 
mak  one  eawt  of  a  lump  o'  owler  any  day,  Brierley  Irkdale 
(1865)  xiii.  Chs.  As  dree.some  as  Bostock's  drumbo  that  th'  owlers, 
meetin'  across,  made  dark  at  noonday,  Croston  Eiioeh  Crump 
(1887)  12  ;  Chs.'  Der.  Roland  .  . .  clutched  at  a  friendly  oler-trec, 
Verney  Slone  Edge  ^i868i  v.  Slir.'  There  is  a  place  near  Wem 
called  '  The  Owlers.'  Dor.'  Hy  black  rin'd  allers  An'  weedy  shallers, 
140.     w.Som.',  Dev.',  nw.Dev.' 

2.  The  soles  of  clogs ;  so  called  from  being  made  of  alder- 

Nhb.'  He  has  on  a  pair  o'  new  allers.  Lan.  I'd  some'at  to  do  to 
bant  him,  but  I  leet  him  taste  o'  mi  owler,  now  and  then,  Walh;h 
Chim.  Corner  Maiirh.  Cnlic  (Aug.  14,  1874)  ;  Lan.'  Owler[is  ,  used 
metaphorically  as  a  synonym  for  clogs.  He  up  wi"  his  foot  an'  gan 
him  some  owler,  i.e.  kicked  him. 

3.  Camp,  [a)  Black-aller,  (i)  the  buckthorn,  Rhammts 
frangula.  (21  the  alder,  Alnus  glutiiwsa:,    'Whit-aller,  the 

common  elder,  Samhucus  nigra. 

{I  il.V/.  Black-alder,  a  translation  of  the  old  Lat.  name,. -J/iiMSiir^'in. 
w.Som.'  Black-aller.  Often  so  called  to  distinguish  it  from  the 
whit-aller  or  elder.  nw.Dev.'  Cor.  Black-aller.  y?//(?M;«m/;<i;ii'H/a 
(berry-bearing  alder",  (a)  w.Som.'  The  common  alder  is  occa- 
sionally called  the  Black-aller.     Whit-aller,  the  elder. 

(b)  (i)  Aller-bed,  see  below;  (2 1  -bur,  a  knot  or  knob 
in  the  alder-tree;  (3)  -bury,  see  below;  (4)  -float,  a  kind 
of  trout ;  (5)  -grove,  (6)  -trout,  sec  below. 

(i)  nw.Dev.i   Aller-bed.    a    marshy  place  \.-here  alders    grow. 

(2)  Nhb.'  AUcr-hurs,  or  knots,  the  turner  makes  into  snulT-boxes. 

(3)  Dev.  Allcr-bury,  a  plantation  of  alders,  Monthly  Mag.  (1808) 
II.  421.  (4)  N.Cy.'  Allcr-float.  species  of  trout  frequenting  deep 
holes  of  shady  brooks  under  the  roots  of  the  aller.  15  w.Som.' 
AUer-grove,  a  marshy  place  where  alders  grow  ;  an  alder  thicket. 
The  term  alw.-iys  implies  marsh,  or  wet  land.  '  U  rig-lur  aul  ur 
groav'  would  mean  a  place  too  boggy  to  ride  through.     ^6   Nhb  ' 




Aller-troot,  the  small  brandling  trout  or  '  skegger,'  called  from  their 
habit  of  haunting  the  roots  of  alder-trees  that  grow  by  the  side  of 
the  stream.  Oliver  Fly-Fisliing  (1834)  17. 

[The  aller,  oiler,  owler  forms  repr.  OE.  alor,  the  alder. 
Ellar  (ellcr)  repr.  ON.  olr  (elri-);  cp.  OHG.  dim,  erila 
(mod.  ellcr,  crle).  A  nine,  an  aller  or  alder-tree,  Cotgr.  ; 
Judas  he  iaped  with  luwen  siluer  And  sithen  on  an  eller 
honged  hyni  after,  P.  Ploivinan  (b.)  i.  68.] 

ALLER,  sb.^  Dev.  [ola^r).]  A  boil,  carbuncle, 

Dev.  Aller,  a  pin-swill,  a  whitloe,  Grose  (1790")  MS.  add.  (C.) 
n.Dev.  Suke  died  .  .  .  A-cause  her  aller  wanted  letting.  Rock  Jiii: 
an'  Nell  (1867)  31.  Dev.'  Aller,  an  acute  kind  of  boil  or  carbuncle, 
so  called  from  the  leaves  of  the  aller  being  employed  as  a  remedy. 

[Etj'm.  unknown ;  but  see  word  below.] 

ALLERNBATCH,  sb.  Som.  Dev.  [ffi-lanbaetj.]  A 
boil,  a  botch  or  old  sore. 

w.Som.i  Allernbatch,  a  boil  or  carbuncle.  Pinswill  is  the  com- 
moner term.  n.Dev.  Dame,  'e've  a-tichcd  a  allernbatch.  Rock  Jiin 
an'  Nell  (1867)  23:  Ner  the  allernbatch  that  tha  had'st  in  thy 
niddick,  Exin.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  24  ;  Monthly  Mag.  (_i8o8)  II.  421; 
Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  f^M.)     Dev.',  nw.Dev.' 

[The  relation  between  this  word  and  aller  fa  boil)  is  un- 
certain. It  may  be  a  comp.  of  aller,  or  aller  may  be  a 
shortened  form  of  allern-batch,  with  latter  element  sup- 

ALLEY,  sb}  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Der.  Lin.  Lei. 
Nhp.  War.  Shr.  Ess.  Ken.  Som.  Dev.     [a'li,  seU.] 

1.  The  nisle  of  a  church. 

Cum.  Oh  how  my  heart  would  lowp  for  joy  To  lead  her  up  the 
ally,  Relpii  Misc.  Poems  (1747)  76.  Wm.  When  she  .  . .  woked  up 
t'ally,  first  yan,  an  then  anndther  glooard  at  her,  Clarke  Spec.  Dial. 
(ed.  1877)  pt.  i.  19,  w.Yks.i  Wid  gotten  hauf  way  daan  t'middle 
alley,  when  Billy  turned  back,  Tom  Treddlehoyle  Bairnsla  Ann. 
(1853)35  ne.Lan.l  n.Lin.' A  woman  from  Kirton-in-Lindsey  in- 
formed the  author  that  she  never  heard  the  passages  between  the 
pews  in  churches  called  anything  but  alleys,  until  the  Puseyites 
began  to  make  people  particular  about  '  them  soort  of  things.' 
The  north  aisle  of  the  choir  of  Lincoln  Minster  was  formerly  called 
the  chanters'  alley.  Lei.' Alley,  a  gangway  in  a  church.  The 
various  alleys  are  distinguished  as  'side-alley,'  'middle  alley,' 
'cross-alley,'  &c.  Nhp.'  War.^  Work  about  yo  door  &  alles, 
8/.  155.  $d..  As/on  Ch.  Ace.  (1714).  Som.  We  poor  voke  be  alwiz 
foc'd  to  zit  in  the  alley,  Pulman  Sketches  (1842)  76,  ed.  1871  ; 
w.Som.i  Miss  F.  said  her  seat  [in  church]  was  on  the  left  side  of 
the  middle  alley.  Dev.  1713  p''  for  stones  to  mend  y  allier  15., 
E.  Biidleigh  Chwdn.  Ace.  (T.N.B.) 

2.  A  pathway  down  the  middle  of  a  large  room  (as  in  a 
factory  between  the  rows  of  machines). 

w.Yks.  A  passage  past  the  ends  of  looms  in  a  weaving-shed  is 
known  as  't'broad  alley'  (J.R.)  ;  Alley,  a  central  or  main  roadway 
in  a  room,  usually  down  the  middle  of  it  (F.R.). 

3.  A    pathway    in   a  garden    between    flower-beds,   or 
between  the  rows  of  hop-bines  in  a  Kentish  hop-garden. 

Shr.'  Yo'  can  play  i'  the  gardin  if  yo'n  mind  to  keep  on  the  alley, 
'cause yore  faither's  dug  the  ground.  Ess.  Sawe  dust  spred  thick, 
makes  alley  trick  [neat,  tidy],  Tusser  Hiisbandrie {isfio)  33,  st.  35. 
Ken.  (i)  The  space  between  two  rows  of  hop-hills.  (2)  By  associa- 
tion of  ideas,  also  a  row  of  hop-hills,  e.g.  the  Lew-alley  is  the 
outside  row  planted  rather  closer  together  to  serve  as  a  'lew'  to 
the  garden  (P.M.). 

Hence  Alley-budge,  -wagon. 

Ken.  Alley-budge,  or  Alley  wagon,  a  kind  of  barrow  on  four 
wheels  for  conveying  and  distributing  manure  into  a  hop  garden, 
constructed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  pass  up  the  allej's  between  the 
hills,  when  the  bines  are  grown  (P.M.). 

4.  See  below. 

Chs.'  The  gangway  between  two  rows  of  cows,  which  in  very 
old-fashioned  shippons  stand  tail  to  tail.     War.  (J.R.W.) 

5.  Fie;,     A  way,  means,  device. 

Der.  Folks  knows  as  thou'lt  be  for  t'parish,  and  t'poor  folk,  and 
none  o'  these  crooked  alleys  for  raisin'  t'wind,  so  thee  go  in,  ]l'kh. 
Teleg.    Dec.  2a,  1894)  12,  col.  i, 

[1.  The  leads  and  timbers  of  great  part  of  the  north 
alley  of  the  church  was  broke  in,  Pliil.  Trans.  (1731) 
XLI.  229  (N.E.D,).  3.  An  alley  in  a  garden,  Hvpethra, 
snbdialis,  anibiilatio.  Coles  (1679);  These  closei"  alloys 
must   be  ever  finely  gravelled,  Bacon  Essay  (Gardens)  ; 

I  am  tlie  flour  of  the  feeld  and  the  lilie  of  aleyes,  Wyclif 
Sng.  Sol.  (1382)  ii.  I.  5.  The  same  fig.  sense  is  found 
in  Fr.  :  Apres  bien  des  alle'cs  et  des  venues  on  est  toinbe 
d'accord,  Hatzfeld.  Fr.  alle'e,  a  passage,  ppl.  sb.  of  aller, 
to  go.] 

ALLEY,  sb.^_  n.Cy.  Dur.  Wm.  Yks.  Nhp.  [a-li.]  A 
limit  or  '  ring '  in  games  (see  below)  ;  the  line  marking  the 
goal  in  a  game  of  football ;  the  conclusion  of  the  game 
itself  when  the  ball  has  passed  the  boundary. 

N.Cy,'  Alley,  end  of  a  game  at  football.  Dur.'  At  the  end  of  the 
game  of  football,  shinny,  &c.,  the  ball  must  pass  a  certain  line  or 
mark,  which  is  called  the  alley.  Wm,'  The  circle  marked  on  the 
ground  in  games  of  marbles  is  called  an  alley  ;  so  also,  in  burn-ball, 
the  circle  or  space  in  which  the  '  pitcher'  stands.  Put  thi  marbles 
in  t'  t'alley.  -w.Yks.'  Nhp,'  The  space  between  the  two  stones 
which  mark  the  goal  in  the  game  of  football, 

Contp.  AUey-mouth. 

Lan.' Elly  mouth,  a  boundorgoal  in  thegamc  offoolball,    ne.Lan.' 

[A  special  meaning  of  Alley,  sh}\ 

ALLEY,  sb?  Cor.  [as'li.]  Local  name  for  the  AUice- 
shad,  Alosa  vulgaris. 

Cor.' Alley,  theallis-shad  ;  from  its  bony  nature  sometimes  locally 
called  chuck-childern  ;  Cor,^ 

[A  form  of  allice  (or  allis),  also  alloiues.  Fr.  alose,  Lat. 
alaitsa,  a  kind  offish,  the  same  as  Clupea.] 

ALL-FIRED,  adj.  and  adv.     Brks.  Amer. 
L  adj.  Enormous,  excessive. 

[Amer.  A  low  expression  ;  probably  a  puritanical  corruption  of 
hell-fired,  designed  to  have  the  virtue  of  an  oath  without  offending 
polite  ears.  The  doctor  will  charge  an  all-fired  price  to  cure  me, 
Bartlett.]  Colloq.  '  Look  at  that  'ere  Dives,'  they  say.  '  what  an 
all-fired  scrape  he  got  into  by  his  avarice  with  Lazarus,'  Haliburton 
Clockinaker  (1835)  ist  S,  xxiv  ;  You've  been  an  all-fired  time  .  .  . 
in  selling  those  jars,  Payn  Thicker  than  /Fa/<:r(i883)  xvii  (Farmer). 
2.  adv.    Exceedingly,  intensely. 

Brks.  '  I  be  so  all-fired  jealous  I  can't  abear  to  hear  o'  her  talkin' 
to —  ' ...  To  me,  you  were  going  to  say,'  Hughes  T.  Brown  O.xf. 
(i86i)  xl. 

Hence  All-firedly,  adv.     Enormously. 

Amer,  Rum  does  everything  that  is  bad  ;  wonder  if  it  is  rum 
that  makes  potatoes  rot  so  all-firedlv,  Bartlett. 

ALL-GOOD,  sb.  Hmp,  [§-l-gud.]  Plant-name  for 
Clienopodiuni  Boitus-Henricns. 


[All-good,  herb  Mercui-y,  Good  Henry.  Coles  (1677)  ; 
Algood  groweth  .  .  .  about  waycs,  and  pathes,  and  by 
hedges,  Lyte  Dodoens,  560;  Bon-Henry,  the  herb,  Good 
Henry,  Good  King  Harry,  and  All-good,  Cotgr.] 

ALL-HALLOW(S,  sb.    Cum,  Lan.  War,  Shr.  Hrt.  Hmp. 
Also  written  Alhalon,  AlhoUan,  All-hollan,  AU-hollands. 
[o'l-alaz,  9'1-alan.] 
i.  All  Saints.     The  festival  of  All  Saints. 

ne.Lan.'  All  Saints'  day  (Nov.  i ).     War,  lJ.R,W,') 
2.  In  comp.  (i)  -cakes,  a  special  kind  of  cake  made  at 
All-hallowtide ;    (2)  -day.  All    Saints'   day,   the  first  of 
November  ;   (3)  -eve,  the  eve  of  All  Saints,  see  Hallow- 
e'en ;  (4)  -tide,  the  season  of  the  festival  of  All  Saints. 

(i)  s.Hmp.  In  some  places  plum  cakes  are  made  on  this  day, 
and  for  some  weeks  afterwards,  which  are  called  All-holland 
cakes,  Holloway,  Hmp,'  All-holland  cakes,  cakes  cried  about 
on  All  Saints'  day,  (21  Hrt.  Allhollandy,  Ellis  Mod.  Hush.  (1750) 
VI.  ii.  40.  Hmp.  All-hollands'  day,  Holloway.  (3)  Cum.  Aw- 
hallow-even.  All  Saints'  eve,  Gt.  (1851),  (4)  Shr.'  Alhalontid, 
obs.     Hrt,  All  hallows  tide,  Ellis  Mod.  Hash.  ( 1750I  VI,  ii.  40. 

[All-liallow,  -s,  repr.  AII+  hallow  (later  /lallotvs),  prop.  pi. 
forms  of  an  irdj.  ME.  fialwe,  OE,  lullga,  wk,  form  oiluilig 
(whence  holy),  (a)  The  OE.  pi.  hiilgan  passed  through 
the  forms  haliven,  haloiven,  haluive,  haloives.  (b)  Tlie  OE. 
gen.  pi.  halgena  (with  dag-,  lid)  became  halwene,  hallowen, 
hallown,  hallon,  holland.  L  («)  All-hallowtide,  the  term 
near  All-Saints,  Bailey  (1755);  Toiissainclsila  Toitssaincls); 
All-Saints  day,  All-hallow  day,  Cotgr.  ;  Betwixt  Alhallow- 
tide  and  Christmas,  Mascall  Plant.  16,  2.  ia)  Displeasant 
to  god  and  to  all  hallowes,  More  Heresyes,  II.  196  (N,E,D.). 
(b)  Alhollantide,  the  first  day  of  November,  Bailey  (1721)  ; 
Lincoln  is  kept  in  close  imprisonment  from  All-hollantide 
till  the  end  of  Christmas,  Hacket  Life  of  IVilliams,  II,  131 




(Dav.)  ;  Farewell,  All-hallovvn  summer!  Shaks.  i  Hen. 
IV,  I.  ii.  178;  Alhalowen  tyde,  la  Ions  saiiiclz,  Palsgk.  ; 
Of  J>at  tyme  for  to  an-o))er  tyme  of  lialowcne,  Eiig.  Gilds, 


ALLHEAL,  sb.  [o-l-isl,  pl-Il.]  (i)  Pniiiella  vulgaris 
(n.Yks.  w.Chs.);  (2)  I'isaint  albion  (Sc).  So  called  from 
their  supposed  medicinal  value. 

Chs.',  Chs.2  Pniitella  vulgaris  has  several  provincial  names  re- 
ferring to  its  real  or  supposed  healing  qualities. 

[(i)  Pntnella.  the  herb  Self-heal,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Oing- 
lereule.  Self-heal,  Hook-heal,  Sicklewort,  Brunei,  Prune!, 
Carpenters  herb,  Cotgr.  (2)  They  call  it  (Mistletoe) 
in  their  language  All-heale,  Holland  Pliny,  I.  497.— 
Also  in  the  Hcrbals  as  follows  :— All-heal,  or  Clown's 
All-heal,  Panax  coloni.  Hill  Herbal  (1812);  All-heal, 
Panax,  Johnson  ;  All-heal,  Prt«(7.v,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Clownes 
Woundwoort,  or  Alheale,  Gerard  Herbal,  851.] 
ALLICA,  see  Alegar. 

ALLICOMGREENYIE,  sb.  Gall.  A  game  played  by 
girls  at  country  schools,  similar  to  'Drop-handkerchief 
in  England. 

Gall.  They  form  into  a  circle  ;  one  goes  round  on  the  outside 
with  a  cap,  saying—'  I  got  a  letter  from  mj'  love.  And  by  the  way 
I  drop'd  it,  I  drop'd  it.'  She  drops  the  cap  behind  one  of  the 
party,  who  runs  out  and  in  and  across  the  circle  as  quickly  as 
possible.  If  the  follower  breaks  the  course,  she  fails.  Then  the 
one  caught,  or  the  one  who  fails,  stands  in  the  circle,  and  the  other 
goes  round  as  before  iJam.  Stip/>l.). 

ALLICOMPAIN,  see  Elecampane. 
ALLIGATOR'S  BACK,  sb.      GIo.  Som.     A   serrated 
ridge  of  tiles. 

Glo.,  Som.  The  house  is  built  with  a  roof  sloping  two  w.->y5. 
and  surmounted  by  an  ornamental  erection  known  in  the  building 
trade  as  an  '  alligator's  back'  .  .  .  which  nins  the  whole  length  of 
the  roof,  Bristol  Times  and  Mirror  (/\pr.  26.  18891  5.  col.  6; 
The  three  or  four  instances  in  which  1  have  met  with  the  word 
all  belonged  to  the  Bristol  district  'G.E.D.). 

ALLIGOSHEE.  5A.  War.  Shr.  Glo.  Also  written  allee- 
go-shee  Glo.  [aligo-Ji.]  A  game  in  which  children  link 
arms  and  skip  backwards  and  forwards,  singing  verses  as 
given  below. 

War.  All-igo-shee,  alligoshee,  Turn  the  bridle  over  my  knee, 
GoMME  Trail.  Gaines  (1894)  I.  7.  Shr.  I?lue  came  all  in 
black.  Silver  buttons  down  her  back.  Every  button  cost  a  crown, 
Every  lady  turn  around.  Alligoshi,  alligoshee.  Turn  the  bridle 
over  my  knee,  BURNE /7i!'-/.o/-f  1883  523.  Glo  Barbara,  Barbara, 
dressed  in  black.  Silver  buttons  all  up  your  back.  Allcego  shee, 
allce-go  shee,  Turn  the  bridle  over  me,  Gomme  Tiad.  Gaiins 
(18941  I.  7. 
ALLIMENT.  sec  Element. 

ALLISTER,  atlj.  Ob.'^.  Rxb.  (Jam.)  Sane,  in  full 
possession  of  one's  mental  faculties. 

Rxb.  lie's  no  allister,  he  is  not  in  his  right  mind. 
[Alaslair  is  Gaelic   Alexander.     If  from  the  personal 
name,  I  should  think  it  would  be,  '  he's  no  the  Allister' ; 
cf  '  he's  no  the  Sandy  '  or  ■  the  Sam.'     I  do  not  know  the 
word  (G.W.).] 

ALLONCE,  adv.  Obs.  Sc.  Som.  Also  written  all 
anys  (Jam.).     Together. 

Sc  All  anys,  together  ;  in  a  state  of  union  ^Jam  ).  Som.  Let's  go 
allonce.  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  iv.Eitg.  (18251. 

[All+once.    ME.  ones,  anes,  enes,  formed  from  cne,  OE. 
ane  (once),  with  -s  advb.  gen.  suff.] 
ALL  ONLY,  adv.     n.Yks.     [o-lianli-l 
n  Yks."  Alleeanly,  or  Allonely.  solely,  or  without  exception. 
[I  sey  not  this  al-only  for  these  men,  Chaucer   TV.  &• 
Cr.  v.  1779:  Out-take   Richesse  al-only,  R.  Rose,  5819. 

ALLOT,  I'.  Ubsol.  Nrf.  Suf  Amer.  To  anticipate,  look 
forward  to,  intend.  Gen.  constr.  used  with  un  or  upon. 
In  pass,  to  be  pleased. 

Nrf.  I  am  allotted  [glad  or  pleased]  to  see  you.  So,  I  am  told  by 
a  man  of  75.  used  to  speak  !iis  grandmother  antl  other  old  folk 
(F.H.).  Suf.  I  allot  on  seeing  him  [shall  have  pleasure  in.  &c., 
count  on  seeing  him]  (F.H.).  [Amer.  I  allot  upon  going  to  Boston. 
Used  by  uneducated  people  in  the  interior  of  New  England, 

ALL  OUT,  <i(fe.'  Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Lan.  Not.  Lin.  Nhp.  Aus. 
1.  Completely,  altogether,  fully. 

Sc.  All  out,  in  a  great  degree,  beyond  comparison  (Jam."*.  Ir. 
He's  now  in  his  grave,  and  thank  God,  it's  he  that  had  the  d.-icent 
funeral  all  out,  Carleion  Trails  Peas.  (1843)  II.  102;  Glory  be 
to  God!  but  that's  wonderful  all  out,  ib.  I.  2;  Not  far  from  sixty 
[years  of  age],  if  he  was  not  sixty  all  out  iG.M.H.).  w.Ir.  I'm 
not  sich  a  gommoch  all  out  as  that,  LovtK  Leg.  (1848  I.  164. 
n.Yks.i  Yon's  t'best.  Joss.— Ay,  all  out.  w.Yks.^  It  is  almost, 
if  not  all  out,  as  bad  as  thieving.  s.Lan.  They'r  dun  oleawt, 
Kamford  Dial.  (1850)  208,  ed.  1854.  Not.'  sw,Lin.'  She's  very 
gain  on  five,  if  not  five  all  out.  Your  Bill's  nearly  killed,  if  not  all 
out  Nhp.'  It's  not  all  out  as  good  as  I  expected.  [Aus..  N.S,W. 
Now  she  was  nineteen  all  out,  and  a  fine  girl  she'd  grown.  BoinRE- 
WOOD  Robbery  (1888I  I.  xv.]     Slang.  All  out  the  best,  Farmer. 

[So  are  we  to  take  notice  of  the  good  (gifts),  though  not 
all  out  so  perfect  as  St.  James  adviseth  us,  Andrewes 
Serm.  xcvi.  (1628)  749 ;  Fowling  is  more  troublesome  but 
all  out  as  delightsome  to  some  sorts  of  men.  Burton 
Anat.  Mel.  (1621)  H.  ii.  4,  ed.  1836.  ME.  Whan  he  had 
doon  his  wil  al-out,  R.  Rose,  2101  ;  Now  have  I .  .  .  declared 
al-out, /'(!>.  2935.     All -^^  out.] 

ALL  OUT,  adv.^  and  sb.  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel. 
and  Eng. 

1.  adv.  Mistaken. 

Bnff.i  For  ass  diver's  he  iz  he's  a'-oot  in  that  opingin.  Slang. 
All  out,  to  be  in  error  ;  quite  wrong.  Farmer. 

2.  Too  late. 

Bnff.'  Y're  a'-oot,  man,  the  meetin's  a'  our. 

3.  Disappointed. 

Bnfr,'Fin  he  saw  it  he  wiz  a'-oot  [or  oot],  he  geedintillan  unco  (list 

4.  Finished,  used  up. 

w.Som.'  Plaiz-r  dhu  suydur-z  aul  aewt  [please,  sir,  the  cider  is 
all  finished,  i.e.  the  cask  is  empty].  Dhu  wocts  bee  aul  aewt 
[the  oats  are  all  finished]. 

5.  sb.  Interval  for  play,  as  in  phr.  all-out  time. 

w.Yks.  All-out,  time  for  recreation,  playtime  (J.T.)  ;  Allaat-time, 
plavtime  at  school,  Lei-ds  Merc.  Sii/ifil.    May  9,  1891). 
ALL-OVER,  adv.     Wm.  Yks.  Lin. 

1.  Over  the  whole  body,  in  every  part,  completely. 
Wm.  Thoo's  fair  o-ower,  my  luv,  Richardson  Hug.  5o/.  (1859) 

iv.  7.     e.Yks.i  He's  his  fayther  bayn  all-ower. 

2.  Everj'where. 

n.Yks.  (I.W. )     n.Lin.'  Taaties  hes  faail'd  oil  ohcr  to  year. 

[1.  He  is  all-over  mistaken,  Bentley /'/;«/(?/-;>  (1699)  130. 
2.  A  south-west  blow  on  ye  And  blister  you  all  o'er! 
Shaks.  Temp.  i.  ii.  324.  Cp.  ME.  ouer-al  {in  P.  Plowman), 
ouer  alle  (in  Calh.Angl.),  everywhere,  passim.] 

ALL-OVERISH,  ad/.  Lan.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Brks.  Som. 

1.  Slightly  out  of  sorts,  but  with  no  particular  ailment. 
ne.Lan.'  All-overish,  neither  sick  nor  well.       Der.'      War.  All- 
overish,  queer-like  (J.R.W.).     w.Som.' 

2.  Nervous,  with  a  sense  of  apprehension. 

n.Lin.'  Brks.' All-overish, feelingconfused  or  abashed.  Cor.Therc's 
a  kind  o'what-1  can't  tcU-'ceaboutdead  men  Ihat'svcryenticin'.tho' 
it  do  make  you  feel  all-overish,  '  Q.'  Three  Sln/)s  (1890  iii.  Colloq. 
When  the  mob  began  to  gather  round  1  felt  all-overish.  Mavhew 
Loud.  Labour <i86i  III.  52;  The  elder  of  the  brothers  gave  a  squeal, 
All-overish  it  made  me  for  to  feel,  Gilbert  Hub  liallads  i  1869)  184 ; 
All-overish,  an  indefinite  feeling  which  pervades  the  body  at  critical 
periods,  when  sickening  for  an  illness,  or  at  a  moment  of  supreme 
excitement.  Farmer. 

[All-over,  q.v.  -1-  -ish.  The  suffix  doubtless  suggested  by 

ALLO'W,  V.  Irel.  Glo.  Ess.  Ken.  Sus.  limp.  I.W. 
Dor.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Amer.  [alair,  aleu.] 
1.  To  suppose,  consider,  be  of  opinion. 
Glo.  I  'low  as  lis  time  mother  wur  a  got  downstairs,  BeCKMAN 
Varies  Sojoiim  (1890)  xi.  Ken.'  He's  allowed  to  be  the  biggest 
rogue  in  Faversham.  Sus.  She  cry'd  an  'lowd  tud  braak  ur  hert, 
Lower  Tom  Clad/tole  {1631)  St.  18.  Hmp.  If  you  ask  a  peasant 
how  far  it  is  to  any  place,  his  answer  nearly  invariably  is  'I  allow 
it  to  be  so  far,' Wise  A'of  Foresl{iB83^  280;  Hmp.'  I.W.  She  doos 
well  enough  Zundays  and  high-days,  .  .  .  but  I  lows  she's  most 
too  high  vur  work-a-days.  Maxwell  Gray  Annesley  (1889  I.  164. 
se  Dor.  :  C.  W.")  w-Som.'  I  do  low  eens  there's  dree  score  o"  talies  in 
thick  there  splat.     Uw  muuch  d-cc-luw  dhik  dliaeur  rik  u  baay ! 

G  2 




[how  much  do  you  consider  that  rick  of  hay  ?  i.e.  how  much  it  con- 
tains]. Dev.Ido  not  allow  myselftoreciton  like  you  [I  donotsuppose 
myself  capable  of  calculating  as  quickly  as  you  can~\,  Repoiis  Proviiic. 
(1877')  127.  Cor.  Paul  an'  me  allowed  to  each  other  that  we'd  set 
up  in  fine  style  at  Kit's  House,  '  Q.'  Troy  Town  (1888)  iv.  [Amer. 
The  lad}'  of  the  cabin  seemed  kind,  and  allowed  we  had  better  stop 
where  we  were,  Bartlett.  U.S.  Some  thought  Barnes  must've 
swallowed  a  tadpole,  .  ,  .  while  others  allowed  that  may  be  he'd 
accidentally  eaten  frogs'  eggs  some  time  and  they'd  hatched  out, 
Max  Adeler  Elbow  Room  (,1876)  v.] 
2.  To  advise. 

UIs.  N.  &  0.(1874')  5th  S,  i.  245  :  I  allow  her  to  come  (M.B.-S). 
Cav.  I  don't  allow  you  to  sell  your  pig  at  a  loss  toyourself  (M.S.  M.). 
N.I.i  Doctor!  A  wouldn't  allow  you  to  be  takin'  off  that  blister  yet. 
Ess.  This  point  I  allow  For  servant  and  cow,  Tusser  Httsbandiie 
(1580)  74,  St.  30.  w.Som.'  I  d'allowee  vor  to  put  thick  there  field 
in  to  rape,  arter  you've  a-clain  un,  and  then  zeed-n  out. 

[1.  The  Self-Tormentor  of  Terence's,  which  is  allowed 
a  most  excellent  comedy.  Sped.  No.  512  ;  The  principles 
which  all  mankind  allow  for  true  are  innate,  Locke 
(Johnson)  ;  To  alowe,  to  declare  to  be  true,  approbo, 
Baret.  2.  The  sense  of  'advise'  is  developed  from  the 
old  meaning  once  common — 'to  approve  of,  sanction.' 
Truly  ye  bear  witness  that  ye  allow  the  deeds  of  your 
fathers,  Bible  Luke  xi.  48.  OFr.  alouer,  to  praise,  com- 
mend :  Lat.  aUaudare\ 

ALLOW,  int.  n.Yks.  Brks.  A  cry  used  in  setting  dogs 
on  to  the  chase. 

ii.Yks.  (,1  W.)  Brks.' Allow,  allow!  thus  shouted  twice  to  a  dog 
to  incite  him  to  chase  anj'thing. 

[From  alloiv,  vb.,  in  the  sense  of '  to  sanction.'  The  cry 
means  '  We  allow  (the  chase)  I '] 

ALLOWANCE,  sb.     Sc.  Ircl.  Yks.  'Wor. 

1.  Permission. 

N.I.i  There's  no  allowance  for  people  in  here. 

2.  A  limited  portion  of  food  or  drink  allowed  to  work- 
men between  meals. 

Yks.  He  was  going  homewards  as  soon  as  he  had  finished  his 
'lowance,  Fletcher  If'apcit/nkc  (1895)  igo.  ne.Wor.  When  are 
you  goin'  to  have  3'our  'lowance  ?   (J.W.P.) 

3.  Phr.   at  no  alloivance,  at  pleasure,  unsparingly,  un- 

Edb.  Vagrants  in  buckram  and  limmers  in  silk,  parading  away  at 
no  allowance,  Moir  Maiisie  IVaiich  {1828)  vii.  Slang.  I  found 
Dawes  junior  pegging  into  Dawes  senior  no  allowance,  and  him 
crying  blue  murder,  Reade  Jack  0/  all  Trades  (1858J  i. 

[1.  Peniiission,  a  permission,  leave,  licence,  allowance, 
CoTGR.  2.  His  allowance  was  a  continual  allowance  given 
him  of  the  king,  a  daily  rate  for  every  day,  Bible  2  Kings 
XXV.  30.  Hence  phr.  '  at  no  allowance,'  without  limitation. 
His  people  pluck  him  at  no  allowance,  Carlyle  Fi-ed.  Gt. 
HL  vin.  V.  42.  Fr.  alouancc,  allowance  (Palsgr.),  deriv.  of 
OFr.  aloitir,  see  Allow,  v.\ 

ALLOWED,  ppl.  adj.     Som.     [aleu'd.]     Licensed. 

w.Som. 1  Dhik'ee  aewz  waud-n  niivur  ulaewd  [that  house  was 
never  licensed], 

[There  is  no  slander  in  an  allow'd  fool,  though  he  do 
nothing  but  rail,  Shaks.  Twelfili  Nt.  i.  v.  loi  ;  An  allowed 
cart  or  chariot,  Hollyband.  Allowed,  pp.  of  allow  (vb.), 

ALLS,  sb.  pi.  Dur.  w.Yks.  n.Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  "War.  Wor. 
Also  written  awls  Dur.';  nails  s.Wor.'  se.Wor.'  [olz, 
qa\z.]  Belongings,  goods  and  chattels,  especially  work- 
men's tools. 

Dur.i  'To  pack  uphis  awls' is  spoken  ofapcrsondepartingin  haste. 
w.Yks.5  Pack  up  thee  awals  an'  tramp.  n.Lin.'  '  Pack  up  your  alls 
and  slot  off'  is  a  common  form  of  dismissal,  used  by  rr  asters  to  work- 
men. Lei.' Alls,  a  workman's  tools  and  appliances:  often  used  for 
personal  luggage  generally.  Nhp. ',  War.=,  s.Wor.'  se.Wor.' '  Pick 
up  your  nails  and  cut'  is  a  form  of  ordering  an  objectionable  person 
to  leave. 

[It  is  doubtful  whether  alls  in  the  phrase  'pack up  j'our 
alls  '  is  all  used  as  a  sb.  in  pi.,  or  whether  it  repr.  aivls. 
Perhaps  orig.  the  phrase  contained  the  word  aivls,  which 
was  changed  by  a  humorous  pun  to  alls.  So  N.E.D. 
(s.v.  Awl).  (My  father)  bid  me  pack  up  my  alls,  Fielding 
Amelia^  VII.  iii.  296.] 

ALLS,  sec  Aries. 

ALLS-,  see  Halse-. 

ALL  TO  PIECES,  adv.  phr}  Der.  Wor.  Amer.  Aus. 
Thoroughly,  altogether. 

Der.^  He  ca'd  me  a'  to  pieces.  s.Wor.  It's  too  hot  all  to  pieces, 
PoRSON  Quaint  Wds.  (1875)  29.  [Amer.  I  beat  him  last  night  at 
poker  all  to  pieces,  Bartlett.  Aus..  N.S.W.lf  we  fell  off  he  stopped 
still  and  began  to  feed,  so  that  he  suited  us  all  to  pieces,  Boldre- 
wooD  Robbeiy  (1888)  I.  i.] 

[We'll  bend  it  to  our  awe.  Or  break  it  all  to  pieces, 
Shaks.  Hen.  V,  i.  ii.  225 ;  I  bid  thy  master  cut  out  the 
gown  ;  but  I  did  not  bid  him  cut  it  to  pieces,  ib.  T.  Shrew, 
IV.  iii.  129  ] 

ALL  TO  PIECES,  adv.  phr.'^  Nhp.  Som.  Broken 
down  in  health  or  finances  ;  exhausted,  collapsed. 

Ntip.'  A  person  who  has  faikd,  or  been  sold  up,  or  in  a  state  of 
bankruptcy,  is  said  to  be  all  to  pieces.  w.Som.'  Poour  oa'l  blid, 
ee-z  aul  tue  pees'ez  vvai  dhu  riie'maat  iks  [poor  old  blood,  he  is 
quite  done  up  with  the  rheumatism].  Aew-z  dh-oad  au"S  ? — Oa  ! 
au'l  tile  pees'ez  [How  is  the  old  horse  ? — Oh  !  quite  knocked  up]. 
CoUoq.  Fifty  thousand  pounds  .  .  .  won't  come  before  it's  all 
wanted;  for  they  say  he  is  all  to  pieces,  Austen  Sense  and  Scnsi- 
hility  (18  ri;  xxx.  Slang.  The  Oxford  men  were  now  all  to  pieces; 
their  boat  was  full  of  water,  Echo  (Apr.  7,  1884J  3,  col.  i. 

ALLUM,  see  Aum. 

ALL-UTTERLY,  adv.  Obs.  Sc.  (Jam.)  Also  written 
alluterlie,  alluterly.     Wholly-,  completely. 

[So  whan  she  saw  al-utterly  That  he  wolde  hir  of  trouthe 
faile,  Chaucer  Hous  F.  296.     All  (IME.  at)  +  utterly.] 

ALL-WORKS,  sb.  Ken.  A  man  employed  on  a  farm 
to  do  odd  jobs.  Used  adjectivally,  of  horses  :  doing  odd 
jobs,  not  in  the  regular  team. 

Ken.  Yes !  he's  the  allworks  on  our  farm.  Tell  All-works 
it's  his  place  to  do  that  (D.W.L. '  ;  The  horses  not  sufficient  in 
number  to  make  up  a  team  are  called  the  odd  or  all-works  horses, 
and  are  looked  after  by  the  odd  man,  oddie,  or  all- works  (P.M.)  ; 
Ken.'  ;  Ken.2  An  '  all-works  '  is  the  lowest  servant  in  the  house, 
and  is  not  hired  for  the  plough  or  the  wagon  particularly,  as  the 
other  servants  are,  but  to  be  set  about  anything. 

[With  this  word  cp.  the  common  phr.  '  a  maid-of-all- 
work.'  The  coiitp.  is  formed  in  the  same  way  as  '  Great- 
heart,'  and  many  of  the  names  in  Bunyan  P.  P.,  in  which 
the  name  of  the  quality  or  characteristic  (consisting  ot 
adj.  +  sb.)  designates  the  possessor  of  the  same,  the  stress 
always  being  on  the  former  element  of  the  coiitp.] 

ALLY,  sb.  Nhb.  Wm.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf. 
Der.  Not.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  Wor.  Shr.  Oxf  Brks.  e.An.  Sus. 
Hmp.  Som.  Cor.  Also  written  alley  N.Cy.'  Nhb.'  Dur.' 
Wm.'  e.Yks.'  w.Yks.^-'s  Stf^  nw.Der.'  Lei."'  Nhp.'  Shr.'^ 
Oxf  Brks.'  e.An.'  Hmp.' w.Som.' Cor.^;  al  Nhp.';  olley 
Chs.'     [a  li,  a;  li.] 

1.  A  boy's  marble  made  of  ala.baster,  fine  white  stone, 
marble,  or  glass.     See  below. 

N.Cy.',  Nhb.',  Dur.',  Wm.'  w.Yks.  Real  marbles,  i.  e.  globes 
made  of  marble,  not  clay.  Also  those  moulded  from  china  clay. 
The  latter,  often  covered  with  small  circles,  were  sometimes  called 
bull's-eyes  or  bullies  (J.T.) ;  w.Yks.^,  e.Lan.'  Chs.'  When  streaked 
with  red,  it  is  called  a  blood-alley.  Stf.^  Lei.'  A  marble  made 
either  of  white  marble  or  alabaster.  If  streaked  with  red  veins 
it  is  called  a  bleod-alley,  if  not  so  marked,  a  white  alley.  Nhp.' 
Al,  or  Alley,  used  by  boys  for  shooting  at  the  ring;  deriving  its 
name  from  the  term  alabaster,  as  erroneously  applied  to  the 
varieties  of  carbonate  of  lime  which  constitute  marble,  instead  of 
restricting  it  to  sulphate  of  lime  or  gypsum.  These  marbles  are 
generally  denominated  white  als,  or  alleys,  but  when  they  exhibit 
any  of  the  red  veins  they  are  called  blood  alle3's,  and  are  doubly 
prized  by  the  possessor.  se.Wor.',  Shr. '2,  Oxf.'  MS.  add. .Brks.^, 
e.An.',  Hmp.'  w.Som.'  A  boy's  marble,  generally  valued  at  from 
five  to  ten  common  marbles  according  to  its  quality.  Cor.  Bright 
blue  et  was,  suthin'  the  colour  of  a  hedgy-sparrer's  egg,  an' shiny- 
clear  like  a  glass-alley,  '  Q.'  Troy  Town  ,  1888)  xi ;  Cor.^  [Amer. 
Alley,  an  ornamental  marble,  used  by  boys  for  shooting  in  the  ring, 
&c. ,  Bartlett.] 

2.  Hence  Ally,  v. 

e.Yks.'  To  place  the  marble  in  the  hole  in  a  game  of  marbles, 
and  thus  score  a  point  against  an  opponent. 

3.  Coni/i.  Ally-taw. 

ne.Yks.'  Ally-taw,  playing  marble,  as  distinguished  from 
'  steeanics  '  and  'potties,'  i.  e.  stone  or  baked  clay  marbles.     s.Lan. 




Alley-taw, a  large  or' shooting-marble'  (T. R.C.).  Brks.  His  small 
private  box  was  full  of  peg-tops,  white  marbles  (called  •  alley-taws  ' 
in  the  Valei  .  .  .  and  other  miscellaneous  boy's  wealth,  Hughes 
T.  Brown  (1856)  iii.  Colloq.  Inquiring  whether  he  had  won  any 
alley-tors  or  commoneys  lately,  Dickens  Pickwick  (,1837)  281, 
ed.  1847. 

[The  word  occurs  in  De  Foe's  Duncan  Campbell;  see 
N.E.D.     Alh\  a  dim.  oi alabaster.\ 

ALLYCOMPALY,  see  Elecampane. 

ALLY -LONG-LEGS,  56.  Stf.  Tlie  'Daddy-long-legs,' 
or  crane-fly. 


ALMANAC-MAN,  sb.     n.  Lin. 

n.Lin.'  Almanac-man,  the  surveyor  of  the  Court  of  Sewers,  so 
called  because  he  sends  notices  to  the  dwellers  near  the  Trent  of 
the  times  when  high  tides  may  be  expected. 

ALMANIE-WHISTLE,  sb.  Obs.  Abd.  A  flageolet  of 
a  very  small  size  used  by  children  (Jam,). 

[Aliiiaiiif  repr.  ME.  Aliiuxiiw,  OFr.  ^{biitaigiie,  Germany. 
In  the  i6th  and  17th  cents,  aliiiaiii  was  in  common  use 
for  a  kind  of  dance-music  in  slow  time,  introduced  from 

ALMERY,  see  Ambry. 

ALMOND,  A-6.     Glo.     A  gland  of  the  ear  or  throat. 

Glo.*  The  almonds  of  my  ears  came  down.  Colloq.  Almonds: 
this  term  is  applied  popularly  to  the  exterior  glands  of  the  neck 
and  to  the  tonsils,  Hobi.yn  Did.  Med.  Teniis  (and  ed.  1844  . 

[Almonds  of  the  throat  are  a  glandulous  substance,  re- 
presenting two  kernels  placed  on  each  side  of  the  uvula, 
at  the  root  of  the  tongue,  Kersey  ;  The  almonds  of  the 
ears,  Clniitliilae,  Coles  (1670).] 

ALMOND-FURNACE,  5*.  Obs.  Cdg.  A  furnace  used 
by  silver-refiners,  in  which  the  refuse  of  litharge  is  re- 
duced to  lead  by  being  heated  with  charcoal. 

Cdg.  Almond  furnace,  in  which  they  melt  the  slags  or  refuse  of 
the  litharge  (not  stamped)  with  charcoale  only,  Ray  (.1691 ) :  ,  K.) 

[Alman,  or  almond  furnace,  a  furnace  used  by  refiners, 
and  called  a  sweep,  for  separating  all  sorts  of  metals  from 
cinders,  &c.,  Bailey  (1721).  Aliiiaii  or  almond  repr. 
OFr.  aleman  (mod.  alleinaiid),  i.  e.  German.] 

ALMOND-NUT,  sb.     Cor.     An  almond. 

Cor.  I've  got  ferrings  and  sweetmeats  anow.  .  .  .  Dest  a  like 
men  [them]  with  ame-nuts  or  zceds  best  inside?  J.  Trenoodle 
S/>cainens  (1846    38;  Cor.*^ 

ALMOUS,  sb.  In  s^en.  use  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  n.  counties 
to  Lan.  and  Lin.  rAlso  Sus.  Dev.  Also  written  almisse, 
alniose  n.Yks.' ;  alomes  Wxf;  aamas  Cuni.^  n.Lan.'; 
aamus  Nhb.';  aiimas  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.*  n  Lan.';  aumous 
Lin.';  aumiis  n.Yks.'^  w.Yks.'ne.Lan.' ;  awmossw.Yks."  ; 
awmous  sw.Lin.';  awmus  N.Cy.'  Wm.' n.Yks.'^  e.Yks.' ; 
omas  Cum.' ;  omus  Nhb.'  [anias,  ^nias.] 
1.  Money  or  food  bestowed  in  charity,  gifts  ofl'ercd  to 
a  child  on  its  first  round  of  visits. 

Sc.  Almous,  Almows  (Jam.);  J  he  silly  friar  behoved  to  lleech. 
For  annuls  as  he  passes,  Scott  Aitbot  {1820,  xv.  Ayr.  An  extra 
neaveful  to  their  wonted  weekly  almous,  Galt  Sir  ylndreiv  1, 1822) 
iv.  Gall.Gaunoff  likeabeggar  wi' hisawmus  on  IMond.iy  mornin', 
Crockett  S/icvh/ jl/i«.  (1893)  57.  Wxf.',  Khb.'  Dur.  It  is  still 
customary  to  present  a  baby  with  three  articles  '  for  luck  '  the  first 
time  it  is  taken  into  a  neighbour's  house.  This  is  termed  the 
'bairn's  awmous,'  that  is.  alms.  The  articles  usually  consist  of  a 
piece  of  bread,  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  an  egg,  but  matches  are  some- 
times substituted  for  the  last.  A'.  &  Q.  1 1878)  5th  S.  x.  37.  Cum. 
The  gift  to  a  regular  beggar  was  sometimes  in  money,  but  more 
frequently  in  victuals.  Regular  beggars  carried  bags  (pokes) 
rolled  up  in  their  apron  for  the  accommodation  of  meal,  a  handful 
of  which  was  always  an  acceptable  awmous  iM.P.);  Cum.'  Omas, 
in  former  times  a  handful  of  oatmeal  or  a  slice  of  barley  bread, 
and  in  later  times  a  halfpenny  or  a  penny.  Wm.  The  mendicant 
.  .  .  departs  with  his  awmus  of  meal,  GinsoN  Lri;.  and  Notes 
(1877)  17.  ne.Yks.' What  awmous  a'eya  gotten  ?  w.Yks.  Awmoss, 
an  alms,  Tiioresby  Lett.  (1703) ;  w.Yks.'  Hedto  a  poor  neighbour 
at  com  daily  to  thy  door  for  an  aumus  ?  w.Yks.*  An  awmoss. 
Lan.  Pretty  Mrs.  Marg'ret  .  .  .  hes  always  yet  an  awmas  for 
Bess,  ranty  an'  feckless  o'  body  as  she  is,  Thornber  Peiinv  Stone 
(1845  15;  Lan.' He  lives  o'aumas.  n.Lan.' The  following  quatrain 
is  still  remembered  by  some  of  the  old  inhabitants  of  Furness, 
as   the   usual   address   of  beggars   soliciting   alms  ;    '  Pity,   pity 

paamas,  Pray  give  us  aamas  ;  Van  for  Peter,  two  for  Paul,  Three 
for  God  'at  meead  us  all.'  e.Sas.  Almes,  Holloway.  s.Dev. 
Omes,  alms.  Fox  Kingshridge  (1874). 

2.  A  small  portion  ;  a  definite  quantity. 

n  Yks.'  In  Cleveland  a  messenger  sent  to  a  shop  for  a  shilling's- 
worth  of  such  and  such  an  article,  and  returning  with  what 
seems  to  the  purchaser  a  verj-  small  proportionate  quantity,  is 
greeted  with  the  remark,  'Why,  what  an  ommus  thee  has  gcttcn  ' ; 
as  if,  like  alms,  it  had  been  sparingly  or  grudgingly  doled  out ; 
n.Yks.2  I  think  I've  got  my  aumus,  i.  e.  the  number  of  articles 
1  bespoke.  A  dear  aumus,  very  little  for  the  money.  e.Yks.  A've 
coonted  this  money,  and  that's  thy  awmus  ;  e.Yks.'  Is  that  all 
bacon  we're  gannin  tc  hev  te  bray-cast  ?  what  a  awmus  !  m.Yks.' 
There,  that's  thy  aumas  ;  thou'll  get  no  more.  One  holdinga  sack 
to  be  filled  will  cry  out  when  the  sack  is  full, '  Hold  on  !  I've  gotten 
my  aumas.'  w.Yks.  Awmous,  a  helping  ^B.K.) ;  Awmous,  a  cart 
load,  Lucas  Stud.  Nidderditle  (c.  1882)  59.  Lin.  When  a  labourer 
has  been  filling  a  cart  with  manure,  corn,  &c. ,  he  will  say  at  last 
to  the  carter  or  wagoner,  '  Haven't  ya  got  your  aumous?'  1  Hall.); 
Lin.'  They  gave  me  such  an  aumous  of  provender.  sw.Lin.'  Oh, 
what  an  awmous  !  said  ironically  of  a  small  gift  of  corn  on  Sl 
Thomas'  Day. 

3.  A  meritorious  act. 

Sc.  It  wou'il  be  an  aumous  to  gie  him  a  wecl-payed  skin  (Jam.); 
Those  who  leave  so  good  a  Kirk,  it  were  but  alms  to  hang  tlicm, 
Scot/attd^s  Glory,  <5-'r.  (1805)  44  'Jam.). 

4.  In  coDip.  (i)  Aumas-dish,  a  beggar's  dish  for  alms; 
(2)  -house,  an  alms-house  ;  (3)  -loaves,  bread  distributed 
to  the  poor  in  church  after  Divine  service;  (4)  -woman, 
a  woman  supported  by  charity. 

1 1)  Ayr.  While  she  held  up  her  greedy  gab,  Just  like  an  aumos 
dish.  Burns  Jolly  Beggars  (1785).  (2,  w.Yks.  Amus-hahses, 
Banks  Wkjl.t.  IVds.  (i865>  ;  w.Yks.5  Aumas-houses.  (3,  n.Yks.* 
Aumus-leeaves,  charity  loaves.     (4'  w.Yks.® 

I  Almose,  eleemosyna,  Levins  Maiiip.  ;  Lef  sir,/nf  charile. 
Wit  sum  almous  thou  help  me,  Mclr.  Hoiit.  (Spec. E.  E.  II. 
94)  ;  God  .  .  .  jelde  ow  for  oure  almus  that  je  5ivcn  us 
here  !  P.  Plim'iiian  (a.)  vii.  120  ;  Ilk  dai  man  him  j^ider  bar 
For  to  bide  his  almus  [lar.  Cursor  M.  19052  ;  Almus,  messe 
and  bedes,  Hampole  P.C  3722  ;  An  almus  doer,  elimosi- 
tioriiis,  Calh.  Aitgl. ;  A I  messe  or  almos,  eliiiiosina.  Prompt. 
ON.  almitsa  (also  olmitsa),  an  alms,  charitv.  an  allowance 
to  scholars  in  Icel.  grammar-schools ;  Rom.  alimosina 
f whence  OFr.  almosiie.  It.  limosiiia).  Cp.  OE.  almysse 
(-esse),  whence  lit.  E.  alms.} 

ALODDIN,  adj.     Cum.  Wm.     [alodin.] 

1.  Not  engaged,  unemploj'ed,  on  offer. 

Cum.  I  hard  Ritson's  lass  was  aloddin.sooa  I  went  and  saw  her 
an  hir't  her.  Does  te  see  the  l)onnj'  lass  wid  a  rose  in  her  breast  ! 
She's  aloddin.  Richard-son  is  going  to  build  a  barn,  sooa  there 
will  be  lots  o'  jobs  aloddin.  Jenkinson  has  a  new-cult  cow 
aloddin  [for  sale].  How  Hall  has  been  a  long  time  aloddin'  [to 
let]  (J. A.) ;  Cum.'  She's  still  aloddin  ;  Cum.',  Wm.' 

2.  Lost,  missing. 

Cum.  The}'  say  Thomsons  of  Brier  Holme  hev  six  ewes  a-Ioddin. 

[Prob.  repr.  ON.  aflofliiit,  on  invitation,  still  open  to  an 
invitation  (to  marry).  Cogn.  with  ON  laSct,  to  invite,  OE. 
lailiaii.  G.  laden,  to  summon.] 

ALOGHE.  see  Alow. 

ALONE.  rt(/j'.    Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  e  An.    [ale'n, alia'n.] 

1.  Used  with  proiiom.  adj. 

Cam.  As  I  was  walking  mine  alanc,  Scott  Minslrehy  (1802)  lao, 
ed.  1839. 

2.  In  phr.  (i)  all-a-liviiig alone,  left  in  a  helpless  condition 
(used  of  a  sick  person)  ;  (2)  let  alone,  to  say  nothing  of, 
besides  ;  (3)  let  me  alone,  let  Aim  atone,  phr.  expressive  of 
superiority  or  acknowledged  excellence. 

(1)  e.An.'  We  havcthe  odd  phr.ise  'all  a-living-alone,'  i.e  quite  en- 
tirely alone,  spoken  compassionately  tifa  sick  person  left  improperly 
in  a  helpless  condition.  (a)s.Ir.  He  ate  a  whDlc  village,  let  alone  the 
horse.  Lover  Leg.  (1848  II.  435.  Nhb.'  Thor  wis  three  on  them,  let 
alyen  his  fcthor.  Cum.^  I's  cum't  of  a  stock  'at  niver  wad  be  frcetn't 
to  show  a  feiicetill  a  king,  let  alcanan  oald  ncwdles.  (3'  Edb.I.ctme 
alane  for  whillj-whaing  an  advocate,  Scott  Midtolliian  (1818  xi. 
Ir.  Can  he  swim?— O  let  him  alone  for  that!  He  can  swim 
like  a  fish  A.S.P.).  s.Ir.  Ned  Sheehy  was  a  good  butler,  .  .  .and 
as  for  a  groom,  let  him  alone  with  a  horse;  he  could  dress  it  or 
ride  it,  or  shoe  it,  or  physic  it,  Croker  Leg  (1862"!  281.  Cum. 
Let  Bobby  alone  for  that,  Farrall  Btlly  Wilson  (1S86)  7. 




[I.  I  ame  myne  alane  and  poore.  King  Catech.  (N.E.D.) 
ME.  All  him  alane  the  way  he  tais,  Barbour  Bruce,  11. 
146  ;  Walkyng  myn  one  (v.r.  al  myn  oone),  P.  Ploiviiian 
(a.)  IX.  54  ME.  «/,  all  +  ^rwf  (OE.  rt«)  ;  see  Lone.  2.  With 
the  phr.  '  let  me  alone  for  that '  we  may  cp.  Sh.\ks.  :  Let 
us  alone  to  guard  Corioli,  Cor.  i.  ii.  27  (the  phrase  im- 
plies an  ironical  prohibition  to  help  a  man  who  is  able 
to  manage  the  affair  himself)  ;  Johnson  (s.v.  Alone).'] 

ALONG,  adv.^  Van  dial,  uses  in  midl.  and  s.  counties  ; 
also  Lan.    Also  written  elong.    [slog,  ala'r),  alee  q.alu-r).] 

1.  Slanting. 

n.Dev.  Tvvel  zet  e-Iong,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746") ;  Along,  for  end-long, 
obliquely,  slanting  ;  Grose  (i79o"i  MS.  add.  (H.I 
Comp.  Along-straight,  lying  at  full  length. 

Dor.  She  vow'd  she  zeed  en  wi  her  own  e3*es  a-lyen  all  along 
strait  upon  the  groun,  IVhy  John  {Coll.  L.L.B.\  Som.  Why 
zomebodj'  must  ha'  zot  on  un  [kitchen  clock]  when  he  wur  down 
along-straight,  R.wmond  Gent.  UpcotI  (18931  22. 

2.  At  full  length,  lying  flat,  generally  used  with  all;  see 
all  aloit,^. 

Dev.  Grose  (1790"!  MS.  add.  (H.) ;  'Along'  now  means  flat,  all 
along  (F.W.C.). 

3.  During  a  period  of  time,  during  the  past. 

w.Som.i  We've  had  middlin'  luck  along,  like.  Dev.  It  is  quite 
usual  to  speak  of  an^'thing  being  done  '  along  in  the  winter,'  or 
other  season,  and  rather  conv'eys  the  idea  of  repeated  or  continuous 
action  than  of  indefiniteness  as  to  time,  Rcpotis  Provinc.  (1889). 

4.  In  company,  as  well,  into  the  bargain. 

Wor.  Mary  is  going,  and  Fred  will  go  alung  ('H.K.').  Sur. 
Taking  the  eggs  to  market  and  the  hen  along.  Hoskvns  Talpa 
(1852'  139,  ed.  1857  ;  I'm  blest  if  I  don't  think  they  got  their  own 
price  and  ours  along,  ib.  150 

5.  Forward,  on  ;  send  along,  to  send  home. 

Lan.  Bring  the  kayther  alung,  Banks  Manch.  Man  (1876)  i.  Stf. ^ 
Th'  liver  inna  ready  yet.  but  wen  send  it  yu  alung.  War.^ 
*  I  will  send  it  along  directly  '  is  an  everyday  expression  now  in 
Birmingham.  Slir.i  Shall  I  send  the  mutton  alung  now,  ma'am  ? 
[Amer.  Mrs.  TroUope  has  the  following  words  :  '  We  must  try 
to  get  along,  as  the  Americans  say.'  Lover  also  was  puzzled  to 
discover  what  the  young  American  lady  meant  by  saying  that  she 
-was  so  unwell  that  she  '  could  not  get  along,'  Bartlett.] 

6.  In  phr.  (i)  along  of,  {a)  with,  together  with  ;  (b)  in 
pursuit  of;  (2)  along  zoil/i,  with. 

(i)  (a)  s.War.i  Come  and  go  along  of  father.  Glo.  '  Does  'ee 
zell  th'  owld  genelman  'long  o'  this  lot  ? '  saj'S  one,  Buckman 
Darke's  Sojourn  ('1890':  vii.  Ess.  Las'  night  I  passed  them  housen 
by  along  o'  Tom  an'  Jack.  Downe  Ballads  (1895")  '9-  Wil.'  Here, 
you  just  coom  whoam  along  o'  I,  an  I'll  gie  'ee  summut  to  arg 
about.  Som.  She'd  garn  t'school  alangof  us,  Leitu  Lenioii  Verbena 
(1895)  107.  Dev.  Now  and  again  he  comes  and  stops  along  of 
his  granny  for  a  bit,  O'Neill  Idylls  (1892)  86.  Slang.  I  walks  in 
my  brown  gaiters  along  o'  my  old  brown  mu\Q,K.iPL\SG  Brk.  Ballads 
{iSg2,  Serew  Guns.  (6,  Cor.  *  Tez  Farmer  Tickle,  I  tell'y!'  I  shouted, 
'and  ifyouaxes  again,  I'll  comealong  ofyou  with  my  stick,'  Baring- 
Gould  Vicar (.i8']6\vi.  (2)  Sc.  Mak'  grit  the  Lord  alang  wi*  me, 
RiDDELL  Ps.  (1857 1  xxxiv.  3.  Brks.*  When  a  young  man  is  accused 
of  flirting  with  some  one  he  will  perhaps  sheepishly  say, '  I  zartney 
did  go  alang  wi'  her  a  bit  at  one  time,  but  tent  nothin'.'  Sur.' 
I  see  him  a-coming  out  of  the  public  along  with  that  there  Sandy. 
He  lived  along  with  the  squire  for  ever  so  many  year.  Sus.  He's 
our  father,  he  lives  along  wi'  us,  Egerton  Fits,  and  IVays  (1884) 
26,  27.     w.Som.i  I  zeed'n  gwain  'long  way  Bob  Millon. 

[2.  He  laid  himself  down  along  upon  the  bed,  iitclinavit 
se  in  ledum,  Robertson  (1693) ;  Under  yond  yew-trees 
lay  thee  all  along,  Shaks.  K.  &=  J.  v.  iii.  3.  3.  I  have  all 
along  declared  this  to  be  a  neutral  paper,  Addison  Sped. 
No.  463.  4.  Demetrius  and  Egeus,  go  along,  Shaks.  VlAiV-Z). 
I.  i.  123.  5.  Let's  along,  And  do  the  murther  first,  ib. 
Temp.  IV.  i.  233.  6.  You,  Capulet,  shall  go  along  with 
me,  ib.  R.  S^  J.  i.  i.  106.  OE.  andlang,  along,  by  the 
side  ;   cp.  G.  en/lang.] 

ALONG,  adv.^  "l.W.  Dor.  Som.  Dev.  [slori,  slas'r).] 
Used  as  a  suff.  to  advbs.     It  has  the  force  of  -n'lirds. 

I.W.  Up  along,  Down  along  (J.D.R.).  w.Dor.  I'm  going  up 
along,  down  along,  home  along  (C.V.G.').  w.Sora.i  In-along,  up- 
along,  down-along,  here-along,  thcre-along,  along  yonder,  out- 
along.  A  man  said.  'I  be  gwain  zo  vur-s  Holy  Well  Lake,  and  I 
can't  stap  now,  but  I'll  call  in  back  along  '  [on  my  way  back].  Dev. 

'Along '  is  one  of  the  common  as  well  as  most  expressive  of  our  west- 
country  suffixes — Down-along,  here-along,  there-along,  in-along, 
yon-along,  Rcpoiis  Provinc.  (1887)3;  Tellee  whot 'tez,  yii'd  best- 
ways  git  tha  lewzide  ov  tha  badge  gwaine  'ome-along,  Hewett 
Peas.  Sp.  (1892)97  ;  Awl-along,  up-along,  down-along  lee,  ib.  140. 

ALONG,  prep.     Dev.     In  the  course  of,  during. 

Dev.  It  was  along  September  month.  Reports  Pmvinc  (1889). 

[Sprinkled  along  the  waste  of  years,  Keble  Chr.  Year.] 

ALONG  OF,  ON,  WITH,  prep.  phr.  Irel.  All  n.coun- 
ties  to  Shr.  Glo.  Brks.  Hnt.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Wil. 
On  account  of,  owing  to. 

Ir.  Where  along  o'  the  weed-dhrifts  an'  shells  there'd  be  grazin' 
most  whiles  for  the  goats.  Barlow /5o^-/«Hrf  (1892)  5.  N.Cy.i  Nhb. 
Ah  wouldn't  have  ye  troubled  along  of  me,  Clare  Love  of  Lass 
(1890)  I.  79.  Dur.l,  Cum.i  Yks.  It  were  all  along  of  them  soirees 
that  the  first  flood  came,  B.aring-Gould  Pennvqks.  (1870)  57,  ed. 
1890.  ne.Yks.l  It  warn'talongo'me.  e.Yks.i  It  was  all-lang-o  Bill 
that  Ah  went.  ■w.Yks.'^-';  w.Yks.^  It  worrant  longa  me,  it  wor 
longa  thee,  soa  doan't  saay  nowt.  Lan.  It  wor  aw  along  o'  that 
theer  black  jackass,  Westall -B()r/(  Z)i/;c  :  1889)  II.  287;  Because  it 
wasawlung  with  you.  Grose  (1790) ;  Lan.^,  e.Lan.^,  ne.Lan.'  Clis.^ 
Sanshum  fair  !  .  .  .  au  aw'd  cleean  forgetten  aw  along  o"  this  kink 
i' my  back,  Clough  ;  Chs.2  Aw  long  of  such  aone  ;  Chs.^Awlong 
o'  ould  ooman,  we  couldna  come.  s.Clis.i  It's  aw  alung  o'  gooin 
alt  i'  the  reen.  s.Stf.  It  was  all  along  o'  him  meetin'  her  at  the 
chapel  soo  often,  Pinnock  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895').  Stf.^ ;  Stf.^ 
l"heer,  th'  milk's  shed,  an'  it's  aw  alung  o'  thee,  metherin.  Der.^, 
nw.Der.',  Not.  *  Lin.  An'  all  along  o'  the  feller  asturn'd  'is  back  of 
hissen,  Tennyson  Ozi^d  Rod  (1889).  n.Lin.*  It  was  along  on  a 
letter  missin'  'at  my  mare  got  kill'd  It  was  all  along  o'  drink 
'at  he  ended  his  sen  e'  that  how.  sw.Lin.'  It  was  all  along  of  him 
that  I  happened  this.  Rut.*  He  come  downstairs  sheddering,  an' 
went  oop  back'ards  along  of  his  rheumatiz.  Lei.'  NIip.'  It's  all 
along  of  you  that  this  happened.  "War.^^  s.War.i  It  was  all  along 
of  that  Bill  Hancox'  fancies,  that  the  master  kep'  me  in  school. 
Slir.i  It  wuz  all  alung  on  'im  as  'e  wuz  i'  the  public  ;  Sbr.^  This 
comes  alung  o  gween  wi*  sich  a  chap  as  he  is.  Glo.*  Brks.  Afore 
he  got  his  place  along  of  his  bugle  playing.  Hughes  T.  Brown  O.xf. 
(1861)  xxxvi ;  Br'Ks.*  Ut  be  all  alang  o'  that  ther  coortin'  as  a  dwoant 
do  no  work  o'  no  account.  Hnt.  To-day  I  found  him  digging  in  his 
garden,  having  been  cured  '  all  al mg  o'  that  goose-grass,'  N.  &  Q. 
(1866)  3rd  S.  X.268.  Ken.  It's  all  along  of  j'ou  that  I'm  in  this  mess 
tH.M.) ;  I  have  heard  the  expression  '  It's  all  through  long  of  3^ou ' 
(P.M.).  Sur.*  To  the  question,  *  How  did  sin  come  into  the  world  ? ' 
a  lad  replied,  '  It  was  all  along  of  Eve  eating  of  that  apple.'  Sus.* 
Master  Piper  he  lost  his  life  all-through-along-on-account-of  drink. 
Hmp.  'Twur  all  along  o'  they  lawyers.  Foresters  Misc.  (1846)  163. 
Wil.*  'Twer  aal  along  o'  she's  bwoy's  bad  ways  as  her  tuk  to  drenk. 
Slang.  All  along  of  muzzling  the  bobbies,  Mayhew  Land.  Labour 
(1864)  I.  36. 

[And  long  of  her  it  was  That  we  meet  here  so  strangely, 
Shaks.  Cynib.  v.  v.  271  ;  You,  mistress,  all  this  coil  is  long 
of  you,  ib.  M.N.D.  iii.  ii.  339;  I  am  longe  of  this  stryfe, 
Je  siiis  en  cause  de  cestestrif,  Palsgr.  427  ;  On  me  is  nought 
along  thyn  yuel  fare,  Chaucer  Tr.  &-=  Cr.  11.  looi ;  Al  is  on 
niiself  along,  Gower  C.A.  ii.  22;  On  hire  is  al  milifilong, 
Rel.  Songs  (Stratmann).  OE.  gelang,  belonging,  de- 
pending ;  gelang  on,  gelang  at,  because  of,  owing  to.  Cf. 

ALONGSIDE  OF,  ON,  prep.  phr.  Lin.  Sus.  Dor.  Dev. 

n.Lin.l  The  stee's  alongside  on  the  fother  stack.  Sus.  I'd  lie 
down  and  go  to  sleep  alongside  of  it  any  day,  Egerton  Flhs.  and 
Ways  (1884)  33.  Dor.  I  did  bide  alongzide  o'  he  till  the  church  clock 
a'  het  twelve,  Hare  Vil.  Street  (18951  139.  Dev.  A  man  and  his 
missus  can  bide  alongside  o'  one  another  till  death  do  'cm  part, 
O'Neill  Told  in  Diinpses  (1893)  26. 

[Along  (adv.*)  -I-  side.] 

ALONGST,  prep.  Cum.  Chs.  Ken.  Som.  [alo'qst, 
3te-r)s(t).]         1.  Along. 

Cum.*  Alongst,  used  in  old  deeds.     Chs.*  Alongst  the  road. 
2.  adv.  and  prep.     Lengthwise. 

?  Ken.*  [I  do  not  remember  ever  hearing  this,  and  after  much 
inquiry  can  find  no  one  who  has  (P.M.)];  Ken.^  Alongst  it,  on 
the  long  side  of  it,  Somner  Gaz'elkind,  120.  w.Som.*  Alongst, 
used  very  commonly  in  contrast  to  *  athwart '  or  '  acrnss.'  You  'ont 
make  no  hand  o'  thick  there  field  o'  ground,  nif  he  idn  a  guttered 
both  wa3's,  ukraa's-n  ulangs  [across  and  alongst]. 

[It  was  concluded  they  should  come  alongst  Berwick 




Bridge,  Baillie  Letters,   I.  325   (Boucher)  ;  The  herald 
flew  From   troop   to   troop   alongst   the   host,   Chai'man 
Iliad,  IV.  227.     Aloiigst  is  formed  fr.  along  with  the  advb. 
suff.  -es+  parasitic  /,  as  in  ai;(iiitst.] 
ALOOSE,  aihi.     Nhb.     falou-s.J     Loose,  free. 

Nhb.*  '  Let  yorsel  alowse.'  was  the  exhortation  of  a  pitman  to 
a  friend  who  was  batting  stiffly  at  a  cricket  match. 

[A-,  on  + loose  (ON.  lauss).] 

ALOUD,  adv.     Wil.  Soin.     faleu-d.l     See  below. 

Wil.*  That  there  meat  stinks  aloud  [smells  very  bad].  w.Som.' 
As  in  polite  society  wc  hear  of  '  loud  colours,'  so  in  our  lower 
walk  we  talk  of  '  loud  stinks.'  Dhik  rab  ut  fraa'sh  !  ce  stingks 
ulaewd  [that  rabbit  fresh  !  he  stinks  aloud]. 

[The  stuiT,  to  quote  the  trenchant  expression  of  an 
onlooker,  'stank  aloud,'  Dy.  Neivs,  Feb.  1872  (N.E.D.). 
A-,  on  +  loiid.] 

ALOW,  adv}  and  prep.  Sc.  s.Ircl.  Lan.  I. Ma.  Ess. 
[slou'.l     Below. 

Gall.  Silver  Sand.  .  .  never  glanced  either  aloft  or  alow,  Crockett 
Raiders  (1894)  .xi.  Wxf.i  Aloghe,  below.  Lan.  Alonthly  Mug. 
(iSis)  I.  127.  I. Ma.  Where  ami?  alaw  or  alaf  ?  Growne  Docfor 
(1887)  30.  Ess.  As  floeting  ship,  by  bearing  sayl  alowe,  With- 
standeth  stormes  when  boistrous  winds  do  blow,  TussER  Hiis- 
bandrie  ^  1580)  216,  St.  2. 

[Alow,  in  a  low  place,  not  aloft,  Bailey  (1755) ;  And  now 
alow  and  now  aloft  they  fly,  Dryden  ( Johnson  i;  Why 
somme  (briddcs)  be  alowe  and  sonime  alofte,  P.  Plowinaii 
(b.)  XII.  222.     A-,  on  +  low.] 

ALOW,  adv.^  Sc.  n.Ircl.  Nhb.  Yks.  Also  written 
alowe.     [slou'.]     Ablaze,  on  fire. 

Sc.  To  speak  to  him  about  that  .  .  .  wad  be  to  set  the  kiln  a-low, 
Scott  Midlutliitin  (1818)  xlv ;  Sit  down  and  warm  j^e,  since  the 
sticks  are  alow,  ib.  Pirate  (1822)  I.  103.  e.Lth.  Tod-Lowrie  had 
set  the  heather  a-low,  Hunteh/. /n!iif*(i895)  122.  N.I.*  Alowe, 
lit,  kindled.  Ant.  The  chimlcy's  alow,  Ballymena  Obs.  (1892'!. 
Nhb.  Come  and  ye'll  scea  sight.  Yonder's  the  Fairy  Hill  a' alowe, 
Deidiam  Tracts  (cd.  1895)  II.  137  ;  Nhb.'  It  wis  aall  iv  alow  iv 
a  minute.     n.Yks.* 

[It  kindils  on  (a)lowe,  IVars  Ale.x:  4177.  In  OrmiiUim 
16185  there  occurs  o  lo^Jie  (in  flame).     A-,  on  +  loiv,  q.v.] 

ALP,  sb.  n.Cy.  Lan.  e.An.  Also  written  olp  e.An." 
Nrf  Suf.' ;  ope,  awf  Suf.' ;  alf,  ulf  e.An.'  Cf.  also  Hoop, 
Mawp,  Nope,  Pope.     The  bullfinch,  Pyrrlntla  citropaea. 

n.Cy.  Alp,  a  singing  alp,  Gkose  (1790).  Lan.',  e.An.'^  Nrf. 
Alpe,GROSEi  1790  ;  Nrf.'  Suf.  Our  gardeners  slay  the  bullfinches, 
wliich  eat  the  fruit-buds  of  currants  and  gooseberries —  '  mischicf- 
ful  alps,'  as  they  call  them,  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892)  ;  Alpe,  or  alfe 
(F.Ii.);  Snf.'  [Alp,  the  old  name  for  the  bullfinch,  Swai.nson 
Birds  (1885)  66  ;  Morris  /list.  Jiril.  /liids  ( 1857).] 

[An  alpe  (bulfinch),/vHi/V///«,  Coles  (1679);  Alpe,F/«- 
diila.  Prompt.;  Alpes,  finches,  and  wodewales,  Chaucer 
R.  Rose,  658.  The  forms  ending  in  f  (pli)  appear  mostly 
in  compounds,  and  are  pcrh.  due  to  want  of^stress.  See 

ALPUIST,  conj.  Obs.  Sc.  Also  written  allpuist, 
apiece,  apiest.     Although. 

Sc.  Wc  had  been  at  nae  great  tinsel,  apiest  we  had  been  quit  o' 
her,  FoRBEsy>H.  (1742!  14  :  We  cou'd  na'  get  a  chiel  to  shaw  us 
the  gate,  alpuist  w-c  had  kreished  lus  liv  wi'  a  shiilin,  ib.  16  ;  A 
bodie  wou'd  nae  car'd  to  meddle  wi  her,  apiece  they  had  been 
hir'd  to  do't,  ib.  17. 

[See  Albuist.] 

ALRICH,  see  Eldritch. 

ALTER,  v.  Brks.  Som.  [o'lt3(r).]  To  change  for 
the  better  (as  in  phr.  to  alter  the  hand)  ;  to  improve  in  con- 
dition, gain  flesh  (used  of  live  stock). 

Brks.  A  man  alters  for  the  better,  but  changes  for  the  worse 
(M.J.B.\  w.Som.'  Ncef  ee  doan  au'Itur  uz  an,  ee  iil  zdon  bee  een 
u  bae-ud  wai  [if  he  does  not  change  his  course  (alter  his  hand)  he 
will  soon  goto  the  bad  altogether],  Dhai  stee-urz-l  aultur,  muyn, 
een  yoa-ur  keep  [those  steers  will  alter,  mind,  in  your  keep]. 
Dhai  au  gz  bee  aO  Kurd  shoaur  nuuf  [those  hogs  are  altered  sure 
enough  !]. 

ALTERATION,  56.  w.Yks.  Hmp.  [o  Itareijan.]  DifTer- 
ence.  Also  used  as  adj.  Of  the  weather :  changeable, 
uncertain.  * 

w.Yks.  See  what  an  alteration  between  me  an'  Wiseman  ;  he 
likes  baths,  an'  'ud  fair  crj-  if 'e  missed  'em,  an'  I  can't  abide  'em 

(F.P.T.\  Hmp.  I'm  always  much  worse  in  alteration  weather 
vWM.E.F.  . 

ALTERING,  n^'.  w.Som.  [o'ltarin.]  Likely  to  improve. 

w.Som.'  Auctioneers  constantly  wind  up  their  advertisements 
of  cattle  sales  in  the  local  press  with, '  The  whole  of  the  stock  is  of 
the  most  altering  description.' 

ALTER Y,  flr(>'.     Brks.     [oltari.]     See  below. 

Brks.  The  weather  is  said  to  be  a  bit  '  altery '  when  it  '  tokens 

for  rain  '  (M.J.B.). 

[Al/er,  vb.  -I-  -y  ;  the  form  prob.  suggested  by  '  rainy.'] 
ALTOGETHER  SO,  Wt. /■/(/-.    w.Som.   [0  ItageSa  zoa] 
w.Som.'  .\ltogcther  so,  just  to  the  same  degree.     Bill's  all  thumbs, 

and  Jack's  altogether  so  vitty  handed. 

ALUNT,  adv.    Sc.    [alunt.]     In  a  blazing  state. 

Sc.  Hence,  to  set  alunt,  ;i)  to  put  in  a  blaze,  (a) yig.  to  kindle, 
to  make  blaze.  For  if  they  set  the  taxes  higher.  They'll  set  alunt 
that  smoostin'  fire  Whulk  ilka  session  helps  to  beat,  An  when  it 
burns,  they'll  get  a  heat,  Hogg  Pastorals,  16;  Sweet  Mug  maist 
set  my  saul  alunt  Wi'  rhyme  and  Pate's  disease,  A.  Scott  Poems 
(1811)  (Jam.\  Gall.  That  rced-hccd  o' yours  to  set  them  a-lunt, 
CROCKErr  Siiiiboniiet  ',1895)  ix. 

[A-,  on +  ltiiit,  q.v.] 

ALWAYS,  coiij.    Sc.  n.Cy.   Notwithstanding,  however. 

Sc.  The  remonstrants  would  have  opposed  it  (the  coronation  of 
Charles  II),  others  prolonged  it  as  longas  they  were  able.  Always 
blessed  be  God,  it  is  this  day  celebrated  with  great  joy  and  con- 
tentment to  all  honest-hearted  men  here,  Baillie  Lett.  (1775)  II. 
367  (Jam.).     N.Cy.' 

[I  will  not  contende  .  .  .  who  is  the  best.  .  . .  Alway  I 
would  advise  him  not  to  deteine  the  childe,  Elyot  Gov. 
(Boucher)  ;  How  be  it  that  he  had  grete  pyte  . .  .  alwayes 
he  .  .  .  went  his  waycs,  Ca.\ton  Eiteydos,  xxi.  74.] 

AM.  see  He. 

AMACKALLY,  adv.  n.Cy.  to  Yks.  and  Lan.  Not  in 
Sc.  gloss.  Also  written  amackilyWm.  &  Cum.';  amackly 
Win.  Lan.'  [ania'kali,  ama  kli.]  To  some  degree  ;  in 
some  fashion  ;  as  it  were. 

n.Cy.  Grose  (1790);  Hollowav;  N.Cy.' Amackally,  in  a  manner, 
as  well  as  one  can.  Nhb.'  Obs.  Cum.  Did  you  get  your  money  ? 
—  Aye,  we  dud  amackaly.  There  wasn't  time,  but  we  gat  it  duin, 
amackily  (M.P.\  Wm.  &  Cum.'  I  send  tc  thisan,  to  tell  thee 
amackily  what  dreedful  fine  things  1  saw,  Bonoiedalc  Lett.  (1787). 
Wm.  We  leeve  in  yan  o  thor  deeals  up  amang  t'fells — a  fell  hecad 
spot  amackly  es  yan  ma  say,  Clarke  Spec.  Dial.  (ed.  18681  T'Reysh 
Beraritt ;  Fert  ncets  an  daes  wcr  amackily  o  alike.  Spec.  Dial. 
(1885)  pt.  iii.  I  ;  T'poor  fcllo's  pluck  he  amackily  roosed,  Bowness 
Studies  (1868  80;  Wm.'  w.Yks.  Hutton  Tour  to  Oiirs  1,1781)  ; 
Amackly,  almost,  just  about  i^R.H.H.V     Lan.',  n.Lan.',  ne.Lan.* 

[Amackally  may  be  thus  analyzed  :  Amack=a  iiiak  (for 
on  mak),  in  a  fashion  ;  to  this  the  advbl.  suffix  -ly  lias 
been  added,  hence  the  gen.  mg.,  in  a  manner  ;  see  Mack.] 

AMAia, adv.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Yks.  [anii'n,  amean] 
\.  A  coal-trade  term  ;  in  full  force,  violently,  at  full 
speed,  quickly. 

Nhb.&  Dur.  Wagons  or  tubs  are  said  to  run  amain  if  they  get  by 
accident  overan  incline  bank-head  without  the  rope  being  attached, 
or  through  the  rope  becoming  detached  or  breaking,  Nicholson 
Coal  Tr.  Gl.  ;  18881.  Nhb.'  Cum.  Fwok  cu<l  lock  t' wheels  ov  a 
waggon  to  hinder't  o'  runnin'  amain,  Dickinson  Lainplugh  ^1856)  7. 
2.  Fig.  to  get  amain,  run  amain,  to  get  beyond  control, 
run  riot. 

Nhb.  As  if  maw  wits  had  run  amain,  Wilson  Pitman's  Pay,  &c, 
^1843'  23.     w.Yks.  T'fire  on  ffell  got  amain  (iE.B.I. 

[Amain,  vehementer,  valde,  stremie.  Coles  (1679) ;  Cry 
you  all  amain,  '  Achilles  hath  the  mighty  Hector  slain,' 
Shaks.  TV.  S-»  Cr.  v.  viii.  13  ;  Brave  warriors,  march 
amain  towards  Coventry,  ib.  3  Hen.  VI,  iv.  viii.  64.  A-, 
on  +  main  (OE.  ma-gn).] 

AMAISTER,  V.     Ob.s.     sw.Shr.     To  teach. 

Shr.  Bound  Prov.  (1876) ;  Shr.'  An  old  man  near  Leintwardine, 
speaking  of  his  schoolmaster,  said,  ''E  used  to  amaister  me.  Sir.' 
Now  [1876]  rarely  heard  ;  Shr.*  I'll  amaister  it  to  you.  I  insert 
this  word  on  the  single  authority  of  a  man  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Cleobury  Mortimer,  who  assured  me  that  he  had  repeatedly 
heard  it  in  the  above  sense. 

[How  ich  myehte  a-maistren  hem  to  .  .  .  laboure  For 
iiere  lyflode,  /-*.  Plowman  (c.)  ix.  221.  OFr.  amaistrer,  to 
niaster,  to  teach.] 




A-MASKED,  ppl.  adj.     Obs.    Wil.     Bewildered,  lost. 

Wil.  Met  vvitli  in  old  Wil.  documents  (G.E.D.) ;  Wil.l 

[Philosophy  is  darke,  Astrology  is  darke.  .  . .  The  pro- 
fessors thereof  oftentimes  runne  amasket,  Jewel  Holy 
Script.  (N.E.D.)  Aiiiaskcd,  prop,  covered  with  a 'mask,' 
blindfolded  .  A-  (prt'f.^°)  +  masked.  Cp.  tnasked  in  Fuller  : 
Leaving  him  more  masked  than  he  was  before,  Holy 
War,  in.  2.] 

A-MASSY,  int.     Dev.     [a-ma  si.] 

nw.Dev.  Massy  I  A-massy  !  A-massy  well  !  A-massy  me  !  are 
all  common ( R.  P. C).  e.Dev.An' when  'twas  done  (a-maacy  wull'), 
Put  HAN  Skelches  {iS^2)  25. 

[Repr.  Have  mercy.'  Heaven  have  mercy  on  me! 
Shaks.  0th.  v.  ii.  34 ;  Have  mercy,  Jesu  !  ib.  Rich.  HI,  v. 
iii.  178.] 

AMATON,  sb.    Sc.  (Jam.) 

1.  A  thin,  bony  person. 
Gall.  (Jam.  Siippl.) 

2.  A  foolish  person  ;  one  yielding  to  anger. 

AMAUNCE,  AMAUNGE,  see  Maunce. 

AMAZE,  sb.  Wxf.  Written  amize.  Amazement, 


[But  soon  our  joy  is  turn'd  Into  perplexity  and  new 
amaze,  Milton  P.  K.  11.  38.] 

AMBER,  sb.  Ken.  Sus.  [aB-mbs(r).]  A  plant-name : 
applied  to  (i)  All  Saints'  Wort,  Hypericum  androsacmiim, 
from  its  smell  (s.Ken.  Sus.) ;  (2)  St.  John's  Wort,  Hvperi- 
cnm  perforatiwi  (Ken.).  Perhaps  so  called  from  its  pale 
yellow  flowers. 

AMBER,  YELLOW,  see  Yellow  Ammer. 

AMBLE,  V.  Nhb.  Not.  Oxf  Also  written  aumble 
Nhb.i     [ombl,  o-ml.] 

1.  To  walk. 

Nhb.  Obs  (R.O.H.);  Nhb.' 

2.  To  walk  clumsily,  to  trample.     Cf.  shamble. 

Not.  She's  an  omblin',  shomblin'  sort  o'  lass  (,W. H.S.).  Oxf.' 
Amble  about,  to  tread  standing  corn,  &c.  about. 

AMBRY,  sb.  Sc.  n.Cy.  to  Yks.  and  Lan.  ;  also  Der. 
Also  written  aumrie  Sc.  ;  aumry  w.Yks.'  Lan.';  aumery 
w.Yks."  ;  aumbry  N.Cy.'= ;  almery  Nhb.  [a-mbri,  9mri.] 
L  A  chest,  cupboard  where  food  is  kept,  pantry. 

Sc.  Steek  [close]  the  amrie,  lock  the  kist.  Else  some  gear  may 
weel  be  mist,  Scott  Donald  Caird  ( 1818)  ver.  4 ;  The  only  furni- 
ture, excepting...  a  wooden  press,  called  ...  an  ambry,  i'6.  IVavcrley 
(1814)  xxxvii ;  He  has  broken  his  face  on  the  ambry  [is  fat 
cheeked], HendersonP)ioj;.  (1832)  ii4,ed.  1881;  Ambry, cupboard, 
Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  Abd.  That  grim  gossip,  chandler- 
chafted  want.  With  threed  bare  claithing,  and  an  ambry  scant,  Ross 
Hetenore  (1768)  i.  Bwk.  He  kept  his  money  in  an  old  aumrie  of 
very  black  oak,  Henderson  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  87.  n.Cy.  Grose 
(1790);  N.Cy.i;  N.Cy.2  No  sooner  up,  but  the  head  in  the  aumbry, 
and  nose  in  the  cup.  Nhb.l  Cum.  Ton's  welcome  as  may  be  My 
purse  and  my  ambrie  to  share,  Anderson  Ballads  (1808)  gi  ;  Now 
seldom  used  except  in  reference  to  old  buildings,  or  as  a  tempta- 
tion to  buyers  of  old  furniture  in  advertisements— '  An  ancient 
Ambrie' (M. P.).  Wm.i  Yks.  Gang  to  your  aumbrie,  if  you  please. 
And  fetch  us  here  some  bread  and  cheese,  Dcnham  Tracts  (ed.  1895) 
II.  97.  m.Yks.i  w.Yks.  Aumery,  a  cupboard  where  provisions 
are  kept.  Nearly  obs.,  Ul/.x.  IVds.;  w.Yks.'  I  hcd  some  cfter 
temsin  breead  i'  t'aumry.  ii.  300;  w.Yks.*  Lan.  We'n  tarts  an' 
cheese,  an'  a  cowd  saddle  o'  mutton  i'  t'aumry  yon,  Waugh 
Jannock  (1874)  ii  ;  Oppenyon  drawer  i'  th'  aumrie.  Kay-Shuttle- 
woRTii  Scarsdate  (18601  II.  283  ;  Lan.',  ?  Chs.',  Der.> 

2.  Fiir.  Aumrie,  or  muckle  aumrie,  a  very  stupid  person. 
Sc.Muckle  aumrie, a  figurative  expression  applied  to  a  big, stupid, 

or  senseless  person  (Jam.).  BnfT.i  Abd.  'A  muckle  aumrie  '  is  ap- 
plied as  a  term  of  contempt  to  a  clumsy  person  who  has  nothing 
in  him  but  what  the  spoon  puts  in  I  G.W.). 

3.  Conip.  Cap-ambry,  a  press  or  cupboard,  probably 
used  for  holding  wooden  vessels  used  at  meals  (Iam.). 
?  Obs.  ^■'       ' 

[Ambry,  the  place  where  plate  and  utensils  for  house- 
keeping are  kept ;  also  a  cupboard  for  keeping  cold  vic- 
tuals :  a  word  still  used  in  the  northern  counties,  and 
in   Scotland,    Johnson  ;     Aumbry,   a  country   word    for 

a  cupboard  to  keep  victuals  in,  Worlidge  ;  An  ambrey 
(pantrey),  Cella  peitnaria,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Ambry,  vo.xjam 
fere  obsoleta  .  .  .  3.  cupboard's  head,  Skinner,  Bb2;  Al- 
nioire,  an  ambry,  cupboard,  box  ;  .  .  .  Arniaire,  a  cup- 
board, ambrie,  little  press,  Cotgr.  ;  An  almery,  scriniuni, 
alinaiiolimi  ;  .  .  .  An  armorie,  armarium,  Levins  Manip. ; 
Almery  of  mete  kepynge,  cibutum.  Prompt. ;  Avarice  hath 
almaries  and  yren-bounde  cofi'res,  P.  Ploivman  (b.)  xiv. 
246.  OFr.  abuarie,  armarie,  MLat.  armarium,  a  place  for 
implements,  '  arms.'] 

AMBURY,  see  Anbury. 

AMEL,  sb.     Obs.    Sc.   Enamel. 

Sc.  The  amel  of  her  eye,  when  she  smiled,  it  was  impossible  to 
look  steadfastly  on,  IViiiter  Ev.  Tales,  II.  8  (Jam.). 

[Amel,  encaUstum,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Esmail,  ammel  or 
enammel,  Cotgr.  ;  Ainmell  for  goldesmythes,  esmael, 
Palsgr.  me.  Grene  aumayl  on  golde,  Gawaine,  235. 
OFr.  esmail  (mod.  email).] 

AWEVL.prep.     Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.     [anvel.] 
L  Among,  between,  amidst. 

n.Cy.  Amell  one  and  two  o'clock,  Grose  (1790"!  MS.  add.  (P.)  ; 
N.Cy.';  N.Cy.2  Some  pronounce  it  *  ameld.'  Nhb.' Amell  them  twa 
to  drive  a  bargain,  Joco-Serions  Discourse,  29.  Cuni.'^  Nearly,  if 
not  quite,  obs.  n.  &e.Yks.  A-mell  tweay  steauls  the  Tail  may 
fall  to'th  grund,  Meriton  Praise  Ale  (1684!  1.  90.  n. Yks.' They 
cam'  amell  seven  and  eight  o'clock.  '  Chop  in  amell,'  direction  to 
a  colley  or  sheepdog.  He  fand  it  amell  t'shaffs  [sheaves]  ;  n.Yks.* 
ne.Yks.l  The  form  '  mellem  '  i.s,  or  was  recently,  used  at  Staithes, 
where  the  fishermen  divide  the  fish.'  mellem  y an  anoother.'  Amell 
tweea  steeals.  e.Yks.  Amell  six  and  seven  o'clock,  Marshall  liiir. 
Econ.  (1788). 

2.  Camp.  Amell-door,  a  door  midway  between  two 
others  ;  -doors,  a  passage ;  -times,  -whiles,  -way,  see 
below.     See  Mell-doors. 

Cum.2  Amell-door,  or  Mell-door,  a  door  between  the  outer  door 
and  that  of  an  inner  room.  n.Yks.'  ;  n.Yk?.^  Amell-times,  orAmell- 
whiles,  intervals.  Amell-way,  in  a  middling  way,  as  we  say  of 
a  person's  health. 

[Amel,  among,  betwixt,  Sc,  Bailey  (1755)  ;  Amell, 
among,  betwixt,  Coles  (1677)  ;  Erthe  is  vayne  and  voyde, 
and  myrknes  emel,  York  Plays,  6.  Stratmann  has  the 
forms  a  melle  and  /  melle.     See  Mell.] 

AMEN,  in  ccmp.  (i)  Amen-chapel,  see  below;  (2)  -clerk, 
(3)  -curler,  a  parish  clerk  ;  (4)  -wallah,  a  chaplain's  clerk. 

(i)  Slang.  Amen-chapel,  the  service  used  in  Winchester  School 
upon  Founder's  Commemorations,  and  certain  other  occasions,  in 
which  the  responses  and  Amens  are  accompanied  on  the  organ 
(E. F.).  (2)  Shr.'  Amen-clerk,  obs.  Entry  in  the  Parish  Register 
of  Hopton  Castle,  Shropshire;  'Anno  Doifii,  1636.  Richardus 
Beb  Amen-clericus  scpultus  maij  primo.'  Var.  dial.  Clerk,  called 
Amen-clerk  in  some  places,  Pegge  Anec.  Eng.  Lang.  (1803)  318. 
(3)  Slang.  Life B.  M.  Carcw  (1791).  (4!  In  the  army  the  chaplain's 
clerk  is  called  an  Amen-wallah  [Hindustani  for  man  or  person]. 

AMENDEN,  /;;/.  Obs.  ?  e.An.  An  interjection  or 
disguised  oath. 

e.An.'  Suf.'  A  sort  of  oath,  equivalent  to  'a  plague,'  or  a  more 
gross  word,  now  disused.  Where  amenden  ar  yeow  a  goen  ? 
Amenden  take  you.     [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

AMENDMENT,  sb.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Also 
written  mendment  Ken.'  Sus.*  Hmp.'  [ame'ndmant.] 
Manure  laid  on  land. 

w.Ken.  Grose  (17901  71/5.  add.  (P.)  Ken.',  Sur.'  Sus.' You 
go  down  to  the  ten-acre  field,  and  spread  that  amendment  abroad  ; 
Sus.=,  Hnip.l 

[Chalk,  lime,  and  other  sweet  soil  and  amendments, 
Evelyn  Acetaria  (1699),  ed.  1729,  156.  ME.  Yet  sawe  I 
neuer  tree  that  wold  nought  .  .  .  receyuen  tj'lthe  and 
amendement,  LydgatePj'/p'.  Soz('/f( N.E.D. ).  Vr.  amende- 
mcnt.  manure  ;  see  Littre  (s.v.),  Ducange  (s.v.  Ameiida- 
mentnm).  Used  in  this  sense  also  in  Flem. ;  see  Broec- 
kaert  Bastaardiunnrdenboek  (s.v.).] 

AMENDS,  sb.  Der.  Not.  War.  s.Wor.  [ame'nz.]  Phr. 
to  make  amends,  to  return  a  compliment  or  obligation. 

Der.  Still  commonly  used  (H. R.).  nw.Der.'  s.N^t  Ah  thanked 
'im  for  the  tunnips,  an'  told  'im  we'd  mek  'im  amends  when  our 
peas  comed  in  (J.P.K.I.  War.  (J.W.R.)  s.Wor.  Porson  g/(am/ 
ll'ds.  (1875)  20;  (H.K.) 




[To  make  amends,  in  the  sense  of  to  make  a  return  for 
something  good,  seems  to  be  peculiar  to  the  dialects.  In 
iit.  E.  one  always  '  makes  amends '  for  faults  committed 
or  damages  incurred.] 

AMENG,  see  Among. 

AMERICAN,  adj.  CuDih.  (r)  American  breezers,  a  kind 
of  potato  (Oxf )  ;  (2) — creeper,  Tropacohitn  Caiiariense 
(Dev.) ;  (3)  —  lilac,  Cenlraidhiis  ruber  1  Uev.)  ;  (4)  —  rake, 
a  machine  for  raking  hay  ;  (5)  —  waterweed,  (6)  —  weed, 
Aiiacharis  alshiaslriini  (Lin.  Glo.). 

(I)  Oxf.'  (2i  Dev."  In  Som.  this  handsome  climber  is  called 
Canary  creeper.  (31  //;.  American  lilac,  Red  Valerian.  (4)  nw.Dev.' 
American  rakct"  the  turnover  macliine  hay-rake.  {6)  Lin.  The 
plant  has  received  other  trivial  names,  such  as  .  .  .  the  American 
weed,  Miller  ,S:  .Skertchlv  Ftitlmid  (1878)  x. 

AMEVE,  V.     Obs.     Irel.     To  move. 

Crl.  Freq.  used  by  old  persons  twenty  years  ago  ("MB. -.S  ).    Wxf.* 

[Whan  she  had  herd  al  this,  she  noght  ameved.  Neither 
in  word  or  chere,  Chauckr  C.T.  e.  498.  Aiiuve,  OKr. 
ameiiii-,  stressed  stem  oi  ainover,  amoiivoir.] 

AMINDED,  />/>/.  n,/j.  Stf.  War.  Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Som. 
[smai  ndad.]     Willing,  disposed,  inclined. 

E.Stf.  Her  con  alTord  to  put  a  good  spread  on  the  table  when  her's 
aminded,  1'innock  B/H:  Cv.  ^■hui.  (1889)  63.  War.^  D  1  as  3'ou're 
aminded.  Glo.^  You  can  dt)about  that  as}'ou"\'e  got  aminded.  Oxf.* 
rU  go  when  I  be  amindted.  li"  I'd  amindtcd  1  shall  doot,  an*  if 
I  ant  amindted  I  shant.  Brks.'  If  a  beant  aminted  to  do  what 
I  axes  e,  e  med  vind  a  plaayce  zome'er  else.  Som.  An'  then  you 
shall  goo,  if  you  be  a'-minded,  Raymond  Love  and  Quid  Life 
1*1894')  '24.  w.Som.'  I  be  gwain  to  vote  cens  I  be  aminded,  and 
I  baint  gwain  \'or  t'a.x  nobody. 

[A-  </>/vy;=)  4  tniitded.  q.v.] 

AMISS,  in  phr.  amiss  a/.  Suf.  [ami's.]  Amiss  with, 
wrong  with. 

Sut.  What's  amiss  of  John,  that  he  doesn't  go  to  work?  Some- 
thing's amiss  of  the  lawn-mower.  In  everyday  use  (F.H.) ; 
(^E.  C.P.I'.) 

AMITAN,  sb.  Sc.  (Jam.)  A  weak,  foolish  person  ;  one 
yielding  to  excess  of  anger. 


[Gael,  ainadaii,  a  fool.] 

AMMAT,  see  Noon-meat. 

AMMER-GOOSE,  sb.  Sc.  The  great  northern  Diver, 
Co/ymbits  fi;/(ieia/is. 

Abd..e.Ltli.  Amnier,orEmmcr-goose,  SwAiNSON/?/j-a's(i885)  213. 

AMMIL,  aA.     Dev.     [ae'mil.]     A  kind  of  hoar-frost. 

Dev.  There  is  one  peculiar  atmospheric  phenomenon  seen  upon 
Dartmtior,  which  is  of  rare  occurrence. .  .  .  known  to  the  moor- folk 
as  the  *  ammil.*  . .  .  Under  certain  conditions  a  body  of  thin  trans- 
parent ice  encloses  every  tree,  twig,  leaf,  or  blade  of  grass,  Paoe 
Jixpior.  Drlntr.  (1889)  i  ;  The  ammil  continued  for  two  nights  and 
da^'s,  RowE  Perattib.  Drtnir.  (ed.  J896)  431  :  Dilee  iQkee  ;  zee 
tha  trees  be  luking  bQtivul's  marning.  Liikes'z  cf  they  wuz 
covered  wi'  dimonds.  Us  dawnt  offen  zee  tha  ammil  za  thick,  dii 
us  ?  Hewett  Peas.  Sfi.  (iSgaX 

[Prob.  a  fig.  use  of  amel,  q.v.] 

AMMUT,  see  Emmet. 

AMON,  sb.     Obsol.     Ken.     A  child's  game. 

Ken.  A  trial  of  skill,  in  which  the  players  endeavour  to  see  who 
can  get  over  the  most  ground  by  means  of  one  hop,  two  steps,  and 
a  jump.  The  game  is  still  practised,  though  the  word  '  Amon  '  is  only 
known  to  old  people.  Will  ye  try  a'  amon  wid  me,  Jack  ?  I'layin' 
at  amon  does'n  wear  a  youngster's  boots  out  like  hop  scotch  docs 
(A.M.) ;  Name  obs.  round  Ramsgate,  but  a  workman  has  seen  the 
game  played  on  the  sands  under  the  name  of  Fling  (D.W.  L.)  ; 

AMONG, />;</.  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Eng.  Also 
written  ainang  Sc.  Irel.  Cum.  n.  and  e.Yks.  Lan.  Lin. ; 
ameng  w.Yks.  ;  imangs,  imangis  Sc.     [sma't],  ame  q.] 

1.  Between  ;  used  with  reference  to  only  two  things. 
Chs.^  '  Beat  her  among  her  een,'  a  suggestion  frt  m  a  drover  to 

make  a  *  curst '  cow  go  the  right  way.      [Amer.  The    money  was 
divided  among  us  two.  BAUTLErr.] 

2.  In,  into;  together  with;  esp.  in  plir.  to  mi.x  among, 
put  among. 

Sc.  There's  a  mote  amo'  the  milk  (G.W.').     Inv.  To  put  some- 
thing among  milk  or  water  is  to  add  something  to  or  put  something 
into  it  (,H. r.. F. ).    Abd.  Noo,  Mrs.  Birse,  ye  wull  not  pit  fusky  in 
VOL.  L 

amo'  my  tae  [put  whisky  in  my  tea],  Alexander  yoA««vdii(  1871) 
132.  cd.  7.  Per.  Mix  them  a'  ainons  ane  anither  [in  one  mass] 
(,G.W.  \  w.Yks.3  Often  used  without  noun,  as  '  There's  a  Hock  of 
geese  and  ducks  amang.' 
3.  In  phr.  (i)  among lliem,  in  their  own  hands  ;  (2)  among 
them  be  it,  let  them  settle  it  among  themselves,  it  is  their 
alTair  ;  (3)  to  be  among  the  hands  of,  to  be  in  the  iiands 
of,  to  be  treated  or  used  by. 

(i")  w.  ats.Sc.  Iinangs  them,  imangis  thcmsells,  in  their  own  hands, 
together,  in  common  Jam.  Siif'pl.).  (2y  Sc.Ainangyou  be't,  priests' 
bairns ;  I  am  but  a  priest's  oye  [grandson],  Henderson  Prov. 
(1832)  loi,  ed.  i88r.  N.L'  Among  j-e  be  it,  blind  harpers  [settle 
it  among  j-ourselves  :  said  to  persons  quarrelling].  e.Yks.'  w.Yks. 
If  anyone  caame  to  tell  'er  t.nalcs  abaht  oother  foalk,  sha'd  listen, 
an'  then  say,  '  Amang  'em  be't'  (F.P.T.).  (3)  Per.  It's  amo"  your 
hands.     In  common  use  (G.W.). 

[2.  Vinello's  .  .  .  are  much  used  among  chocolate  to 
perfume  it,  D.\mi'ikr  Voy.  I.  235  (N. ED.)  ;  Bawme  helde 
Among  a  basket  ful  of  roses,  Ciialxer  Hous  F.  1687. 
3.  The  vessel  that  the  potter  made  off  claye  brake  amonge 
his  hondes,  CovERDALEycr.  xviii.  4.] 

AMONG-HANDS,  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Dcr. 
Not.  Lin.     Also  written  amongans  sw.Lin.' 

1.  Said  of  work  or  anj'  undertaking  :  done  conjointly,  by 
mutual  help  or  joint  action. 

e.Yks.  Oor  fooaks  is  undhcr-handed  rayther  then  ower-handcd, 
bud  they'll  mannish  amang-hands,  Nicholson  FlkSp.  (1889^  91  ; 
e.Yks.'  They'll  manish  te  dee  it  amang-hands.  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.* 
When  there  is  a  task  of  some  difiiculty  to  do  in  a  workshop  and  none 
to  whose  lot  it  falls  particularly,  any  unpleasantness  is  speedily 
got  rid  of  by  agreeing  to  do  it  *  ameng  hands.' — A  matter  o'  sixty 
lawyers  hed  been  consulted  ,  .  .  soa  ameng-hands  the  property  was 
declared  under  the  cognizance  o'  the  High  Court  o'  Chancerj",  ib.  93. 
n.Lin.  It's  a  orphan,  bud  we  mun  git  it  broht  up  among-han's 
(M.I'."i;  n  Lin.' Thaay  doan't  kciip  a  sar\'ant  lass  noo,  but  thaay 
get  thrif  th'  hoosc-wark  tidy  enif  among-hands.  Th'  bread's  sad, 
but  I  weiint  thraw  it  i'  to  swill-tub  ;  we  shall  get  thrif  it  among 

2.  Between  whiles,  in  the  meantime.  Of  work  :  done  at 
odd  moments,  conjointly  with  other  things.  Cf  atween- 

Ayr.  he  no  dce'd  among  hands  .  .  .  I'm  sure  I  canna  think 
what  would  hae  come  o'  me,  Galt  £'»;/a//(i823  i  xxxii.  Ar.t.  A'll  d.ic 
it  amang  ban's  [after  working  hours,  on  wet  days.  &c  ]  liallymena 
Obs.  (1892).  N  L'lle'lldaetamanghans.  i.e.  he  will  get  it  done  some- 
how, b^*  dividing  the  labour,  anil  finding  spare  time  for  it  n.Yks.' 
n.Yks.2  We  can  do't  amang  hanils.  w.Yks.  Trottin  a  bit  nah  an 
then  ameng-hands  when  t'road  suits,  Tom  Treddleiiovle /Jn/»7;«/a 
./}««.  1,1848) ;  w.Yks.'*,  ne.Lan.',  Der.2,nw.Der.'  sw.Lin.' There's 
a  woman  as  does  the  work,  and  wails  of  her  among-hands.  The 
men  ha\'e  two  lunches  a  day,  and  they  want  beer  among-hands. 

3.  Between,  amongst  other  things. 

w.  &  s.Sc.  Imang  hands,  at  hand,  at  command,  in  process,  on 
the  anvil  (Jam.  Siippl.).  Cum.  We've  roughness  (plenty)  amang 
hands,  we've  kye  i'  the  byre,  Anderson  Ballads  (1808  Tlic  Aiinly ; 
They  wad  ha  kilt  mch  amang  hands,  an  what  couldci  ha  deunn 
wih  sooa  menny  o'  them,  ^,\Ki:.\ssofi  Joe  Scoap  1881)  178.  n.Yks.' 
Oor  cart's  1'  t'market  amang  hands  [along  with  similar  vehicles^. 
w.Yks.5  A  farmer  will  cut  up  a  stack  of  bad  hay  and  truss  it  off 
ameng-hands.  i.e.  mix  it  up  with  tnisses  of  gtod  hay  and  send  it 
thus  to  market  Not.  A've  given  away  a  many  o'  Ihem  (lowers 
amongans  i^L.C.  M.).  swXin.' We've  setten  some  larch  with  spruce 

4.  Of  land  :  belonging  to  difi'erent  proprietors  intermixed. 
w.Yks.  This  word  is  still  used,  but  much  more  rarely  than  formerly 

i^M.F.^ ;  w.Yks.' 

AMOO,,si.    Wil.    Children's  name  for  a  cow.    See  Moo. 

Wil.  Aumoo,  cow  or  buUock  (.now  almost  ohs.\,  N.  &  Q.  (1881) 
6th  S.  iv.  106;  Ahmoos,  used  by  nurses  in  t.ilking  to  children,  on 
the  borders  of  Wil.  and  Som.  (G  E.D.> ;  Wil.'  Used  by  mothers  to 
children,  as  '  Look  at  they  pretty  ahmoos  a  coming ! ' 

AMOTH,  .s7).  Irel.  A  big  soft '  gossoon '  who  would  cry 
for  nothing  (S.A.B.). 

N.I.'  A  blirlon  amos  [sir],  a  big  soft  fellow  who  weeps  for  a  slight 

[Ir.  amad,  a  simpleton,  a  foolish  silly  person,  a  fool.] 

AMOVE,  adj.     Brks.     [amu  v.]     \foving  with,  full  of. 

Brks.'  A  copse  is  said  to  be  '  amove  wi'  gaaymc.' 

[./-,  on  -f  move.] 




AMP.  sb.     Sh.I.    [amp.]     Fear,  terror. 

Sh.I.  ^W.A.G.\  S.&  Ork.i 

[Norw.  dial,  aiiipe,  trouble,  troublesome  work.  It  is 
freq.  used  about  the  trouble  with  babies  (Aasen).  Cp. 
Sw.  dial,  anipen,  angry,  anxious  (Rietz).] 

AMPER,  sb.  e.An.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  Dor.  Som.  Dev. 
[anipa(r),  ae-mp3(r)  ] 

1.  An    inflamed    swelling,    pustule ;    a   varicose   vein  ; 
matter,  pus. 

e.An.i  A  sort  of  inflamed  swelling.  Nrf.'  Suf.  e.Aiig.  (1866) 
II.  325.  Ess.  Amper,  a  swelling  (P.R.) ;  A  rising  scab  or  sore,  allso 
a  vein  swelled  w'"  corrupted  bloud  (K.)  ;  Ess.'  Ken.' A  tumour  or 
swelling.  Sus.i  Hmp.  Prick  it,  an'  let  tli' amper  out  (.IR.W.) ; 
Hmp.'  Dor.l  The  chile  is  all  out  in  an  amper.  Som.  A  small  red 
pimple,  Obs.  Dial.  u'.Eiig.  (1825);  W.  &  J.  Gl. :  Moslly 
used  as  to  gatherings  on  the  fingers  when  '  proud  flesh '  swellings  or 
yellow-heads  come.  I  have  amper  on  one  of  my  fingers  (^G.S.). 
w.Som.i  A  blotch  on  the  face.  n.Dev.  Ampers,  red  spots  and 
inflammation  on  the  skin,  particularly  upon  the  veins  of  the  legs, 
Grose  (1790')  MS.  add.  (H.) 

2.  A  defect  or  flaw  in  cloth. 

Snf.  (P.R.)  Sus.  A  fault  or  flaw  in  linnen  or  woollen  cloth, 
Ray  (1691) ;  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) ;  Sus.',  Hmp.' 

[Amper,  Ampor,  a  swelling ;  also  a  flaw  in  cloth, 
Bailey  (1721) ;  Amper  i'?/ Ampor,  vo.x  Ritsticis  agri Esse.x, 
Ksitatissiina,  quae  iuniorein  vel  phlegmonem  desigiiaf, 
Skinner  ;  An  amper,  ampor,  tumor,  Coles  (1679). 
ME.  pri  ampres  were  an  mancyn  asr  his  to-cyme,  Ho»l  I. 
237.     OE.  atnpre  (ompre),  '  varix,'  a  swollen  vein.] 

AMPERED,  adj.  Ken.  Som.  [sempsd.]  Poisoned, 
festered  ;  decayed. 

Ken.  Ampred  chees  (K.).    Som.  Sweetman  Wiiica>tton  Gl.  (iSSsV 

AMPERLASH,  sb.  Chs.  Saucy,  abusive  language. 
See  Camperlash. 

Chs.  I'll  have  none  o'  thy  amperlash,  soo  I  tell  thee,  Sheaf  ^iS-jCi) 
I.  168  ;  Chs.' 

AMPERSAND,  phr.  In  van  dial,  of  Sc.  and  Eng. 
Also  written  ampassy  Cum.'  Dev.'  Cor.'^  ;  amsiam  Oxf. ; 
anpasty  e.An.' ;  anparsy  Dur.'  w.Yks.'' ;  anparse 
w.Yks.';  anparsil  w.Yks.^  ;  epse-and  Lin.' ;  empassyon 
Shr.';  empusand  Suf ' ;  passyCor.'^;  passy-and  Lin.' ; 
parcy-and  N.Cy' ;  parseyand  e.Yks.'  See  below.  The 
sign  &,  formerly  written  at  the  end  of  the  alphabet  in 

S.&Ork.'  Aberzeant,  et  cetera.  Abd.  Usually  called  Eppersyand, 
A'.  &  Q.  (1880)  6th  S.  i.  500.  N.Cy.i  In  the  old  dames'  schools  it 
was  made  a  twenty-seventh  letter — '  X,  Y,  Z,  and  parcy.'  Dur.', 
Cum.'  n.Yks.2  Amparsy,  or  Amplezant.  ne.Yks.'  Anparsy,  in 
rare  use  ;  sometimes  Parsy-and.  e.Yks.'  w.Yks.  X,  Y,  Z,  and 
parcel,  goa  ta  bed,  Flk-rhyme,  yks.  N.  &  Q.  (1888)  II.  14  ;  Children 
sometimes  conclude  the  alphabet  by  saying  '  X,  Y,  Z,  and  parsil,' 
H/f.i:  fFrfi.  ;  w.Yks.'25  Chs.  &  — per  se— and.  On  battledores 
furnished  to  the  free-school  at  Nantwich  about  the  year  1820-1, 
N.  &  Q.  (1871)  4th  S.  viii.  468.  n.Stf.  He  thought  it  had  been  put 
there  to  finish  ofl'  the  alphabet — though  ampus-and  would  ha'  done 
as  well,  Geo.  Eliot  ^.  Sfrfi?  (1859)  xxi.  Not.' Epsey  and.  Lin.' 
n.Lin.'  '  From  A  to  andparcy  '  is  equivalent  to  '  from  beginning 
to  the  end.'  Lei.' Ampus-and.  War.^  Shr.' Zad  an' expassy  and 
[ek.spu'si'and]  is  heard  about 'Worthcn,  Iii/iod.  xxili.  Oxf.'  Brks.' 
Amsiam  :  always  thus  called  by  children,  and  named  after  the  letter 
Z  when  saying  the  alphabet.  e.An.'  Crab.'  Ab-er  zand,  commonly 
used  in  the  dames'  schools  at  'Wisbech.  Suf.  Beside  [Ampersand, 
Anapasty],  &  is  called  here  Anapasterand  Amperzed,  e. Aug.  (^1866) 
11.363:  Suf.'  e.Sus. , Hmp.  Amperzed, HoLLOWAY.  Som. Anpasscy, 
'W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873)  ;  Jennings  Dial.  iv.Eiig.  (1869').  w.Som.'  Our 
alphabet  always  ends  with  'aeks,  wuy,  zad,  an  paa  sec.'  Dev. 
Ampassy,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp,  (1892)  ;  Dev.',  Cor.'^  Cor.3  In  Red- 
ruth usually  An-passy-an  or  Am  pass3'-an.  Colloq.  Any  odd  shape 
folks  understand  To  mean  my  Protean  ampersand,  Punch  (Apr.  17, 
1869)  153. 

[Repr.  '  and  per  se— and;  i.  e.  '&  by  itself=and.'] 

AMPERY,wi>.    Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Som.    [s  mpari.] 

1.  Covered  with  blotches  or  pimples  ;  gathered. 

Som.  W.  &  J.  Gl.  i  18731 :  My  finger  is  getting  ampery  (CS.). 
w.Som.'  Aampuree  fae-usud  [blotchy  faced].  A  very  common 
description  of  persons,  but  it  would  not  be  spoken  of  animals. 

2.  Of  things,  esp.  of  cheese  :  rotten,  beginning  to  decay. 
Ken.  An  ainprey  tooth,  Grose  (,1790) ;  Almost  equivalent  to  'adie.' 

Said  of  an  old  wagon  in  a  rickety  state  and  out  of  repair  (P.M.'). 
ne.Ken.  Applied  to  a  creaking  table,  decaying  cheese,  or  to  a  loose 
blade  in  a  knife  {H.M.).  Ken.'^  Sur.'  That  cheese  is  middlin' 
ampery.  Sus.  The  doctor  opened  Jim's  mouth  .  .  .  but  seein  naun 
amiss  an  not  won  ampre  ang,  Jackson  Southtvard  Ho  (1894)  I. 
251  ;  Sus.'  Especially  applied  to  cheese.  Hampery,  out  of  repair; 
Sus. 2  Ampre-ang,  a  decayed  tooth.  Hmp.' 
3.  Fig.  of  persons  :  sickly,  unhealthy. 

Ken.  Ampry,  Lewis  /.  Tenet  (1736).  e.Ken.  'A  ampery  'apoth 
of  cheese,'  appliedto  anyoneofa  weakl^'constitutionl^M.T.).  Ken.'  ^ 
e.Sus.  HoLLOWAY.     Sus.' 2,  Hmp.' 

[Amper,  q.v. -(--j'.] 

AMPLE,  adj.  Shr.  Also  written  imple  Shr.'  [a'mpl.] 
Complete,  perfect. 

Shr.  Very  commonly  used  i,M.L  )  ;  Shr.'  It  wuz  all  in  ample  order 
agen  they  comen  back. 

AMPLEFEYST,  sb.    ?  Obs.     Sc.  (Jam.) 

1.  Applied  to  persons  or  animals :  a  sulky  humour,  a  fit 
of  spleen. 

Lth  ,  Kxb.  A  horse  is  said  to  tak  the  amplefeyst,  when  he  be- 
comes restive,  or  kicks  with  violence.  He's  ta'en  up  an  amplefeyst 
at  me 

2.  Unnecessary  talk,  long  stories. 

Rxb.  We  canna  be  fash'd  wi'  a'  his  amplefeysts.  [Not  known 
to  our  correspondents.] 

AMPLUSH,  sb.  Irel.  s.Pem.  [a'mpluj,  u-mpluj.]  A 
disadvantage,  non-plus,  state  of  unreadiness. 

Ir.  He  was  driven  at  last  to  such  an  amplush  that  he  had  no  other 
shift  for  employment,  Carleton  Traits  (1843)  i.  w.Ir.  There  was 
no  sitch  thing  as  getting  him  at  an  amplush.  Lover  Leg.  (1848) 
II.  472.  S.Don.  Amplush.  a  fix,  a  difficulty  ;  used  also  in  Munster, 
Simmons  Gl.  (1890).  s.Pem.  I  did'n  expect  it,  a  took  me  all  on  a 
umplush  (,'W.M.M.\ 

[Repr.  «o«-//«s.] 

AMPLUSH,  V.  Bnff.  Irel.  To  reduce  to  a  dilemma,  con- 
fuse in  argument. 

Bnff.'  w.Ir.  He'd  have  namplushed  me  long  ago.  Lover  Leg. 
(1848)  II.  510. 

[See  Amplush,  sb.'\ 

AMSCHACH,  si.    Sc.    A  misfortune,  accident. 

Sc.  Grose  (1790  MS.  add.  iC.)  Bnff.  The  vricht  [wrightl  fell 
afl"o'  the  reef  o'  the  hoose,  an  got  a  gey  sehr  namschach  o' thehead 
(■W.  G.).  Abd.  But  there  is  nae  need  To  sickan  an  amshach  that 
we  drive  our  head,  Ross  Heleiiore  (1768)  284. 

A-MULLOCK,  adv.  s.Wor.  Glo.  Untidily  ;  in  a  con- 
fused heap.     See  Mullock. 

s.'Wor.  Very  commonly  used  (H.KV  Glo.  Down  er  went  on 
ers  back  arl  a-mullock,  Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn  (.1890)  vii. 

[A-,  on  + DiullOik,  q.v.] 

AMY  FLORENCE,  sb.     Obs.     Nhp. 

Nhp.'  An}'  female  loosely,  untidily,  and  tawdrily  dressed.  She 
is  quite  an  Amy  Florence.  Now  nearly  obs.  [Not  known  to  our 

A'N,prou.  Sc.  n.Cj'. ;  also  Shr.  Also  written  ana  Sc. 
See  One  and  Van.     [en,  an.]     One. 

Per.  A  bad  ane,  a  good  ane.  Mony  a  ane  thinks  his  neighbour 
a  coorse  ane  [coarse  person]  (G.  W.').  e.Lth  An'  whan  the  warlock 
bodies  cuist  doun  their  staves,  an"  they  turned  into  serpents  tae, 
Awron's  ane  stude  up  on  its  hint  legs  an'  devoored  them  a', 
Hunter/,  //ctw/- 11895'!  I02.  Edb.  The  wee  ane  (J.'W.L.).  Cum. 
Git  up,  my  leuvv,  my  fair  an,  an'  come  away,  Dickinson  Sng.  Sol. 
(1859)  ■'•  i°-  s.'Wm.  A  dunnan  [dun  an]  and  a  black  an,  Hutton 
Dia.  Storth  and  Arnside  (1760)  1.  23.  n.Yks.  It  wasn't  t'reetan, 
TweddellC/cz'c/. /v!/iv»"«(i875)37.  w.Yks.' He's  a  bad  an.  That's 
a  good  an.      Shr.^  A  bad  an. 

AN,  num.  adj.  Sc.  Nhb.  [an,  yan.]  The  same, 

Gall.  They  were  fast  comrades,  being  of  an  age,  Crockett  Moss 
Hags  1,1895)  322.  Nhb.  Ki  Geordy,  We  leve  i'  yen  raw,  weyet, 
r  yen  corf  we  byeth  gan  belaw,  weyet,  N,  Minstrel  (1806-7)  pL 
iv.  76. 

AN,  prep.  Sc.  [an.]  By,  about  the  time  of,  often  im- 
plying before. 

w.  &  s.Sc.  I'll  be  back  an  gloaming.  It'll  be  a'  by  an  ye  come  back 
(Jam.  Siippl. ).  Per.  An,  before ;  not  used  so  frequently  as  '  gin '  or 
'gan.'     I'll  be  there  an  an  hour  t^G.W.). 

[Prob.  an  unstressed  form  of  Sc.  agane  (see  Again). 
I'll  be  back  agane  gloaming  (Jam.).] 




AN,  coiij}  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  n.  and  w.Yks.  Lan. 
Der.  Also  in  Nhp.  Glo.  e.An.  Sur.  Hmp.  Som.  Dev. 
Written  ant  Den'    [an,  an.] 

1.  If;  found  also  in  comb.  Antle,  if  thou  wilt. 

Sc.  Ye  may  gae  hame  an  ye  like,  Henderson  Prot>.  (1832')  58,  cd. 
iSSi  ;  You'll  wash  my  bluidy  wounds  o"cr  and  o'er.  And  see  an 
they'll  bleed  nae  mair,  Jamieson  Pop.  Ballads  (1806)  The  Twa 
Brothers'^  An  they  had  ever  had  the  luck  to  cross  the  Firth,  Scott 
Midlothian  (1818)  xi;  I  fore-ran  A  wee  wee  wife  and  a  wee  wee 
man  ;  And  sae  will  I  3'ou  an  I  can,  Chambers  Pop.  Rhynies  (1870) 
86;  The  biggest  salmon  in  the  river  couldna  gie  Jonah  lotigings 
an  it  had  been  willing,  Dickson  Atild  Mill.  (1892)  105.  Abd.  An  it 
had  been  a  tyddic  pennyworth,  I  might  hae  chanc'd  to  get  a  mens 
[civility]  o'  her,  Fokbes  Jni.  (1742)  15.  Frf.  Twenty  year  syne 
we  began  life  taegither,  and  an  it  please  God  we  can  begin  it  again, 
Barrie  Mimslcr  (1891)  x.wi.  Per.  Ye  may  lauch  an'  ye  like, 
neeburs,  Ian  Maclaren  Brier  Bush  (i8^$)  2^8.  Twd.  Febmarj-, 
an  ye  be  fair.  The  hoggs'll  mend,  and  nacthing  pair  [lessen]: 
Fcbruarj',  an  j-e  be  foul,  The  hoggs'll  die  in  ilka  pool,  Swainson 
IVealhfr  Flk- Lore  {i8j3)  3g.  Gall.  Whene'er  we  meet  wi'  liquor 
guid,  we'll  drink  an  we  be  dr\*.  Nicholson  f/isf.  Tales  (1843^  107. 
n.Cy.  Antle,  an  ihou  wilt  (W.W.S.).  Nhb.'  An  yer  gannin  the 
morn,  will  ye  tyek  us  wi'  ye  ?  Cum.  Tou  couldn't  mend  laws  an 
tou  wad,  man,  Hlamire  Poef.  Whs.  (c.  1794)  arc.  Wm.'  An  tu  dus 
aa'l  [I'll]  whack  tha.  Yks.  Antic.  Grose  11790)  Siippl. ;  He'd  a  gaed 
hame  that  noight  an'  thou'd  a  let  him,  Howitt  Hope  on  (^1840)  xi. 
n.YkE.'2,  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.'  An  he  were.  Antot'hed,  if  thou  hadst. 
Antul,  if  thou  wilt.  It's  nout  at  an,  antui  believe  me.  bud  a  blind, 
ii.  297  ;  w.Yks.'  An  thah  doesn't  let  that  aloan  al  hagcl  thee  rig  for 
thuh.  Lan.'  Aw'II  warm  thee,  an  thae  does  it  ne.Lan.'  He'll 
cum  an  a  sed  sooa.  Der.'  Ant  like  yo  yobs.  1890''.  Glo.  An,  if.  but 
often  joined  with  '  if.'  An  he  comes  here,  I  will  rattle  him,  Grose 
(1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  e.An.'  An  I  do.  Sur.  When  skulemaster 
talked  o'  teachin'  'em  drawin',  I  up  and  told  him,  an'  "ee  did  it  my 
old  man  should  draw  more  lines  on  *ee's  back  than  ever  the  laads 
did  a'  paper,  Bickley  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  I.  xiii.  Hmp.'  An  I  were 
back,  I'll  pay  you.  w.Cy.  The  western  man  saith  '  Chud  eat  more 
cheese  an  chad  it,'  Blount  (1656"!.  w.Som.' An  yiie  plaiz  [if  j-ou 
please].  Dev.'  CoUoq.  If  ifs  and  ans  were  pots  and  pans  thei  c'd 
be  no  trade  for  tinkers,  Prov, 

2.  Although.     ?  Obs. 

Sc.  Get  enemies  the  mastery  over  Christ  as  thej*  will ;  He  will 
ay  be  up  upon  them  all,  an  they  hadsworn't,  GirruRiE  Sennon  (,1755) 
II  (Jam.). 

3.  All  if,  if.    See  Nif. 

Nhp.'  An  if  I  did,  what  of  that?  w.Som.'  An  if,  the  regular 
form  of'  if.'  In  rapid  common  speech  it  is  nearly  alw.ays  contracted 
into  '  nif.'  Neef  aay  wuz  j'iie,  aay-d  zee  un  daam  fuus  [if  I  were 
you  I  would  see  him  d — d  first]. 

4.  An  as  if,  as  it  were. 

n.Yks.  An  as  if  the  gethcrin'  o'  twcea  armies,  Rodinson  Whitby 
Sng.  Sol.    i860)  vi.  13. 

[1.  This  word  is  mostlj'  written  mid  in  the  old  writers, 
and  is  identical  with  lit.  E.  aiit/,  OE.  tvid  (oiid)  '  ct.'  The 
forms  and  and  an  both  occur  in  Shaks.  (in  old  edd. 
mostly  aitt{)  :  Ay,  mj'  lord,  an't  please  j'ou,  J.  Caesar,  iv. 
iii.  258  ;  And  1  were  a  pope  Not  only  thou,  but  every 
mighty  man  .  .  .  Sholde  have  a  wyf,  Chaucer  C.  T.  b. 
3140.  The  word  and  in  the  sense  of '  if '  does  not  seem  to 
nave  come  into  use  bef.  the  beginning  of  the  13th  cent. 
The  earliest  instance  in  Matznkr  is  fr.  Lnyiinon,  I.  355. 
2.  An  thou  wert  a  lion,  we  would  do  so,  Shaks.  Love's 
L.L.  v.  ii.  627.  3.  An  ;/ frcq.  in  Shaks.:  It  is  not  lost; 
but  what  an  if  it  were?  Olh.  hi.  iv.  83  ;  An  if  your  wife  be 
not  a  mad-woman,  M.  Ven.  iv.  i.  445.] 

AN,  conj?  Sc.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Glo.  Oxf.  e.An.  Som. 
Also  written  and  Not.     [an.]     Than. 

s.  &  w.Sc.  Its  mair  an  ye  deserve  (Jam.  Siippl.).  Wm.  Warse 
an  that,  Briggs  Remains  {182^)  182.  n.Yks.'  Less  an  hau'f  nowght 
e.Yks.'  That's  waase  an  all.  n.Lan.  The  lov's  better  an  wine, 
PiiiZACKERLEY  S;(_i^.  So/,  (i860)  V.  2.  nc.Lan.'  Not.  No  more  and  I 
(  Glo.  Ale  seems  more  solider  'an  cider  this  cold  weather, 
GissiNG  ym.  Haiiipden  I  i8go)  I.  vi.  s.Oxf.  Six  'car  younger'n  'im 
you  was,  Rosemary  Chilterns  (,1895)  125.  e.An.'  Little  more  an  a 
half.  Nrf.  We'll  remahmbcryar  love  more 'an  wine.  5«5'. 
Sol.  (i860)  i.  4.  Som.  I  don't  know  any  maid  I'd  sooner  zee 
about  my  house  .  .  .  an'  I  would  you,  Raymond  Sam  and  Sabinn 
(1894)  49.  w.Som.'  Noauudhur  waiz-n  u  naat'urul  [no  other  than 
anaturaH,fool)].    Dev.  More  an  that,  Moore //is/.  Dev.  (1839)  I.  353. 

AN,  see  Anon. 

AN-,  see  On-. 

ANA,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  (Jam.)  Also  written  anay.  A 
river-island,  a  holm. 

Sc.  The  stones  at  the  head  of  the  anay.  Rxb.  The  Ana,  or  island, 
opposite  to  the  library,  was  many  feet  under  water,  Co/<'rfo«.  Mere. 
(Jan.  29,  1820^. 

ANACK,  s6.     Obs.     Hrt.    A  kind  of  bread. 

Hrt.  Six  several  sorts  of  [oatmeal  bread]  may  be  made  ...  as 
your  anacks,  janacks,  &c. ,  Ellis  Cy.  //",/.  '  1750    205. 

[Anack,  a  sort  of  fine  bread  made  of  oatmeal,  Bailev 

ANAN,  sec  Anon. 

AN  ATE,  adj.    s.Ircl. 

Wxf.i  An.-ite.  prepared. 

ANATOMY,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  and  in  gen.  use  throughout 
dial.  exc.  in  se.  counties.  Also  by  apiiaercsis  natomy. 
notomy,  atomy.  The  latter  form  occurs  in  Nhb.'  w.Yks.* 
ne.Lan.'  n.Lin.'  nw.Der.'  Der.*  War.  se.Wor.'  Ilrl.'* 
w.Som.'  Dev.  Cor.'^;  ottomy  w.Yks.'*  Nhp.';  ottomy 
Irel.  Chs.'  Der.' War. :  otoniy  w.Yks.*  Ilrf  Glo.';  nottamy 
n.Cy.'  nw.Der.'  Shr.' ;  notomize  n.Yks."*  w.Yks.'  War. 
se.Wor.' ;  ottimaze,  ottimize  Chs.'  War.  See  below, 
[ana'tami,  atami,  no'tami,  o'tami,  -aiz.] 

1.  A  skeleton. 

Sc.  Attamie  Jam.).  N  Cy.'  Wm.  Wor  thor  giants  alive! .  .  . 
they  er  netvvhick  I  racken,  they  er  what  they  coo  otamys,  Wheeler 
Dial.  (1790)  98,  ed.  1821.  n.Yks.'  m.Yks.'  Notomise,  Notomy. 
w.Yks.'2;  w.Yks.*  He  use  to  goa  through  a  trap  door  intui  t'cellar 
ivvry  daay  to  hike  ar  it  [his  money],  an'  one  daay  t'trap  door  fell 
ower  him  an'  clickt  him  in,  an'  monny  a  year  at  after  he  wur  fun  a 
notomize.  Lan.  An  gooin  obeawt  stretes  loike  o  lot  o  "notamies, 
Ormerod  TV;'  Felleyfro  Rachde  (1851)  i.  e.Lan.'  Notomy.  Chs.', 
Der.2  Rut.  Yon  lad's  got  a  good  ottamies.  'e  'asn't  got  a  sprained 
bone  in 'is  body  (F.P.T.).  Nhp.',  War.i  J.R.W.)  se.Wor."  Atomize. 
Hrf.',  Glo.'     Hnt.  Nottomy,  Nattomy  lT.P.F.\     e.An.' 

2.  A  very  thin,  emaciated  person  or  animal,  a  '  bag  of 
bones,'  also  altrib. 

Sc.  She  is  wasted  to  a  fair  anatomy.  Roy  Horseman's  JI'd. 
(1895  ,  vi.  Nhb.'  He's  just  a  bit  atomy.  She's  gyen  tiv  a  fair  notomy. 
Cum.'  She's  dwinncl't  away  til  a  atomy.  n.Yks.'  He's  pined  tiv 
a  notomize,  there's  nought  left  on  him  but  a  few  bccans  an  a  trifle 
o'  bowels.  Chs.'  The  child  that  she  carried  on  her  arm  was  sup- 
posed to  be  witched,  for  it  went  into  a  nottymaze  and  died 
(s.v.  Witched).  s.Chs.'  Eh,  what  a  nottimize  yo  bin  ;  j'o  dun  loc'k 
badly.  Der.',  nw.Der.' Anotomy.  Nottoniy.  n.Lin.',  War.  J.R.W.) 
Wor.  'Er  was  that  wasted,  'er  'ad  got  to  be  a  complete  natomy,  or 
frameo' bwones  ;  H.K.).  s.Wor.' Nottomy.  se.Wor.'  Shr.' A  cer- 
tain faddy  mistress  '  werritcd  the  poor  giild  [her  inaid-scr\-ant]  till 
'erwuza  rael  nottamy.'  Hrf.' He's  gone  to  an  atomy.  Glo. 'Natomy, 
Baylis///«s. /)/(»/.  (1870^  Oxf.'  Natomy.  Notomy.  'Er  little  un's 
nuth'n  but  anatomy  [UurlitI  unz  nuth-n  bt  u  nat  umuuy].  Suf.' 
He's  wasted  to  a  nottamj'.  'Tis  nawn  but  a  nottomize.  Wil.' 
Natomy,  Nolamy,  Notamizc.  Dor.  Lookzce  didst  ever  zee  zich  a 
leedle  notomy  (I".  P.).  w.Som.' Poor  blid  !  [blood,  i.e.  body]  her  idn 
no  otherw,iys'n  nottomy,  her  can't  make  use  o'  nort.  A  proper 
old  nottamy  [oal  tumee].  Atomies,  worn  out,  wretched 
creatures.  Dev.  'And  pray,'  said  the  bishop,  'were  yoii  at  all 
inconvenienced  by  keeping  the  body  [a  baby]  a  day  longer!' 
'  Not  a  bit  o't,  my  lord  ;  us  might  have  kep'  un  till  these  d.iy  — 
'twas  but  a  poor  atomy  thing.'  Memoir  Russell  (1878)  ix.  Dev.^ 
Marj'  Ann's  babby  is  a  wislit  atomy  cheel.  and  by  awl  tullin' 
'er  idden  long  vur  thcase  wordle.  Cor.  He's  thin  as  a  natamus 
(H.D.L.);  Cor.'  Anatomis ;  Cor.^  Notomy,  a  little  dried-up  man. 
Cant.  That  old  dried-up  otomy,  who  ought  to  grin  in  a  glass  case 
for  folks  to  stare  at,  Ainsworth  Ronhiood '^183^)  bk.  ill.  ii.  [NBd. 
Poor  John  is  reduced  to  a  n.atomy  iG. P  \] 

3.  A  pigmy,  diminutive  person,  a  small  thin  'slip  of  a 
fellow.'     Cf  accamy. 

w.Ir.  The  halfof  wliat  the  dirty  little  ottomy  wasreadin'.  Lover 
if?- (1848  11.475.  s.Wxf.  J'.J.M.i  Lan.  Thou  little  otty-motty  ! 
Brieriey  ll'averlow  (1863)  17.  ed.  1884.  Br'/is.'  Dost  think  anj'- 
body  'ud  mind  a  natomy  of  a  chap  like  thee! 

4.  Used  contemptuously,  of  a  man. 

Lth.  He's  a  big,  .saft.  lowbred,  useless  anatomy  o'  a  man, 
Strathesk  More  Bits  1885^  283.  War.  Though  what  could  make 
her  take  up  with  a  poor  nolomise  of  a  parson,  as  hasn't  got 
enough  to  keep  wife  and  children,  there's  One  above  knows  — 
I  don't,  Geo.  Eliot  Amos  Barton  (,1858)  vi.     Dev.  A   native  of 

H  2 




Torcross  spoke  derisively  of  the  caravan-folk  who  came  to  the 
regatta  as  '  a  passel  of  old  atomies,'  Reports  Piovinc.  (1883)  80. 
5.  A  small  portion  ;  a  particle  of  anything  previously  of 
larger  bulk. 

n.Yks.2  There's  nobbut  an  atomy  on't  left. 

[1.  An  anatomy,  scchioii,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Scelcic,  the 
whole  coagmentation  of  bones  in  their  natural  position, 
also  an  anatomy  made  thereof  .  .  .  which  we  call  a 
skelton  or  skeleton,  Cotgr.  ;  Death,  death,  O  amiable 
lovely  death  !  .  .  .  that  fell  anatomy,  Shaks.  A'.  John,  in. 
iv.  25,  40.  2.  One  Pinch  :  a  hungry  lean-faced  villain, 
A  mere  anatomy,  ib.  Com.  En:  v.  i.  238  ;  Thou  atomy, 
thou  !  — Come,  you  thin  thing,  ib.  2  Hen.  IV,  v.  iv.  33. 
The  forms  in  -ize,  as  ottiinise,  notoiiiize,  are  prob.  due  to 
anatomise,  vb  ] 

ANAUNTERS.  conj.,  adj.  and  sb.  Usually  in  pi.  In 
n.  counties  to  Yks.  and  Lan.  Also  written  enanters 
N  Cy.'  n.Yks.  ;  anaunter  Nlib.' ;  enaunter  w.Yks.' ; 
ananters  Nlib.'  Dur.'  Cum.  Wm.  n.Yks.  w.Yks.'  ne.Lan.'; 
ananthers  Wm.  n.Yks.'^  ne.Yks.'  m.Yks.';  enanthers 
n.Yks.'^    [anant3(r),  a'ntar.] 

1.  coitj.     Lest,  in  case  that. 

N.Cy.i  Nhb.i  Ananters  aa  get  well  home.  Dur.'  Cum,  &  Wm. 
*  A'll  just  put  in  a  few  garden  seeds,  ananters,'  said  a  village  shop- 
keeper in  sending  an  order  to  a  customer  in  the  spring  (M.P. ). 
Wm.  Step  in  tae  see  yaur  nebbors  en  ant  er  they  will  be  vexed, 
Wheeler  Dial.  (1790)  85,  ed.  1840.  n.Yks.  Ah'd  better  drop,  in 
anters  'at  Ah  gi'es  tha  ower  mitch  ov  a  gud  thing,  Tweddell  Clevch 
Rhytnes \i8-] 5]  ^o  ;  n.Yks.^  ;  n.Yks.2  Ananthus.  I'll  take  my  eloak, 
ananthers  it  should  rain.  ne.Yks.^  Thoo  mun  stop  here  ananthers 
he  cums.  m.Yks.^  w.Yks.  Hutton  Tour  to  Ca^rs  {I'jSi)  ;  w.Yks.* 
Ananters  he  does  lick  us.  To  mack  a  girt  bloaz,  ananters  they 
spy  a  leet  i  t'other  beacons,  ib.  31,  ed,  1834.     neXan.^ 

2.  adj.    Applied  to  '  company '  dishes. 

Cum.  &  Wm.  Ananters  pudding,  an  e.xtra  Sunday  dish  to  be  used 
in  case  of  the  arrival  of  company  (^M.P.). 

3.  sb.  conip.  Poke-anaunters. 

Wm.  The  nickname  '  poke-ananthers  '  was  given  to  a  good  Tor- 
nothing  who  always  carried  a  bag  in  case  he  met  with  anj'thing 
worth  picking  up  ( J.M.). 

Hence  Anaunterscase,  avy.  lest  it  should  be  the  case. 

N.Cy.*  Nanterscase.  n.Yks.'  Nanthcrskeease.  ne.Yks.'  The 
form  ananthers  case  was  frequently  used  near  Northallerton  some 
years  ago;  but  now  obsolete,  or  very  nearly  so. 

[Anger  nould  let  him  speake  to  the  tree,  Enaunter  his 
rage  mought  cooled  be,  Spenser  S/i.  Kal.  Feb.  igg  ;  With 
them  it  fits  to  care  for  their  heir,  Enaunter  their 
heritage  do  impair,  ib.  May,  77;  An  aunter  hit  nuyede 
me,  P.  Plowman  (c.)  iv.  437  (an  auenturc,  (b.)  hi.  279) 
Ah,  on  +  atinler  (aiienlnre),  OFr.  aventtire,  Lat.  adventiira.] 

ANAUNTRINS,  conj.  Obs.  Nhb.  Yks.  ;  nantherins 
n.Yks.°     If  so  be,  peradventure. 

n.Cy.  (K.);  N.Cy.'  Nhb.  Grose  (1790).  n  Yks.'^  Nantherins. 

[Anaiiit/rins,  if  so  be.  Coles  (1677).  Anaiinler  +  -ings, 
advb.  ending;  see  above.] 

ANBURY,  sb.  Yks.  Lin.  Nhp.  e.An.  Also  written 
hanbury  Nhp.^  Nrf  Suf.' ;  nanberry  n.Yks.'  w.Yks. ^ 
Ercq.  ambury  and  anberry.    [a'nbari,  a'nibari.] 

1.  A  spongy  swelling  on  the  bodies  of  horses  or  oxen. 
n.Yks.'     w.Yks.^  Nanbury,  a  kind  of  wart  formed  on  the  bag  of 

a  cow.  n.Lin.*  Nhp.'  Anberry,  a  small  excrescence  at  the  end  of 
a  horse's  nose.  .  .  .  We  occasionally  apply  it  to  a  wart  on  the  heel. 
e.An.'  Anberry,  a  small  swelling,  or  pustule,  to  which  horses  arc 
subject  on  the  softest  parts  of  their  bodies.  Nrf.  The  hanbery, 
a  distemper  in  a  horse's  heel,  which  was  a  watry  excrescence, 
that  would  sometimes  grow  to  the  bigness  of  one's  fist,  Lisle 
liusliundry  (1757). 

2.  A  disease  affecting  turnips  and  other  allied  plants, 
popularly  supposed  to  be  due  to  the  puncture  of  an  insect. 

n.Cy.  Anbui-y,  Grose  (1790)  Siippl.  Nhp.',  e.An.'  Nrf.  That 
common  destructive  turnip  disease  ...  in  the  sandy  grounds  of 
Norfolk  .  .  .  [which]  is  there  called  anbury  [called  also  fingers-and- 
toes],  Ellis  Mod.  Hush.  (1750)  IV.  i.  27.  e.Nrf.  The  anbury  is  a 
large  excrescence,  which  forms  itself  below  the  apple  [i.e.  root  of 
turnip].  It  grows  to  the  size  of  both  the  hands  ;  and,  as  soon  as 
it  is  .  .  .  brjught  to  maturity,  it  becomes  putrid,  and  smells  very 
offensively,  Marshall  Rur.  Ecan.  (1787).     Suf.' 

[1.  Ambury  (Anbury),  a  bloody  wart  on  any  part  of  a 
horse's  body,  Johnson  ;  A  disease  in  horses  breaking  out 
in  spungy  swellings,  Bailey  (1721) ;  The  ambury  (in 
horses),  Verruca  spongiosa  sanguine  plena.  Coles  (1679)  ; 
Ambury,  Morbus  equoruin.  Skinner  ;  Moro,  a  mulberry- 
tree,  also  a  kind  of  wartle  in  some  horses,  called  an 
anberry,  Florid.     Prob.  a  variant  of  Angleberry.] 

ANBY,  adv.  Wil.  Dor.  Som.  Also  written  amby 
w.Som.'  [anbai',  ambai'.]  Presently,  by  and  by;  anby 
night,  to-night. 

Wil.'  I  be  main  busy  now,  but  I'll  do't  anbye.  Dor.  Anby 
(W.W.S.).  Som.  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825).  w.Som.' 
When  be  gwain  ': — Oh  amby,  can't  go  avore.  Umbye,  used  with 
'  night '  in  thesenseof  to-night.'  Nifyou  wantto  catch'n,  look  in 
to  Half- Moon  umbye  night,  'bout  of  a  nine  o'clock 

[Perh.  for  'by  and  by.' — At  Yatesbury,  n.Wil.,  the 
form  used  is  (or  was)  present-an-bye,  which  seems  to  com- 
Xnxxc presently  and  by  and  by  (G.E.D.).] 

ANCE,  V.     Sh.  and  Or.I. 

1.  To  heed,  care  for.     Usually  with  negative.     See  Ant. 
Sh.I.   (Coll.  L.L.B  );  Never  anse  him.     Will  du  no  anse  me? 

[pay  attention]  (K.I.). 

2.  To  have  regard  to,  to  concern. 
Or.I.  It  is  little  anced  to  you  (K.M  ). 
ANCH,  see  Hance. 

ANCHOR,  sb.  Yks.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  Glo.  Hmp.  Also 
written  anker  w.Yks.'^*     [a"i)ka(r),  er)ka(r),] 

1.  The  chape  of  a  buckle,  the  part  by  which  it  is  attached 
to  the  belt,  strap,  &c. 

N.Cy.i  e  Yks.' MARSHALL/?»)-.£fO».  (1788).  w.Yks.' ;  w.Yks.s 
Enchor.  Glo.  Grose  ii79o"l  ;  Anchor,  so  called  from  its  holding 
fast  the  strap  inserted  in  it,  Hollowav.  e.An.'  The  part  of  a 
buckle  .  .  .  put  into  a  slit  in  the  strap  ;  so  called  from  some  resem- 
blance in  shape  to  an  anchor.  Hmp.'  Wil.  The  anchor  is  the 
part  by  which  [a  buckle]  is  first  fastened  :  opposed  to  the  tongue 
which  holds  it  when  fixed,  Britton  Beauties  (,1825)  ;  Wil.' 

2.  The  tongue  and  swivel  of  a  buckle,  the  part  which 
pierces  the  strap  and  keeps  it  in  place. 

w.Yks.''*,  n.Lin.'  Lei.'  The  piece  of  metal  [called  also  Anchor- 
piece]  is  shaped  something  like  an  anchor.  The  hole  in  a  buckle 
through  which  the  strap  passes  is  called  the  '  mouth  ' ;  the  *  tong ' 
and 'chape'  represent  respectively  the  'tongue'  and  'chap,'  or 
'  cheek,'  of  the  buckle.  Nhp.'  Anchor,  the  transverse  piece  of  a 
buckle  which  attaches  to  the  chape. 

3.  An  iron  tie  in  a  building. 

4.  Coinp.  Anchor-piece,  see  2. 

ANCHOR,  V.  e.An.  Of  tree-roots  :  to  anclior  out,  to 
hold  fast  like  an  anchor. 


ANCHOR-FROST,  sb.  Lei.  Nhp.  (i)  A  frost  which 
causes  ice  to  form  along  the  bed  of  a  running  stream  ; 
(2)  Anchor-ice,  q.v. 

(,1 )  Lei.'  Nhp.'  This  frequently  occurs  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
a  mill-stream,  and  I  remember  once  hearing  a  miller  say,  'We  had 
a  sharp  anchor-frost  last  night,  for  my  pole  would  stand  upright 
in  the  water  this  morning.'     (2)  Lei.' 

[Bright  enough  to  thaw  an  anchor-frost  on  the  mill- 
wheel,  WiivTE  IVIelville  in  Fortn.  Rev.  (Nov.  1867)  588.] 

ANCHOR-ICE,  sb.  Lei.  Ice  formed  far  below  the 
surface  of  the  water  in  a  running  stream  ;  ground  ice. 


ANCHOR-STOCK,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  A  large  long  loaf 
of  rye,  or  more  rarely  of  wheaten,  bread. 

Sc.  Anker-stock  has  been  supposed  to  be  so  called  from  '  an 
anchorite's  stock,  or  supply  for  some  length  of  time'  ;  or,  more 
probably, '  from  some  fancied  resemblance  to  thestock  of  ananclior,' 
SiBBALD  Cliroii.  Poetry  {1802")  (Jam).  Edb.  Before  Christmas  in 
Edinburgh  large  tables  of  anchor  stocks  [appeared]  at  the  head  of 
the  old  Fish-market  Close.  These  anchor-stocks,  the  only  species 
of  bread  made  from  rye  offered  for  sale  in  the  city,  were  exhibited 
in  every  variety  of  size  and  price,  from  a  halfpenny  to  a  half  crown, 
Blaikw.  Mag.  (Dec.  1821)  691  ;  A  Musselburgh  ankerstoke  to 
slice  down  for  tea-drinkings  and  posset  cups,  MoiR  Maiisie  IVnuch 
(1828)  vii  ;  I  have  heard  my  grandmother  speak  of  the  ankcr- 
stock  loaves  she  used  to  buy  in  the  High  Street  of  Edinburgh 




ANCIENT,  sb}  Soni.  Naut.  [ae  njant  ]  The  ensign  or 
national  colours. 

[Ancient,  the  flag  or  streamer  in  the  stern  of  a  ship.  Probably 
from  end-sheet  ^for  seamen  call  the  sails  sheets  ,  the  most  likely 
name  for  the  flag  in  the  stern  :  they  corruptly  speak  '  Anshent ' 
(K.).]  w.Som.'  The  Union  Jack  of  a  British  vessel.  In  the  Bristol 
Channel  this  is  the  usual  term  among  the  fisher- folk.  How  can 
anybody  tell  what  her  is,  nif  her  ont  show  her  ancient? 

[Ancient,  the  flag  or  streamer  of  a  ship,  and,  formerly, 
of  a  regiment,  Johnson;  Ancient,  or  Anshent,  a  flag  or 
streamer  set  up  in  the  stern  of  a  ship,  Bailky  (1755).] 

ANCIENT,  «(()■.  and  .s/j.=  Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Chs.  Not.  Lin. 
Shr.  Suf.  Soni.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  encient  N.I.' 
[e  njant,  e'njant.]     See  Old. 

A.  (k/J.     1.  Old,  advanced  in  years. 

Ir.  An  ould  ancient  man.  Barlow  Bog  laud  dSgs"!  80.  [The 
younger  brother  is  the  ancienter  gentleman,  Ray  Prov.  (1678) 
85.]  Suf.'  A  very  ancient  man.  Dev.  'Auncient  I '  she  ex- 
claimed ;  'I'se  warrant  he's  as  old  as  Adam,'  Be(ay  Tniuar  and 
Tavy  (1836)  II.  4.  Cor. 'Ancient  ould  '  and  'ould  ancient'  are 
often  used  in  conversation.     He's  an  ancient  ould  fellow  ^M.A.C). 

2.  Cunning,  clever. 

N.I.'  A  sea  gull's  a  very  anncient  bird. 

3.  Of  children  :  staid,  demure,  precocious. 

Per.  An  ancient  bairn  ^G.W. !.  s.Chs.' Hoo's  an  ancient  little 
thing.  s.NoL  The  lass  can  mek  noise  anoo  when  she  likes,  for  all 
she  looks  so  ancient  (J.P.K.X  Shr.'  Patty  wuz  a  mighty  nice 
little  wench, 'er  went  about  things  so  stiddy  an' ancient.  Such 
children  are  said  to  be  '  too  ancient  to  live.' 

B.  sh.  An  old  man  ;  quaint,  old-fashioned  person  ;  in 
pi.  ancestors. 

w.Yks.'  Antients.  n.Lin.'  Well,  old  ancient,  what  did  Adam 
saay  when  you  last  seed  him?  w.Som.'  Well,  my  old  ancient,  how 
b'ce  ?     Her  s  a  proper  old-ancient,  her  is, 

[A.  1.  This  ancient  ruffian,  sir,  whose  life  I  have  spared 
at  suit  of  his  grey  beard,  Sh.-\ks.  K.  Lrai;  11.  ii.  67.  2.  The 
duty  of  old  women  is  ...  to  be  sober,  sage,  and  ancient, 
Becon  C/ir.  AV//jr.  (1564)  521  (N.E  D.>.  B.  Those  that 
lived  in  old  times  were  called  ancients,  Johnson;  Can 
a  man  .  .  .  brag  of  the  vertucs  of  his  auncients  if  his 
owne  life  be  vitious?  Crosse  Vertucs  (1603)  21  (N.E.D.). 
Cp.  Fr.  Ics  anciriis,  (il  the  nations  of  old  time,  (2)  the  old 
writers,  esp.  of  Greece  and  Rome.] 

ANCIENTNESS,  a7a    Sc.    Antiquity. 

Sc.  Ancientness,  s.  v.  Ancientry  (Jam.  S/r/>/>/.V  Edb.  Great  folk 
pretend  to  have  histories  of  the  auncientness  of  their  families,  MoiR 
Afansie  IVaiich  (1828)  5. 

[Ancientness,  ancientry,  antiqnitas,  vetiistas,  Coles 
(16791  ;  Aiicioinrte,  ancientness,  oldness,  Cotgr.] 

ANCIENTRYiSZi.  Sc.  Lan.  Also  written  auncientry  Sc. 

1.  Antiquity. 

Cld.  They  claim  great  ancientry  o'  name  and  bluidi^jAM.  Siippi). 

2.  l^recocity. 

Cld.  The  ancientry  o'  that  bairn  I  diiina  like  ;  he  talks  like  a 
gran 'father  (Jam.  Sii/'f'l.'. 

3.  Old  things,  antiquities. 

Lan.  It's  o'  cromful!  o'  ancientry.  An'  Roman  haw-pennies, 
Waugii  Sugs,  (18661  Eawr  Flk  ;  Lan.' 

[Ancientry,  tlie  honour  of  ancient  lineage  ;  the  dignity 
of  birth,  Johnson  ;  Wronging  the  ancientry  (i.  c.  the  old 
people),  Shaks.  Hint.  T.  hi.  iii.  63.     Ancieiit+-ry.^ 

ANCIENTY,  sl>.     Cor.    Antiquity. 

w.Cor.  That  [a  cromlech]  's  a  reg'lar  piece  of  ancientey   M.A.C). 

[Ancicnty,  ancientness,  Kersey  ;  Ancienty,  eldership. 
Coles  (1677);  Ancicnty,  oldcnesse,  eldcrtymc,  oldc  con- 
tinuance, Haret  ;  A  grct  stanc  .  .  .  That  throu  the  gret 
anciente  Was  lowsyt,  Barbour  Dnice,  vi.  252.  AFr. 

ANCITER.  see  Aunceter. 

ANCLE-BAND,  sh.  "i'ks.  [a'rjkl-band.]  A  strap  for 
low  shoes ;  a  shoe  with  a  strap  round  the  ancle. 

n.Yks.  (J.T.) ;  n.Yks.'  ;  n.Vks.^  Anklcband,  a  strap  attached  by 
its  middle  to  the  back  of  the  shoe  with  the  ends  meeting  in  front 
of  the  instep  and  buttoning  upon  it.  ne.Yks.'  m.Yks.  Ah  want 
a  pair  o'  ancle-bands.  Ah've  brokken  strap  o'  my  ancle-band 

ANCLE-BELT,  sb.  Yks.  Lan.'  [eTjklbelt.]  A  slice 
for  children,  nearly  like  a  slipper  with  a  strap  round 
the  ancle. 

w.Yks.  Anklc-belt  in  this  sense  h.ns  a  very  wide  use  (B. K.). 
Lan.  Ancle  belt  is  a  familiar  word  in  North  Lonsdale  (JR.). 

ANCLE-JACK,  sb.  Cum.  Wm.  Lan.  Nhp.  War.  Oxf. 
Ilrt   Dor.  Colon.     See  below. 

1.  A  heavy  boot  coming  above  the  ancle,  sometimes  used 
in  Lan.  of  laced  clogs. 

Cum.  (J.  p.)  Wm.  Obsol.  (\\.  D.  R.^  Lan.  His  feet  were  sheathed 
in  a  pair  of  dinkered  ancle  j.irks,  Wauhm  Besom  BeMli66$)  i; 
Lan.',  ne.Lan.',  m.Lan '  Nhp.'  Ancleejacks  or  ankle  Johns. 
Jolin,  or  Johnny,  is  a  common  generic  term  for  rustics  by  whom 
these  articles  are  worn.  War.3  Oxf.'  Ankley-jacks,  shoes,  strong, 
but  not  water-tight,  MS.  add.  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Dor.  He  wore 
breeches  and  the  laced-up  shoes  called  ankle-jacks,  Hardy  Madding 
Crowd  iiB']^)  viii.  Colloq.  He  changed  his  shoes  and  put  on  an 
unparalleled  pair  of  ankle-jacks,  Uickens  Dombry  (1848)  xv. 
[Aus.,  N.Z.  In  a  few  months'  time  you  come  across  him  on  the 
gum  field  in  ankle  jacks  and  ragged  shirt,  picking  up  a  scanty  living, 
H.w  Bii^littr  llnldin  (1882,  II.  24  ] 

ANCLE-STRAP,  sb.     Var.  dial.     See  below. 

w.Yks.  Ankle  strap,  a  kind  of  children's  shoes,  nearly  like  a 
slipper,  with  a  strap  to  go  around  the  ankle  to  keep  them  on  the 
fcet(B.K.,;  In  Keighley  the  child's  shoes  fastened  with  a  semi- 
detached strap,  buttoning  in  front,  are  called  ancle-straps  (J.R.% 
Lan.  (A.C.)  ['  Ancle  strap  '  I  have  met  with  as  far  south  as  Bristol, 
and  I  fancy  it  is  common  in  the  Midlands  i^R.S.\] 

ANCLET,  s6.  Nhb.  Wm.  Yks.  [a-rjklit,  e-gklit]  A 
gaiter,  a  short  stocking. 

n.Cy.  Anclet,  a  gaiter  (IIai.l.")  ;  N.Cy  '  Anclet,  Ancleth,  a  gaiter. 
Nhb.i    Wm.'  Obi.     w.Yks.^  A  short  stocking  or  sock. 

ANCLIFF,s6.  Sc.  Ircl.  Nhb.  Lan.  Chs.  Nhp.  War.  Wor. 
Shr.  Pem.  Glo.  0.\f  Sur.  Sus.  Dor.;  not  in  gloss.  ofe.An. 
and  svv.  counties.  Also  in  the  forms  anklet  N.I.'  N.Cy.' 
Nhb.';  ankley  s.War.' se.Wor.' Glo.' Oxf.' w.Sus.  ;  an- 
cleth Sc.  N.Cy.';  anclief  N.Cy.' ;  anclif  e.Lan.'  Chs.»; 
anclee,  Nhp.' War.*;  ancley  Sur.' Sus.'  [a'rjklif,  a'qklat, 
a'ljklit,  a'i)kl9}>,  a  r)klii.] 

1.  The  ancle. 

Sc.  Hancleth,  Sibdald  C/iinii.  Pocliy  (iSos^i  (Jam.V  N.I.'  n.Cy. 
Grose  (,17901  ;  N.Cy.'  Nhb.  Te  see  them  hirplin  'cross  the  floor 
Wi  anklets  shawd,  Wilson /V/i(in«'s  Pny  (1843)  24  ;  Nhb.'  Lan. 
E  aktilly  pood  [pulled]  o  seek  gradely  oer  his  yed  as  reycht  welley 
dcawn  to  his  ancliffes,  Ormerod  Fdley  fro  Itac/idc {1664'^  v  ;  Lan.' 
Yore  Jack's  knockt  his  anclef  out  wi'  jumpin.  e.Lan.',  Chs' 
Chs.^  Th"  neatest  anclitV  as  ever  oi  seed.  Nhp.'  War.*  Aneler. 
se.Wor.'  Shr.'  The  maister's  bin  laid  up  above  a  wik  uuth  a  kench 
in  'is  aneler,  an  they  sen  as  it'll  be  a  wik  or  nine  d,-ij's  lunger  afore 
'c'll  be  about  agen.  s.Pera.  Aiikler,  Laws  Lilllc  Eiig.  (1888^  41Q. 
Glo.',  Oxf.'.  Sur.'  Sus.  Turnen  he's  ancliff,  Jackson  Suiilliu.arU 
Ho  ^18941  I.  433  ;  Sus.',  Dor.' 

2.  Coiiifi.  Ancliff-bone. 

Sus.'  i\  1  have  put  out  my  ancIifT-bone  [sprained  my  ancle]. 

[The  forms  oiikhy,  aiiclce,  go  back  to  OE.  oiiclruiu  ;  cp. 
01 IG.  (iiichlno,  MDn.  aiic/aii,  Du.  ciiklawc  and  aciiklaiiwe 
(KiLiAN).  This  type  is  prob.  due  to  form-association 
witli  the  word  '  claw ' ;  see  Clee.  With  the  forms  a)tclif, 
anclief,  cp.  MDu.  ««(//</ (Verdam),  OFris.  o«X-/i/ (RiciiT- 
iioFENl,  the  phonology  of  which  has  not  been  explained. 
The  forms  ancleth,  anklet,  arc  possibly  developed  fr.  the 

ANCOME,  sb.  n.Cy.  [a'nkum.]  An  ulcerous 
swelling.    Sec  Income. 

N.Cy.'  Ancome.  any  swelling  or  other  infirmity  not  traceable  to 
any  cause,  or  which  has  formed  unexpectedly.     Cum.* 

[Ancome,  a  kind  of  boil,  sore,  or  foul  swelling  in  the 
fleshy  parts.  Kersey;  An  ancome  {(c\on),  fiirunciihis, 
Coles  (1679);  I'ijt,  an  ancombc,  or  a  sore  upon  one's 
finger,  Hexham  ;  An  ancome,  aiivculitius  morbus.  Baret. 
In  ME.  oncoine  is  used  of  the  plagues  of  Egj'pt :  pc  tojier 
oncome  atte  him  fclle  Was  froskis,  Cursor  M.  5927.  Cp. 
ON.  likonta,  arrival,  visitation,  eruption  on  the  skin.] 

ANCONY,  sb.  Stf.  Sus.(  ohs.)  and  Tech.  A  term  for 
a  '  bloom,'  or  roughly  wrought  piece  of  iron  of  a  parti- 
cular shape  ;  also  conip.  Anconyend. 

Sus.  Ancony  is  a  bar  about  3  feet  long  ;  at  both  ends  a  square 
piece  [is]  left  rough  to  be  wrought  at  the  Chafery,  Ray  (1691). 




Stf.  A  Bloom  [has]  two  square  knobs  at  the  end,  one  much  less 
than  the  other,  the  smaller  being  called  the  ancony-end,  (K. )  ;  Stf.i 
[At  the  iron-works,  in  the  forge  call'd  the  Finery,  they  work  the 
metal  by  the  hammer  till  they  bring  it  into  Blooms  and  Anconies. 
A  E!oom  is  a  four  square  mass  of  about  two  foot  long  w'=''  they 
afterwards  by  heating  and  working  bring  to  an  Ancony,  the  figure 
whereof  is  in  the  middle  a  barr  about  three  foot  long  of  that  shape 
w*"  they  intend  the  whole  bar  shall  be  after  made,  leaving  at  each 
end  a  square  rough  piece  (K.).] 

AND,  sb.  ?  Obs.  Sc.  Yks.  Also  Nrf.  Also  written 
eind  Sc. ;  eynd  e.An.'  Nrf.  ;  yane  Yks. 

1.  The  breath  ;  to  take  one's  einds,  to  take  a  breathing 
space,  pause  in  any  employment. 

Sc.  His  stinking  end,  corrupt  as  men  well  knows,  Watson  Coll. 
Poems  (1706)  III.  24  (Jam.)  ;  Aynd,  breath,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add. 
(C.)  Abd.  And  a'  were  blyth  to  tak'  their  einds  And  club  a  pint 
o'  Lillie's  Best  ale  that  day,  Skinner  Poems  (1809)  13,  ed.  1859. 
Per.  Eind.  This  word  is  not  common  (G.W.).  n.Cy.  I  am  out  of 
eand  (K.);  N.Cy.^  Eand.  Yks.  Yane  (K.).  n.  &  e.Yks.  A  base 
stincking  yane,  Meriton  Praise  Ale  (z6S^)  564. 

2.  Sea-mist, '  water-smoke.' 

e.An.'  Nrf.  The  eynd,  or  water-smoke,  as  it  is  called,  occurs 
mostly  between  spring  and  autumn.  All  at  once  a  damp  cold  mist 
sets  in  from  the  sea  and  spreads  at  times  many  miles  inland. 
Sometimes  it  remains  the  whole  day,  at  others  not  more  than  an 
hour  or  two,  then  gradually  vanishes.  It  has  a  faint  smoky  appear- 
ance, as  if  entirely  distinct  from  ordinary  fog.  White  e.Ettg. 
{lB6^^  I.  176;  Though  a  resident  for  nearly  half  a  century  in 
Norfolk,  I  never  heard  the  well-known  trying  fog  called  eynd,  or 
by  any  name  like  it,  N.  &  O   (1866I  3rd  S.  ix.  361. 

[He  na  mocht  His  aynd  bot  with  gret  panys  draw, 
Barbour  Bruce,  rv.  199  ;  Myn  and  is  short,  I  want  wynde, 
Toivneley  Myst.  154 ;  An  ande,  anelitiis,  Cath.  Atigl. ;  pis 
under  wynd  him  gis  his  aand,  Cursor  M.  541  {y.r.  ande, 
ond,  onde).     ON.  audi,  breath.] 

AND,  V.  Sc.  (Jam.)  Obs.  Written  eind,  eynd.  To 
breathe,  whisper,  devise,  imagine. 

[Spiral,  ergo  vivit,  as  I  wald  say,  he  aindes,  ergo  he  lives, 
Ress.  betiv.  Knox  and  Crosraguel  (Jam.)  ;  ON.  anda,  to 

AND,  adv.  Yks.  [an.]  In  phr.  with  comparatives 
and . .  .  and=  ilie  . . .  the. 

Yks.  An'  more  he  saw,  an'  worse  he  liked  it,  Taylor  Miss  Miles 

(1890^  XV. 

AND,  conj.  Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Lei.  War.  Won  Glo. 
Oxf.     [and,  an.] 

1.  Connecting  two  adj.  or  an  adj.  and  a  ///.  it  gives  to 
the  former  an  advb.  force. 

e.Yks.l  Fine  and  [i.e.  exceedingly]  pleased.  Awful  and  tired, 
vexed,  unfortunate,  &c.,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  s.Chs.'  Fine  an"  vexed. 
Stf.2  I'm  afeart  ar  Mary  Ann's  got  lost,  'ers  foine  an  late  ony  road  up. 
That  apple-pai  wur  rser  an  good.  Mi  feidharz  [father's]  foin  an 
drunk  taneit.       Wor.  This  table  is  beautiful  and  smooth  (J.W.P.). 

2.  To  introduce  a  nominative  absolute,  sometimes  with 
ellipsis  of  11. 

Sc.  Could  I  go  against  my  father's  orders,  and  him  in  prison,  in 
the  danger  of  his  life  ?  Stevenson  Calnoiia  (1893)  x.  e.Lth.  It 
wadna  be  seemly,  an'  me  a  deacon.  Hunter  /.  Iiiwict  (1895)  38. 
Ir.  See  all  the  people  and  the}-  laughing  !  How  could  I  say  it  an' 
me  an  me  oath  ?  [said  by  a  witness  before  the  Times  Allegations 
Commission]  (G.M.H.).  Kid.  I  walked  in  the  garden,  and  hid  [it] 
in  bloom  [it  being  in  bloom],  Oral  ballad  •  G  M.H.). 

3.  (1)  Between  two  ordinal  numbers  (the  first  of  which 
would  be  a  cardinal  in  lit.  E.);  (2)  in  phr.  expressing 
strong  affirmation  ;  (3)  connecting  every  memljer  of  a 
clause,  and  is  redundant 

(i)  Sc.  When  Paris  was  in  his  twentieth  and  fourth  year, 
three  goddesses  are  said  to  have  waited  of  him,  Scotic.  (1787)  115; 
The  twentieth  and  first  verse  of  the  hundredth  fortieth  and  fifth 
psalm,  14,95.  (2  Lei.' At  public  meetings  particularly  it  is  a  favourite 
form  of  expressing  assent — '  And  way  wull,'  '  And  it  is.'  War.^  ; 
War.^  This  is  common  enough  in  Birmingham  but  I  do  not 
remember  it  in  rural  Warwickshire.  (3")  Sc.  And  in  and  at  her 
bower  window,  The  moon  shone  like  the  gleed,  Jamieson  Pop. 
Ballads  ("18061  Glmkiiidie.  s.Oxf. 'Ee  scs  a  married  ooman  can't 
ha'  nothin'  of 'cr  own,  not  'less  it's  writ  down  by  the  lawyers  an' 
signed  an'  scaled  and  ever  so,  Rosemary  Chiltcrns  (1895)  60. 

4.  And  is  sometimes  omitted  after  vbs.  of  motion. 
Glo.  I'll  go  look,  GissiNG  Both  oj this  Parish  (1889)  I.  3. 

AND  ALL,  adv.  and  con;.,  prop.  phr.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb. 
Cum.  Win.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Rut.  Lei. 
War.  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf.  Som.  Dev.  Written  an',  [an  a, 
an  9,  an  9I,  an  ^al.] 

1.  adv.  And  everything  (else),  et  cetera.  Hence  :  also, 
besides,  in  addition. 

Sc.  Woo'd  and  married  an'  a',  Baillie  Siig.  Dmf.  The  red,  red 
rose  is  dawning  and  a',  Rem.  Nilhs.  Sng.  no  (Jam.).  Bwk.  He 
ran  to  the  smith,  he  ran  to  the  sutor.  He  ran  to  the  cooper  an'  a', 
Henderson  Po/>.  /?/ij;Hf5  (1856)  133.  Nhb.' An  aa.  An  aal.  The 
folks  was  gaun  in,  so  aw  bools  in  an'  a',  Robson  Sngs.  of  Tyiie 
(1849).  Cum.i  We'd  breed,  an'  butter  an'  cheese  an'  o',  an  o' 
maks  o'  drink.  Wm.  When  she  saw  me  she  wept;  I  wept  ano', 
HunoN  Bran  New  IVark  (1785)  1.  378  ;  Wm.l  He's  gitten  et  ano. 
n.Yks.  An'  there's  sum  canny  bit  lasses  annole,  Tweddell  Clevel. 
Rhymes  (1875)  ir;  Tack  them  reeaks  [rakes]  wi  tha,  an' thoo'd 
better  tack't  forks  an'  all  (W.H.).  e.Yks.  He  had  ti  clame  wall  ower 
wi  tar,  an  he  clamed  his-sen  anole,  an  neeah  mistak,  Nicholson 
Flk-Sp.  (1889)  94  ;  e.Yks.l  Bill  and  Tom  went  an  all.  m.Yks.i 
Ah's  going  an'  a'U.  w.Yks.  Whoy,  we'n  all  been  up  an  darn 
anole  !  Bywater  SheJ^eld Dial.  (1839)  27  ;  w.Yks.'  There's  Tommy 
come  an  au  ;  w.Yks.'^  Recovering  he  found  himself  in  a  warm 
bed.  And  in  a  warm  fever  an'  all.  Lan.  Hoo  wanted  to  kiss 
thee  an'  o,  Waugh  Sngs.  (1866)  8,  ed.  1871.  ne.Lan.  I  make  nowt 
o'  poor  folk  apein  th'  quality,  and  when  they're  deead  and  all, 
Mather  Idylls  (1895)  19;  ne.Lan.'  An-o.  Chs.'  Mun  01  come  an 
aw?  Sometimes  reduplicated,  'An  all  an  all.'  s. Chs.' The  Lord 
do  so  to  me,  an  more  an  aw,  Ruth  (1887'!  i.  17.  s.Stf.  Yo'd  better 
tak  me  an*  all  wi  yer  (T.P.).  Stf.2  If  the't  gooin  to  th'  concert,  oi 
shud  loike  ar  Tum  fur  goo  an  aa.  Der.' Ano  [old  unoa",  mod.  unau']. 
nw.Der.'  An-aw.  Not.'  ;  Not.^  An'  he  did  it  anall.  Lin.  She  beald 
*  Ya  mun  saave  little  Dick,  an'  be  sharp  about  it  an'  all,'  Tennyson 
Owd  Rod  (1889).  n.Lin.  Fer  he'd  sawn  wheat  agaan  that  year  an' 
all.  Peacock  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  70  ;  n.Lin'  He  wants  sendin' 
to  Ketton  [Kirton- in- Lindsey  prison],  an'  a  cat  o'-nine-taailsan'-ail. 
Rut.'  He's  not  very  well,  and  the  weather's  rather  inferia!  and  all. 
Lei.'  Let  the  b'y  coom  an'  all.  War.'^  Bring  your  sister  and  all ; 
War.^  Have  you  got  your  pipe  and  ail  and  all.  se.Wor.'  Ower  Tom 
a  got  a  good  place  ;  'e  gets  five  shillin'  a  wick,  un  'is  tittle  an 
all.  Glo.  Joice'll  be  there  an'  all,  Gissing  Fill.  Hampden  (1890) 
iii.  w.Som.'  I  'sure  3'ou,  sir,  I've  a  beat-n  and  a-told  to  un,  and  a- 
tookt  away  'is  supper  an  all,  and  zo  have  his  father  too,  but  tidn 
no  good,  we  can't  do  nort  way  un  [a  truant's  mother's  answer 
to  chairman  of  School  Board].  Dev.  It  had  to  be  all  clean  and 
polished  then,  kettle  and  all,  O'Neill  Idylls  (1892)  49.  CoUoq. 
Down  comes  the  baby  and  cradle  and  ail.  Nursery  Rhyme  ;  You  talk 
o'  better  food  for  us,  an'  schools,  an'  fires,  an'  all,  Kipling  Brk. 
Ballads  (1892)  Tommy. 

2.  Expletive  or  emphatic. 

Ir.  An'  you  full  as  a  tick,  an'  the  sun  cool,  an'  all  an'  all,  Kipling 
Plain  Tales  (1891)  Private  Oilheiis;  And  I  thramped  afther  thiin, 
. .  .  carryin'  the  baskets  an'  all.  Barlow  Bog-land  (1893)  45.  s.Ir. 
Grand  company  coming  to  the  house  and  all,  and  no  regularser\'ing- 
man  to  wait,  Croker  Leg.  (1862)  285.  Cum.  We  must  be  off,  or 
they'll  likelybefiningmeandaw, fornotbeingatt'meeting,//f/!'f//v» 
in  Cornh.  Mag.  (Oct.  1890)  380.  Lei.'  Way'd  such  a  coomin'o'ege 
an' all  an'  all  [i.e.  such  rejoicings  at  the  coming  of  age  of  the  young 
squire].  Rut.'  Who  should  come  by  just  then  but  the  Honour- 
able and  all  [though  the  Hon.  A.  B.  who  came  up  so  inopportunely 
was  unaccompanied].  s.Oxf.  She  thinks  the  world  an'  all  o'  that 
boy,  Rosemary  Chilterns  (1895)  38. 

3.  Truly,  indeed. 

Cum.  It's  that  dog  of  Ritson's.  ...  I  thowt  he'd  [the  dog]  give  it 
back  to  Watson's  yan  this  time,  and,  by  gocks  !  he  hes  an'  aw  ;  seast 
tha  Watson's  dog  goas  upo'  three?  Helvellyn  in  Cornh.  Mag.  (Oct. 
1890)  392.  ne.Yks.'  Did  you  enjoy  yourself? — Ah  did  an'  all. 
w.Yks.  He's  a  reet  un  an'  all^G.B.W.).  s.Chs.'The  Tories  binna 
gotten  in,  bin  they? — They  bin,  an' aw.  Stf.^  Mester  innajed,  isi'? — 
He  is,  an  aa. 

4.  conJ.    Although. 

n.Yks.  (I.W.)  w.Yks.  An' all  Ah  say  it  misen,  ther'  isn't  abetter  lad 
livin' ner  ahr  Johnny  (.^.B.)  ;  The  use  in  the  sense  of 'although' 
is  unusual  (G.B.W.). 

[L  And  you  and  all,  &^  te  qiioquc  etiani ;  .  .  .  He  had 
lost  his  faith  and  all,  Pcrdidissct Jidein  quoqiie,  Robertson 

ANDER,  sb.     Sh.I. 

Sh.I.  A  porch  before  a  door  (W.A.G.).     S.  &  Ork.' 

[ON.  ond  (gen.  andar),  a  porch,  lit.  the  place  over 
against  the  door  [and-dyn),  (Vigfusson).] 





ANDERN,  ANDERS,  see  Undern. 

ANDERS,  sb.     ?  Obs.     e.Yks. 

e.Yks.  Drill  ice  in  extended  masses  broiight  up  by  the  tide  and 
stranded  along  the  beach.  The  word  is  said  to  be  in  common  use 
by  fishermen  and  others  at  Spurn,  Lin.  N.  &  Q.  (Apr.  1891}  180. 
[Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ANDIERDOGS,  sb. pi.    l.W.    Andirons. 

I.W.'  Anjur-dogs,  kitchen  utensils  for  the  spit  to  run  on. 
[Foretyni.  see  Andirons,  and  cp.  An-dogs.] 
ANDIRONS,  sb.  pi.    Yks.  Lan.    Also  written  end-irons 
w.Yks.°     [endaianz.] 

A  pair  of  movable  iron  plates  to  contract  the  fire- 

n.Yks.  Endirons(I.W.).  e.Yks.  Wiir.  £•«>«.  (164O  175.  w.Yks.s 
Lan.i  Put  them  endams  in,  an  id'l  nod  [it  will  not]  brun  so  monny 

[In  the  dial,  the  word  is  understood  and  pron.  as  if  it 
were  end-irons,   the  irons  at  the  ends  of  the   fireplace. 
The  lit.  E.  andirons  had  already  been  altered  in  form  from 
association  with  the  word  iron.   Andiron,  from  a  chimney, 
stistentaaduDi  ferreum,    Baret.     The  older  form  of  the 
word  was  andier :  I  lacke  a  fyre  pan  and  andyars  to  here  , 
up  the  fuel,  Horman.     AFr.  andier  (Moisy),  OFr.  andier 
(mod.  l(indier).] 
ANDLE,  sb.    Dor.    [a-ndl.]    An  anvil,  stithy. 
Der.^,  nw.Der.i     [Grose  Pcgge  Siippl.  (,i8i4\] 
[Repr.  ME.  forms  of  '  anvil'  (OE.  onfilti),  with  change 
of  prefix  from  an-  to  and-  :  They  smyte  on  the  stythye 
or  andvcll,  Caxton  G.  Leg.  358;  Golde  .  .  .  bitwene  ];e 
andfelde  and  f>e  hamoure  streccej)  in  to  golde  foyle,TREvisA 
.fitjrM.  (N.E.D.)   Cp.  Sherwood:  An  andvil,  t'o>'<'S,  an  anvil.] 
ANDOGS,   sb.  pi.     Shr.    Glo.   Som.   Dev.     [as-ndogz.] 
Andirons,  the  bars  which  support  the  ends  of  logs  on  a 
wood  fire,  or  in  which  a  spit  turns. 

Shr.' Andogs,  06s.  Glo.  An  dogs,  so  called  from  the  dogs' heads 
with  which  they  were  anciently  ornamented,  Grose  (1790)  MS. 
adc/.(H.)  Som.(,F.  H.)  w.Soin.'[Andogs]  are  still  very  commonly 
used  in  farm-houses,  and  others  where  wood  is  burnt.  They  are 
well  described  in  the  old-fashioned  riddle,  'Head  like  an  apple. 
Neck  like  a  swan.  Back  like  a  long-dog,  And  dree  legs  to  Stan.' 
In  large  old-fashioned  chimney-places  it  was  usual  to  have  two 
pairs  of  irons.  The  dogs,  which  were  the  most  used,  were  at  the 
middle  of  the  hearth,  and  bore  the  fire  always.  The  andirons 
stood  on  each  side,  and  were  only  needed  when  an  extra  large 
fire  was  wanted.  The  latter,  much  larger  and  heavier,  usually  had 
some  ornamental  finish,  as  a  brass  head,  a  scroll,  or  a  knob,  and  in 
kitchens  the  upright  part  of  the  iron  was  furnished  with  a  row  of 
hooks,  one  over  the  other,  on  the  side  aw.iy  from  the  fire.  On 
these  hooks  rested  the  great  spit  on  which  the  meat  or  poultry  was 
roasted.  Both  -andirons'  and 'dogs'  have  now  become  'hand-dogs  ' 
(s.v.  Hand-dogs).  Dev.  'Andugs,  HEWfeTT  Peas.  Sp.  (1893)  46. 
n.Dev.  Grose  (1790)  il/5.  add.  (H.) 

[Another  common  name  for  '  andirons  '  was '  fire-dogs ' 
or  '  dogs.'  Alt-dug  is  prob.  a  contamination  of  these  two 
words.  Cp.  Fr.  chenet  (der.  of  chiett,  dog),  an  andiron.  See 

ANDOO,  V.  Sh.I.  Also  written  andow.  To  keep  a 
boat  stationary  by  gentle  motion  of  the  oars. 

Sh.I.  {Coll.  L.L.B.);  vW.A.G.)  S.&  Ork.' Andoo,  to  keep  a  boat 
in  position  by  rowing  gently  against  wind  or  tide. 

[ON.  and-of,  a  paddling  v^fith  the  oars,  so  as  to  bring 
the  boat  to  lie  against  wind  and  stream.] 
ANDORN,  see  Undern. 
ANDRA,  sec  Undern. 

ANDRAMARTIN,  sb.  Irel.  A  silly  trick  ;  nonsense. 
Lns.  In  use  all  over  this  district,  Dublin  included  |,P.J.M  \ 
s.Wxf.  Oh,  musha,  Mick,  don't  be  goin'  on  with  your  andra- 
martins  !  McCall  ^VhiVih  Nights  in  Shamrock  Mag.  (1894"!  428; 
Don't  think  your  andramartins  can  be  carried  out  unknownst  to 
cvcrv  one,  ib.  453. 

ANDREA  FERRARA,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  A  Highland 

Sc.  Basket  hilts,  Andra  Ferraras,  leather  targets,  Scott  Rnh  Roy 
(1817)  xxiii ;  There  was  risk  of  Andro  Kcrrara  coming  in  thirdsman, 
ib.  Midlolhiau  ( 18 18  1  xxiv.  Edb.  With  a  weel-sharpcned.  old.  High- 
land, forty-second  Andrew  Ferrary,  Moir  Mansie  ll'atirh (tQ^Q)  36. 
[The  blades  are  commonly  marked  Andrea  on  one 
side  and  Farara  or  Ferara  on  the  other.    The  swords 

known  by  this  name  among  the  Scotch  Highlanders 
were  basket-hiltcd  broadswords.  It  is  asserted  by 
Italian  writers  that  these  were  made  at  Belluno  in 
Vcnctia  by  Andrea  Ferara  and  his  two  brothers  (CD.).] 

ANDREN.  ANDREW,  see  Undern, 

ANDREW,  sb.     Yks.  Suf  Ess. 

1.  St.  Andrew's  Day,  Nov.  30;  also  attrib.  Obs.  See 
Saint  Andrew. 

w.Yks.  In  candles  for  ye  Ringers  ringing  at  ye  Income  of  Andrews 
(Tare,  i'.  Ace.  Bradford  Frsh.  Chwardens  (1683).  Ess.  From  April 
beginning,  till  Andrew  be  past.  So  long  with  good  huswife,  hir 
dairic  doth  last,  Tusser  Iltisbandrie  (1580)  106,  sL  19. 

2.  A  clown,  mountebank. 

Suf.  Andrer  (F.H.).  Ess.  Then  the  Andraas  play'd  sich  tricks, 
Clark  J.  Noakes  (1839'!  23  ;  Ess.'  Andraa. 

[2.  See  Merry-Andrew,  j 

ANDREW  MASS,  sb.  Sc.  Yks.  Lin.  The  festival  of 
St.  Andrew. 

Per.  The  name  of  Andinness  market  is  still  given  to  a  fair  held 
at  this  season  in  Perth  (.J*"-)  I  Andirmas  [Anermas]  market  was 
not  held  last  year  [1895]  ""  St.  Andrew's  Day.  All  the  fairs 
were  upset  by  the  public  auction  of  cattle  at  populous  centres 
(G.\V.\  e.Yks.  The  best  time  for  frost  and  snowe  is  about  a  week 
afore  St.  Andrewm.isse,  Best  Riir.  Econ.  (.1641)  76.  w.Yks.' 
Andersmas.     n.Lin.'  Andremas,  obs. 

[For  the  servese  bouke  at  Sant  Andrames  vij',  Kirtoit- 
in-Lindsey  Cli.  Ace.  1581  {ap.  n.Lin.'j.     Andrew  +  mass.] 

ANDRUM,  see  Undern. 

ANDSELL,  see  Hansel. 

ANDURION,  sb.  Lan.  (Ormskirk).  Eupaloriiini  eanna- 
biintin,  hemp  agrimony. 

ANE,  see  Awn. 

ANEAN,  prep.     Lin.     [snia'n.]     Beneath. 

Lin.  My  wife  a  life  she  leadeth  me  Like  a  toad  anean  a  roll, 
E.  Peacock  yo/irt  Markcu/jcld  {^iSj^)  II.  84.  n. Lin.  Anean  th'  esh, 
M.  Peacock  Tales  and  R/iytnes  (i886)  74;  nXln.' You'll  find  th' 
almanac  anean  Bible  up  o'th  parlour  taable. 

[A-,  on-{^ nean,  ME.  necfen,  OE.  neoian,  below.] 

ANEAR,  adv.  and  prep.  Irel.  Nhb.  Stf  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp. 
War.  Wor.  Glo.  Som.  Cor.     [3ni3(rj.J 

1.  adv.     Close  by,  near. 

Ir.  But  anear  or  afar  on  the  win*  comes  a  flicker  of  the  crathur's 
cry.  Barlow  Z?<)f-/a»i(/(  1893  I  181.  Stf.^  Th'  doctor  nivver  come 
anear  aw  that  day.  Lei.'  Anear.  not  as  common  as  '  anigh.'  War.' 
Yo'  ain't  anear  when  yer  wanted.  He  never  came  anear  all  day  ; 
War.^.  Glo.' 

2.  Nearly. 

nLin.'     s.Wor.  'E  'an't  anear  done  it  (H.K.).  . 
Hence  Anearly,  adv.  nearly. 


3.  To  the  point,  esp.  in  phr.  What's  anear* 

Cor.'  What's  anear,  MS.  add.  ;  Cor.^  What's  anear!  [what  has 
that  to  do  with  the  question  ?]    That's  naught  anear. 

4.  prep.     Near,  close  to. 

Nhb.'  Dinna  gan  anear  the  watter.  The  kettle's  boilin'  ;  dinna 
gan  anear'd.  s.Stf.  Do'  let  him  come  anear  me,  Pinsock  Dlk.  Cy. 
Aim.  (1895).  Lei '  Nhp.'  Don't  come  anear  me.  War.'  Don't 
go  anear  him.  s.Wor.  I  dus'n't  come  anear  "im  (H.K.).  Som. 
Jennings  Dial.  w.Eng.  (^1869).  Cor.  She  is  so  cross  I'm  afeard 
to  go  anear  her  (.M.A.C). 

[1.  Now  seems  it  far,  and  now  a-near,  Scott  Last 
Minst.w  xxxi.  2.  The  lady  shrieks,  and  well  anear  Does 
fall  in  travail  with  her  fear,  Suaks.  Per.  iii.  Introd.  51. 
A-  (pre/.^°)  +  >u-ar.] 

ANEARST,  prep.  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf.  l.W.  Som.  Dev. 
[aniast.]     Near,  close  to. 

Wor.  Ow  con  'ee  live  ancarst  thot  'ooman  !  OuTIS  yig.  Mom. 
inWor.Jni.  Glo.' Annearst.  Oxf.'  I.W.' Don't  gooaneerst 'cm  ; 
I.W.'  Don't  goo  annearst  the  mare,  she  med  lling  at  ye.  Som. 
Sweetman  U  'iiicaiilon  CI.  ( 1885).  n.De .'.  I  will  not  go  ancarst  him, 
Grose  (1790   ^''•^-  "''''•  (H.) 

[A-  [pref}°)  -f  nearest.] 

ANEAST,  prep.  Sc.  Wor.  Glo.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also 
written  anest,  aneest,  aneist  Cor.'  [sniast,  ania  s] 
Near,  near  to. 

Ayr.,  Rxb.  The  auld  wife  aniest  the  fire  She  died  for  lack  of 
snishing.  Herd's  Collec/ion  (1778)  II.  16;  Ofl  I  sets  for  the  gray 
stone  anist  the  town-cleugh,  Ulackzv.  Mag.  (,Nov.  1820)  201  vJam.). 




Wor.  I  could  not  get  aneist  him  (W.A.S.).  Glo. 'Er  never  bin 
aneist  I  sinz,  Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn  (1890")  120.  Som.  Aneast 
en,  near  him,  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  iv.Eng.  1,18251  ;  An'  she  right 
down  aneast  the  riclts,  Raymond  Love  and  Q:iiet  Life  (1894)  209. 
w.Som.'  Twaud-n  ee%  ee  niivu'r  waud-n  unee'us-n  [it  was  not  he, 
he  never  was  near  him].  Used  only  with  vbs.  implying  motion. 
It  would  never  be  said  '  The  house  is  aneast  the  road  ' :  '  handy  '  or 
'  home  beside  o' '  would  in  that  case  be  used.  In  the  example 
above,  *  never  was  near  '  implies  '  never  went  near.*  Dev.  Dest 
hire  ma?  Come  aneest  me,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  80  ;  I  won't  go 
aneest  en,  Moore  Hist.  Dev.  (1829')  I.  353.  n.Dev.  They'm  close 
aneest  the  yeat.  Rock  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  st.  47.  Cor.  I'd  not  go 
anes  en  to  gat  the  King's  crown,  J.  Trenoodle  S/^ec.  Dial  (1846) 
43;  Cor.'  I  caan't  bear  him  to  come  aneist  me;  Aneest,  some- 
times Anest,  Anist. 

[A-  (ptr/.^°i  +  iiearsf  (neares').  superl.  o( neni:] 

ANEATH,  pjvp.  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Lan.  Der.  Brks.  [ani-J?, 
snia  Jj.]     Beneath. 

Sc.  Aneath  the  auld  portcullis,  Scott  Redg.  (1824')  xi  ;  I  was 
a  wean  aneath  her  art,  Allan  Li/ts  (1874)  24  :  I  sat  down  aneath 
his  shadow,  Robson  Siig.  Sol.  (i860)  ii.  3.  Sh  I.  Aiiaeth  da  fit  o 
iron-shod  Despair,  Burgess /fas<m'e  1  189O  118.  Abd.  Then  sat 
she  down  aneth  a  birken  shade,  That  spread  aboon  her,  Ross  , 
Hclenore  (1768)  67,  ed.  1812.  Frf.  Mistress  Ogiivy  aye  lookit  on 
Chirsty  as  dirt  aneath  her  feet,  Barrie  Thrums  {i&go)  16.  Per. 
It  wud  be  a  heartsome  sicht  taesee  the  Glen  a*  aneath  ae  roof  aince 
a  week,  Ian  Maclares  Auld  Lang  Syne  (1895^  33.  Gall.  It  was 
a  new  sermon  o'  his  granfaither's,  daeccnt  man,  him  that  lies  aneath 
the  big  thruch  stane  iu  the  wast  corner  o'  the  kirkvaird,  Crockett 
Stictii  Alin.  (1893I  102.  Bwk.  Aneath  the  soughin  hawthorns, 
Henderson  Pop  Rhymes  (1856)  83.  Nhti.'  Where's  the  maister? 
• — He's  aneath  the  steeth.  Cum.  But  I  cower  aneath  their  look, 
Gilpin  Ballads,  3rd  S.  (1874)  203.  ne  Lan.'  D;r.  Drive  him 
aneath  th'  tawcst  whoke  tree,  Cushing  Voe  (_i88S)  I.  ix.     Brks.' 

[A-,  on  4  iiealh  (in  beneal/i).] 

ANEEND,  see  On  end. 

ANEK,  see  Neck. 

ANEMT,  see  Unempt. 

ANENT,  prep.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan. 
Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Rdn.  Glo.  Brks. 
Ken.  Hmp.  Wil.  Also  written  anant  w.Wor.' se.Wor.'; 
anont  Glo.' Wil.';  anunt  Hrf.'^,  Glo.'  Wil.'  The  form 
anenst,  too,  is  used  in  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties  of  Eng. 
to  Der.,  also  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo.  Brks.  Ken.  Also 
written  anunst  Der.=  Shr.'=  nrf.==  Glo.* ;  anainst  Chs.*^  ; 
anungst  Shr.' ;  anents  Ken.'°  ;  and  by  aphaeresis  nens 
limp.';  'nenst  N.Cy.'  w.Yks.',  'nunst  Der.*  [ane'nt, 
ane  nst.] 
1.  Opposite,  in  front  of;  in  comparison  with. 

Sc.  Set  them  up  on  this  bit  peat  Anent  the  cutchack,  Beatties 
Parings  (1801)  3;  The  Farmer  sits  anent  the  light  An'  reads  a 
piece  o'  Wallace  wight,  ib.  26;  And  syne  the  mare  through  the 
wall  anent  her  set  up  sic  a  scraichin,  Roy  Horseman  (1895)  336  ; 
Is  naething  anent  them  ava — ah  na,  Allan  Lilts  (1874)  278.  Gall. 
The  bonny  corn  that  had  grown  so  golden  on  the  braes  anent  the 
isle,  Crockeit /?<7irft';-.s  (1894)  vii.  N.Cy.l  Nhb.  Till  nenst  aa'd 
Lizzy  Moody's,  Monthly  Chron.  n.Cy.  Lore  (1887)  377;  Nhb.', 
Dur.*  Cum.  'Anenst'  is  more  common  than  'anent'  (M.P.). 
Wm.  &  Cum.'  Anenst  it,  about  a  styan  throw  aff,  128.  Wm. 
Ameeast  anenst  Parliament  Hooses  thccar  was  a  girt  whappan 
kirk.  Clarke  Sfiec.  Dial.  (1868)  Jonny  Shippard.  s.Wm.  Annent 
aur  Hause  Dur,  Hutton  Dia.  Stoiih  and  Arnsidc  [  1760)  1.  34.  Yks. 
But  when  he  comes  anent  her  Shoo  gies  him  sich  a  smile,  Garl. 
(1873)  12.  n.Yks.'  Set  your  name  in  this  spot,  anenst  his  [over 
against  his];  n.Yks.^,  m.Yks.'  w.YkE. Grose  (1790)^/5.  arfrf.  iC.)  ; 
If  thcar  happaiis  ta  be  a  vacant  seat  anent  yo,  doant  put  yer  mucky 
feet  up  on  ta  it,  Tom  Treddlehoyie  Bairitsla  Ann.  (1861)  7; 
An  umberella  cummin  wi  t'point  fair  anent  yo — is  a  thing  ta  mind, 
tb.  (18731  52  :  Maks  ya  feel  as  small  as  thieves  Anent  a  magistrate, 
PRESTONA^artcW)!  A'(7Hi  i872)st.  5;  Does  ta  think  tha could  domeabit 
[ofmeat]  anent  th' fire.  Hartley  Clock  Aim.  (1872);  Anens  t'church, 
Lucas  Stud.  Niddcrdale  (c.  1882)  ;  w.Yks.'  I  prisently  spies  him  i" 
ouerh.iy  claas,  ont'heeadland.  anent  waw,  ii.  295.  Lan.  Rect  anent, 
Waugh  5»;.g's.  (1866)  36,  ed.  1871 ;  In  t'woidanenst  t'house,  Barber 
Fomess  Fit.  (1870)  30  ;  Reet  oreanenst  011inorth,S«/"  Sondhwckcr, 
3.  Lan.'  We  stopt  anenst  th'  yate.  Chs.'  =  3  s.stf.  He  had  it  all 
there  anunst  him  bodily,  Murray TJnmiozt/ GoW(i886;  80:  A  house 
right  anunst  the  Bull's  Head,  Pinnock  l^lk.  Cv.  Ann.  (iSos).  Stf.' 
Der.  Grose  1^1790);    Der.*,  nw.Der.'      nXin.'  I  was  anent  to  him. 

War.  (J.R.W.),  s.War.'  Wor.  Gkose  (1790);  I  lightened  ov 
'im  anonst  'is  'ovel,  OuTis  Vig.  Man.  in  IVor.  Jrn.  w.Wor.'  Thaay 
lives  right  anenst  we.  se.Wor.'  Put  them  there  faggits  down 
anant  the  door.  s.Wor.'  Shr.  Suddenly  the  horses  stopped  short, 
right  anunst  the  witch's  house,  Burne  FlkLore  (18831  152  ;  Shr.' 
If  yo'n  follow  the  rack  alung  that  green  leazow,  yo'n  see  a  stile  right 
anunst  yo'.  Hrf.  Hur  svi^ore  as  hursid  him  .  . ,  down  in  th'  ditch  ov 
the  road  anunt  his  oawn  door.  Why  John  [Coll.  L.L.B.):  Maister, 
be  I  ur  gwoy-in  ter  orrer  th'  pens  anunt  th'  voller  vild  !  y^Coll. 
L. L.B.);  Hrf.2  I  took  a  front  seat  [in  church^  right  up  anunst  the 
turkey  [i.e.  the  brass  eagle  lectern].  Glo.  Enunty.  over  against, 
over  anent,  directly  opposite,  Grose  (1790)  MS  odd.  |M.  ' ;  '  Huw 
far  off?'  I  asked.  '  Whv,  here,  just  close  anent  'ec,  Buckman 
Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  xviii  ;  Glo.'*,  Ker..' *,  Hmp.',  WU.' 

2.  Against,  near,  in  proximity  to. 

Sc.  Fodder  thy  lammies  anent  the  shepherd's  shiellns  [tents], 
Robson  S;/,^'.  So/,  (i860)  i.  8.  Ir.  Butshure  you  can  stop  anent  the 
town  at  the  blacksmith's  an'  have  it  set  right,  McNulty  Misther 
O'Ryan  (1894)  iv.  n.Yks.  Yan  o'  t'lads  gat  hisscl'  croppen  oop 
close  anenstlathe-deear.ATKiNSONMoo?/.  Parish\i8gi)  55;  n.Yks.'; 
n.Yks.*  I  sat  close  anenst  'em.  ne.Yks.',  e.Yks.'  m.Yl  s.' 
Anenst,  against.  w.Yks.  I  sat  me  down  anent  him,  Bronte  Agnes 
Grey  (,1847)  xi  ;  A  passenger  at  sat  anent  ma,  Tom  Trfddlehoyle 
Manch.  E.rhibilion  (1857);  Awst  throw  me  daan  anent  her  feet, 
Hartley  P//(/(/i'»' (1876)  63  ;  Aw  dooant  envy  th' Queen  on  her 
throoan  when  awm  sittin  anent  thee,  ib.  Sects  (18951  ii ;  w.Yks.^ 
That  tree  anent  t'church.  He's  cloise  anent  him.  ne.Lan.'  War. 
He  run  right  anunt  the  wall  ( J.B.)  ;  War.^  Stand  anent  the  hedge. 
In  common  use  near  Stratford  on-A von.  w.Wor.  Helives,sur,  anant 
the  church,  S.  Beauchamp  Grantlcy  Grange  (,18741  I.  31  ;  w.Wor.' 
Put  down  them  faggits  anant  the  dcor.  s.Wor.  Ananst,  Anunst, 
against  (H  K.).  Hrf.'*.  Glo.  Where  did  you  leave  cider  and  tot  ?  — 
Anont  thick  ash  tree  (J.D.R.) ;  Glo.' 

3.  Side  by  side  with,  in  a  hne  with. 

Sc.  Trail'd  by  horses  at  a  slow  jog  trot  Scarce  fit  to  haud  anent 
an  auld  wife  on  herfoot,ANDERSONFofms(i8i3)  71  (Jam.V  w.Yks.^ 
A  cricket-ball  in  a  line  with  the  wicket  is  anent  it ;  w.Yiis.^  Soldiers 
abreast  are  '  anenst '  each  other,  or  't'oan  anenst  t'other,'  as  it  would 
be  expressed.    Rdn.Anent.alongside  of,  Morgan  rKrfs.(i88i).   Glo.' 

4.  About,  concerning,  with  regard  to. 

Sc.  Summonsed  all  the  neighbouring  princes  to  a  conference, 
anent  the  injury  done  by  Paris,  Scotic.  (1787)  116;  Grose  (1790) 
MS.  add.  (C.)  ;  To  see  what  can  be  done  anent  your  afl'airs, 
ScoTT  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxii  ;  To  raise  scandal  anent  them,  ib.  Mid- 
lothian (1818)  ii  ;  Touching  that  round  monticle  .  .  .  anent  whilk  I 
have  heard,  ib.  Leg.  Mont.  (1830)  ii.  Gall.  The  black  dog  was 
sitting  heavy  on  him  at  the  thought  of  the  fine  anent  harbourers  of 
rebels,  Crockett  Moss  Hags  1 1895)  84.  N.Cy.^*  Yks.  Anenst 
(K.).  n.Yks.*  What  say  you  anent  it.  w.Yks.  Lucas  S//(r/.  A'lrfrft-;-- 
dale  (c.  1882)  229.     Ch?.'  ;  Chs.^  I  know  nought  anent  him. 

5.  Towards,  by  way  of  contribution  to. 

N.Cy.'  The  cash  was  paid  nenst  her  year's  rent.  n.Yks.  I'll  give 
you  something  anenst  that  [to  help  you  to  buy  it]  (I.W.)  ;  n.Yks.* 
I  gav  a  pund  anent  it  [the  subscription]. 

6.  In  competition  with. 

Sc.  Could  modern  heads,  wi'  philosophic  wit,  Wi'  argument 
anent  an  auld  wife  sit,  Anderson  Poems'iSi^)  73  (Jam.).  w.Yks. If 
tha  drinks,  I'll  drink  anent  tha  (S.K.C);  w.Yks.*  A  lass  dresses 
anent  a  lady  in  trj'ing  to  rival  her. 

7.  In  turn  with. 

e  Lan.'  If  Jack  works  at  a  machine  in  the  forenoon  and  Jim 
works  at  the  same  machine  in  the  afternoon.  Jack  and  Jim  are 
said  to  work  anenst  each  other.  s.Stf.  The  mon  what  works 
anunst  me  [i.  e.  the  man  who  does  at  night  the  same  work  which 
the  speaker  does  in  the  day-time,  or  vice  versa^,  Pinnock  Blk.  Cy. 
Ann-  '1895). 

8.  With. 

w.Yks.  We'll  tak'a  sack  anent  us,  Gr.mnge  Niddcrdale  (1863)225, 

9.  By  such  a  time. 

Lan.  Thornber  Hist.  Ace.  Blackpool  (1837^  106. 

10.  Nearly,  thereabouts  ;  also  used  as  adv.  as  in  phr. 
anenst  about  the  matte)'. 

Glo.  They  use  '  anent '  in  place  of  '  or  more,'  meaning  '  nearly, 
close  upon,'  Ellis  Pronunc.  (1889)  V.  65.  Brks.  When  they 
would  say  'nearly'  or  'thereabouts,'  they  say  'anenst  about  the 
matter,' Nichols /M/.  Tb/og-.  Sr/A  (1783  IV.  56,  ed,  1790.  Hmp. 
Nens  as  he  was.  Pretty  nens  one  [pretty  much  the  same],  N.  &^  Q. 
(1854)  ist  S.  X.  120  ;  Hmp.'  [Anenst  the  matter  (  K.V] 

[1.  A  brothir  with  brothir  stryveth  in  dame,  and  tliat 
ancntis    unfeithful    men,    Wyclif    (1382)    i    Cor.   vi.   6. 




2.  Anent.  jii.xfa,  Coles  ^1679) ;  Gawlistoun  That  is  rvcht 
evyn  nnent  Lovvdoun,  Barbour  Bruce,  viii.  124.  3.  Him 
on  efn  ligeS  ealdorgewinna,  Beowulf,  2903.  4.  Ancnt 
(concerning),  De,  Coles  (1679)  ;  Anentis  men  this  thing 
is  impossible  ;  but  anentis  God  alle  thingis  ben  possible, 
Wyclif  (1388)  Malt.  xix.  26.  OE.  on  efen  [efii,  emu), 
on  even  (ground)  with,  whence,  side  by  side  with,  oppo- 
site, in  view  of.] 

ANERLY,  adv.  and  adj.  Sc.  Yks.  Also  written  yan- 
nerly  n.Yks.*  ne.Yks.'  m.Yks.'    [a'narli,  ya'narli.] 

1.  adv.     Alone,  lonely,  solitary. 

Sc.  Ancrly,  Anyrly  (Jam.).  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.'  He  left  her  all 
yannerly  at  home.  Whya  !  yoor  maistthei's  gcean  doon  ti 
Whidby  ;  you'll  be  quite  yannerly. 

2.  Comp.  AU-anerly,  quite  alone. 

Sc.  The  next  time  that  ye  bring  ony  body  here,  let  them  be 
gentles  allenarly,  Scott  Bnde  of  Lam.  (1830)  xxvi. 

3.  adj.     Fond  of  retirement,  shy. 

Sc.  (Jam.).  n.Yks.*  Annerly  ways,  unsocial  liabits.  m.Yks.' 
Yannerly,  unyielding,  rudely  retiring,  or  unsocial  in  manners. 

4.  Selfish,  absorbed  in  one's  own  interests. 
n.Yks.2  A  yannerly  soort  of  a  body.     m.Yks.' 

[1.  Thai  said  that  he  .  .  .  duelt  .  .  .  With  a  clerk  with 
liim  anerly,  Barcour  Bruce,  w.  58;  Thai  .  .  .  That  saw 
him  stand  thair  anerly,  ib.  vl  132.  Aiier/v,  dcr.  of  Sc.  aiie, 
one,  OE.  aii(e);  the  -eris  prob. due  to  conipar. formations ; 
cp.  formerly,  latlcrly.] 

ANERY,  Sc.  A  term  occurring  in  a  rhyme  of  children, 
used  for  deciding  the  right  of  beginning  a  game.  Several 
versions  are  still  current. 

Per.  A  version  of  this  rhyme  '  Anery,  twarie,'  is  quite  familiar 
(G.W.).  Lth.  Anery,  twaery,  tickery,  seven,  Aliby,  crackiby, 
ten  or  eleven  ;  Pin-pan,  muskidan,  Tweedlum,  twodlum,  twenty- 
one,  Blackw.  Mag.  (Aug.  1821)  36. 

ANES.  see  Even. 

ANEW,  prep,  and  adv.  Obs.i  Sc.  (Jam.)  Below, 

Abd.  [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ANEWST,  pref.  and  adv.  Hrf  Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Ken. 
Sus.  Hnip.  I.\V.  Dor.  Wil.  Som.  Also  by  aphaeresis  newst 
Glo.  Wil.^ ;  neust  Brks.  I.W.'  Wil.' ;  neoust,  noust  Wil.' 
Also  written  anoust  Glo.  Wil.' ;  annaust  Glo. ;  enewst 
Glo.';  aneoust  Hrl".'  Glo.  Brks.'  Wil.'  Som.;  aneust 
Glo.'  Brks.  Hmp.'  I.W.'  Wil.';  newse  (K.).  [aniu's, 
sniu'st.]     See  below. 

1.  prep.     Of  place:  near,  hard  by,  over  against. 

Hrf.'  Aneaoust.  Biks.'  1  zin  'in  aneoust  the  chake  pit  [saw  him 
near  the  chalk  pit].  Keu.',  Sus.^,  Sus.  &  w.Cy.  Rav  (1691). 
Som.  Dwon't  ye  come  anuost  yer  zister  ta  vcssy  vvi'  er,  Jennings 
Vial.  tu.Eiig.  (18691  '43- 

2.  Nearly,  approximating  to,  almost. 

Glo.  Anaust  a  handful  or  spoonful,  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 

3.  adv.  Of  manner  or  degree :  nearly,  approximately, 

Hrf.' Neaous.  Glo.' Near  anoust.  Oxf.  Neaust,  Nevvsc,  Ancus. 
There  or  there  aneus  (K.).  Brks.  Gkose  viTgo)  ;  Brks.',  Ken.^ 
Sus.  Ray  (1691)  ;  Sus.'^  Hmp.  Anybody  med  newst  so  well  be 
made  love  to  by  a  owl,  Ma.xwell  Guav  Heart  0/ Storm  (1891)  I. 
192  ;  Hmp.'  I.W.  Tell  me  ancuse  the  time  of  the  day,  Moncrieff 
Dieam  in  Gent.  Mag.  (1863")  1.  32  ;  I.W.'  Neuce  the  scyam  ;  I.W.* 
She  do  goo  on  .  .  .  jest  as  if  she  w,-is  missus.  D'ye  think  the  wold 
man's  married  to  her? — 1  dunno,  but  I  louz  'Ics  anevvse  the  saame. 
Dor.'  Anewst  the  seame.  Wil.'  What  is  it  a  clock  ? — A  newst  one. 
Which  of  the  two  is  oldest  ? — They  are  newst  of  an  age.  Which 
of  those  things  arc  best  ? — They  are  anewst  alike.  Som.SwtLiUAN 
Wiiicanton  67.  (1885). 

4.  Rcscm!)ling,  like. 

Glo.  'Ec's  a  bit  aneist  'is  fcyther  (S.S.B."I  ;  GI0.2 

5.  In  \>\\T.  aiieivst  of  aiieii'stiiess,^  m\ich  of  a  muchness,' 
nearly  alike  ;  aiien'<il  the  matter,  nearly  right ;  near  anewst. 

Glo.  Grose  U79o)  Sup/yt.  MS.  add.  (P.) ;  Glo.'  Brks. '  Neust  of 
a  ncustncss,'  an  expression  very  current,  Ray  Piov.  (1678)  225, 
ed.  i860.  Wil.  Britton  Beauties  (1825);  Wil.' Which  of  these 
things  are  best  ? — I  hey  are  a  newst  of  a  newstncss.  Oxf.  Neaust 
the  matter  (K.) ;  (M.W.)  I.W.'  Neuce  the  m.itter :  I.W.*  Anewse 
the  matter.  Glo.  Near  a  neawst,  near  ye  matter,  Ray  (1691)  MS. 
add.  (J.C.)  108. 

[1.  Arente,  aneust,  very  neere  unto,  Florio  (1611); 
vol.  1. 

Wses  ¥Kr  on  neaweste  hiJs,  Beda,  v.  14.  2.  Anewst 
almost.  Coles  (1677).  A  newst = A -,  on +  nni'st;  OF.,  nea/i- 
wist,  nearness,  neighbourhood  ;  cp.  ON.  na-vist,  presence, 
OIIG.  ml/i-ivi.^t.] 

ANG,  sb.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  [aij,  er).]  The 
beard  of  barley  or  wheat. 

n.Cy.  Grose  V 1790)  ;  Holi.oway  ;  N  Cy.',  Nhb.'  Cnm.  Morton 
Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863);  Cum.*  Wm.  Ferguson  Noillimen  1,1856) 
169  ;  Wm.'  T'barlcy  angs  sticks  tew  mah.  w.Yks.  HurroN  Tour 
to  Caves  (1781).     Lan.',  ne.Lan.' 

[This  form  is  prob.  ofScand.  origin,  o;;^  representing  an 
older  (?"'«,  by  mctath.  oi g ;  cp.  Sw.  agn,  ON.  Ogn,  an  awn.] 

ANG,  see  Ampery. 

AAGALUCK,  si.    Sh.I.    An  accident,  a  disaster. 

Sh.I.  Angaluck  (Jam.  Siififl.).    S.&Ork.' 

[Cp.  Du.  ongeliik,  misfortune.] 

ANGEL,  in  comp.  and  comb,  (i)  Angel-fish,  a  fish  of  the 
shark  family;  (2)  -maine,  see  Angel-fish;  (3)  Angels' 
eyes,  the  plant  germander  speedwell ;  (4)  -shark,  see 
Angel-fish  ;  (5)  Angel's  pincushion,  a  plant,  the  Devil's 
Bit,  Scabiosa  siiccisa  ;  (6)  -swaine,  see  Angel-fish. 

(i)  Cor.*  By  Artedi  called  the  Mermaid-fish,  il/S.  (?(/(/.  [Angel-fish, 
-maine,  -shark,  -swaine,  Sqitntitta  aix^c/irsiSATCHELL').]  (2  Cor.'  * 
Angelmaine,  the  Monk  ^\h\\,Srpiatina  aiigeliis.  (3)  Dev.  1'he  sweet 
germander  speedwell,  .  . .  here,  most  poetically,  named  by  the 
peasantry  Angels'  eyes,  Gosse  Dartmooi  in  Illicit.  Obs.  (1863)  318 
(N.E.D.);  Around  her  hat  a  wreath  was  twined  Of  blossoms 
blue  as  southern  skies;  1  asked  their  name,  and  she  replied.  We 
call  them  Angels'  Eyes,  Garden  (June  29,  1872);  Angels'  eyes, 
Veionica  cliaiiioediys.  (5)  Dor.  Angel's  pincushion,  the  Devil's  Bit 
scabious  (G.E.D.). 

[An  angel-fish  (scale),  Sqtiatina,  Coles  (1679).] 

ANGER,  si.    Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.    [a'r)3(r).] 

1.  Inilammation. 

Cum.  &  Wm.  That  finger  'ill  geddcr,  j-e'll  see.  Ther's  a  deal  o' 
ang-er  and  heat  aboot  it  (M.P.).  n.Yks.*  My  leg's  full  o'  anger. 
w.Yks.  Leeds  Merc.  Siippl.  (.May  i6, 1891).     n.Lan.  (W.H.H.) 

2.  Rashness. 

n.Yks.*  They  should  hae  had  mair  wit  i'  their  anger. 

[1.  Rawness  and  anger  (in  that  dialect,  wherein  we  call 
a  sore  angry),  Hammond  (1659)  On  Ps.  Iviii.  9(N.E.D.); 
I  made  the  experiment,  setting  the  moxa  where  the  first 
violence  of  my  pain  began,  and  where  the  greatest  anger 
and  soreness  still  continued,  notwithstanding  the  swelling 
of  my  foot,  Temple  Misc.  (Johnson).] 

ANGER,  V.    Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Dev. 

1.  To  vex,  irritate,  make  angry. 

Sc.  I  couldna  but  laugh,  though  it  sore  angered  my  mother  to 
see  me  do't,  Wiiiteiiead  DafI  Davie  (1876)  139.  Wxf.'  Angerth, 
angered,  angry.  Nhb.  Me  muthor's bairns  gatangortat  us,  Robson 
Siig.  Sol.  (i860)  i.  6;  Nhb.'  n.Yks.  Mah  mother's  bairns  were 
angered  at  mah.  Rouenson  IVIiilliy  Siig.  Sol.  (i860)  i.  6.  w.Yks.* 
Dev.  Tain't  safe  to  anger  she,  O'Neill  Idyls  (1892)  23. 

2.  To  inilame,  irritate  (of  a  wound). 

n.Yks.'  Hoo's  Willy's  leg  t'morn  ? — Whyah,  it's  nae  better.  It's 
desput  sair  and  angcrd  ;  n.Yks.*  Lan.'  Yon  lad's  fool  gets  no 
betther;  he's  bin  walkin'  this  mornin',  an  his  stockin'  inun  'a 
angcrt  it.     m.Lan.'  When  yo're  towd  nod  to  anger  a  score  place. 

[1.  'Twould  have  anger'd  any  heart  alive  To  hear  the 
men  deny't,  Shaks.  Alacbcth,  iii.  vi.  15;  Beware  liowc 
you  anger  hym,  garder  I'oiis  de  te  corroucer,  Palsgr. 
2.  Itch  most  hurts'when  anger'd  to  a  sore,  Poi'e  Donne 
Sat.  IV.  119.     ON.  angra,  to  grieve,  vex.] 

ANGER-BERRY,  see  Angle-berry.  Sh.I.  (Jam.  6;///>/.)    A  crowd,  multitude. 

ANGERLY,  adf.    n.Yks.    [a  ijali.]     Fierce,  raging. 


[The  word  is  very  rare  in  E.  as  an  adj.  Byron  so  uses 
it  :  (lie)  was  angerly,  but  tried  to  conceal  it,  Moore  Life 
(N.E.D.).     ^Iiis^cr.  hb. -i -ly.     Cp.  ON.  angr/igr,  sad.] 

ANGISH,  sh.  and  adj.     Irel. 

1.  Poverty. 

Wxf  Lim.  I  have  heard  this  word  used  in  the  sense  of  poverty, 
wretchedness,  misery,  by  the  very  common  people.  Seldom  used  at 

2.  adj.    Poverty-stricken. 

Ir.  The  poor  man  is  angish  enough  (J.F.M.F.). 





Hence  Angishore,  a  poverty-stricken  creature. 

s.Ir.  'Angishore'  was  and  is  in  verj'  common  use  ;   a  miserable 
creature  in  poverty  and  wretchedness,  almost  exactly  equivalent 
to  what  we  mean  by  our  epithet,  '  a  poor  devil '  (P.W.  J.).     s.Wxf. 
Give  the  poor  angashore  a  chance,  Humour  of  Irel.  (1894)  391. 
3.  Sicklj',  unhealthy. 

Ir.  A  delicate,  pale,  miserable-looking  child  would  be  called  'an 
angish  creather'  (J.F.M.F.).     Wxf.  Angish,  very  poorly  (J.S.V 

[This  word  is  due  to  a  Gael,  use  and  pronunc.  of  lit. 
E.  anguish  in  the  s.  of  \re\.--aing!S.] 

ANGLE,  sb}    Yks.  Der.     [aql.] 

1.  A  small  hook. 

m.Yks.i  A  small  hook,  as  a  fishing-hook. 

2.  Coinp.  Angle-rod  [obs.),  a  fishing-rod. 

[1.  Go  to  the  see  and  cast  in  thyne  angle,  Tindale 
Matt.  xvii.  27 ;  Gang  to  ¥£ere  sk  and  wurp  ^inne  angel 
ut,  OE.  vers,  (ib.)  OE.  aiigul,  cp.  ON.  ougull,  a  fishing- 
hook.  2.  He  makes  a  May- fly  to  a  miracle;  and  furnishes 
the  whole  country  with  angle-rods,  Addison  Sped.  No. 
108 ;  An  angle-rod,  Pertica  Piscatoria,  Coles  (1679) ; 
Before  you  undertake  your  tryal  of  skil  by  the  angle- 
rod,  Walton  Angler  (1653)  170.] 

ANGLE,  sb.^  Som.  Dev.  [se'ql.]  A  worm  used  in 
fishing,  an  earthworm. 

w.Som.i  U  buunch  u  ang-lz  wai  wiisturd  driie  um-z  dhu  bas  bauyt 
vur  ee  ulz  [a  bunch  of  worms  with  worsted  through  them  is  the 
best  bait  for  eels\  You  be  bound  vor  to  gic  em  [larks  and  thrushes] 
a  angle  now  and  then,  Dev.  '  Fishing  with  an  angle '  is  by  more 
people  understood  to  be  fishing  with  a  worm  than  what  it  really 
is— fishing  with  a  hook.  Reports  Proviuc.  (,1889),     s.Dev.  (F,W.C.) 

[Prob.  for  Angle-twitch,  q,v.] 

ANGLE,  5Z).^  e. Yks.  n, Lin.  A  name  given  to  the  holes 
or  runs  of  vermin,  such  as  badgers,  field-mice,  &c. 

e.Yks.  Marshall  Rur.  Ecoii.  11796),  n,Lin.' Angles,  artificial 
burrows  used  for  capturing  rabbits  in  warrens, 

ANGLE,  I/.  Som.  [as'ql,]  To  loiter  or  '  hang' about  a 
place  with  some  design  ;  to  intrigue.     Also  used  as  sb. 

•w.Som.'  Waud-ur  kauni  angleen  baewt  yuur  vaur  ?  [what  does 
he  come  loitering  about  here  for  ?] — Aay  au'vees  kunsiid  urd  eens 
ee  wuz  angleen  aa'dr  Mus  Jee'un  [I  always  thought  he  was 
angling  after  Miss  Jane],  Aay  kaa'n  ubae'ur-n,  uz  au'vees  pun  dhu 
ang-1  [I  cannot  endure  him,  he  is  always  upon  the  angle,  i,  e. 

[She  knew  her  distance,  and  did  angle  for  me.  Madding 
my  eagerness.  Shake.  All's  IVell,  v.  iii.  212.  Fig.  use  of 
angle,  vb.,  to  fish  with  a  hook,  to  use  an  angle  (see 
Angle.  56,' 1,] 

ANGLE-BERRY,  sb}  Sc.  n.Irel.  Nhb.  Cum,  Yks.  Lan, 
Glo.  Also  written  annle-,  see  below,  [a'rjl-bsri.]  The 
same  as  Anbury,  L 

So.  A  fleshy  excrescence  resembling  a  very  large  hautboy  straw- 
berry,growing  on  the  feet  of  sheep,  cattle,  &c.  (Jam.).  N.1.'  Angle- 
berries,  large  hanging  warts  on  a  horse,  sometimes  about  its  mouth. 
Nhb.'  Anger-berry,  or  Angle-berry,  a  warty  excrescence  growing 
on  the  umbilicus,  or  scrotum,  or  teats  of  an  animal.  These  are 
highly  vascular  and  easily  hurt,  Cum.^  Yks.  Before  the  angle- 
berries  or  warts  grow  strong,  you  ma3'  pull  them  up,  Knowlson 
Cattle  Doctor  (1834  i  ^8.  w.Yks.' Nannie-berries,  ne.Lan.' Angle- 
berry,  a  sore  under  the  hoof  of  an  animal.  e.Lan.'  Handle  berry. 
Glo.'  [Angle-berry,  a  sore  or  imposthumation  under  the  claw  of  a 
beast  (K,).] 

[Prob.  for  an  earlier  *ang-berry;  OK.ang-,  pain,  anguish 
(as  in  angsela,  carbuncle) -fien^'.  For  berry  used  in  this 
sense,  cp.  strawberry  as  applied  to  a  birth-mark,  and  the 
use  of  It.  iiioro  for  a  mulberry-tree  and  a  wart  on  horses 
(Florio),     See  Anbury,] 

ANGLE-BERRY,  s6,=     n,Cy.     Lathyrtts  pratensis. 

n.Cy,  Angle  berry,  the  common  wild  vetchling,  from  the  angles 
of  its  pods.  Poetry  Prov.  in  Cornli.  Mag.  (.18651  XII.  34  ;  N.Cy.i 
Nhb.'  Among  old  people  angle-berry  is  the  name  of  a  vetch  ;  prob- 
ably because  it  angles  or  catches  hold  and  clings  to  plants  or 
shrubs  stronger  and  taller  than  itself. 

[Ani;lc  {Ft.  antile)  + berry.] 

ANGLE-BOW,  sb.  Glo.  Som.  Dev.  A  running  knot, 
a  snare  with  a  spring  noose,  a  gin  for  birds  or  fish. 

Glo.  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  w.Som.'  Angle-bow,  a  running 
noose,  a  slip  knot,  especially  a  wire  on  a  long  stick  for  catching 

fish  ;   also  a  springle  for  catching  birds.     The  poacher's  wire  is 
always  an  angle-bow,    Dev,  Applied  to  any  running  noose  (F,W,C.). 

{Angle  (Ft.  angle)  +  bow  fa  single-looped  knot).] 

ANGLE-BOWING,  vbl.  sb.     Som.  Dev. 

1.  Poaching  for  fish  by  means  of  an  angle-bow. 
Dev.  (F.W.C.) 

2.  A  method  of  fencing  the  enclosures  where  sheep  are 
kept,  by  placing  bent  sticks  into  the  ground  ;  also  the  act 
of  fencing  in  this  manner. 

w.Som.'  n.Dev.  Chell  tell  vauther  o't  zo  zoon  es  ha  coraath  hum 
vrom  angle-bowing,  don't  quesson't,  E.xm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  212  ; 
Grose  (.179°)  ^S.  add.  (H.)     Dev.' 

[1.  Vbl.  sb.  of  angle-bow,  q.v.,  used  as  a  vb.  2.  Vbl. 
sb.  of  an^le-bow,  vb.,  deriv.  of  Angle  (Fr.  angle)  +  bow  (the 
weapon  for  shooting  arrows).] 

ANGLE-DOG,  sb.     Dev.     The  earthworm. 

Dev.  At  Culmstock  a  farmer,  speaking  of  loose  straw  on  pasture, 
said,  '  You'd  be  surprise  how  zoon  th' angle- dogs'U  draw  it  down,' 
Refoi-ts  Provinc.  (1889), 

ANGLE-EARED,  adj.     Dev.     Mischievous. 

s.Dev.  Angle-yeared  ^used  of  children) ;  orig,  '  with  outstanding 
(pointedj  cars,'  such  as  Puck  is  represented  with.  Angle-yeared  ? 
—  that's  when  boys  be  artful.  You  angle-eared  young  toad  ! 

[Ano'le  (Fr.  angle)  +  eared] 

ANGLE-TWITCH,  sb.  Gmg.  Pern,  Dev,  Cor.  Also 
written  angle-titch  nw.Dev.*;  angle-ditch  Cor. '^ ;  -touch 
Wei.     [3e-i)ltwit;.] 

1.  The  earthworm. 

Gmg.,  Pem.  Collins  Gowcr Dial.  Trans.  Pliil.  Soc.  (1850';  IV.  222. 
Dev.  Reports  Proi>mc.  (1895.)  n.Dev.  Jim,  go  and  zarch  vor  angle- 
twitches.  Rock  yi/HOM'A'e// (1867)  35,  Dev.'  You  drumble-drone- 
dunder-headed-slinpole,  .  .  .  I'd  twack  thee  till  I  made  thee  twine 
like  an  angletwdtch  ;  Dev.^,  nw.Dev.'  Cor.  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add. 
(C  ) ;  The  king's  highway  ought  not  to  be  twisting  and  turning 
like  an  angle-twitch,  Hunt  Pop.  Rom.  w.E>ig.  1,1865^  33  ;  Far  as 
I  cu'd  see  you've  done  naught  but  fidget  like  an  angletwitch,  •  Q.' 
Three  Ships  (.1890)  vii ;  Turnin'  an'  twestin'  like  a'  angle-twitch, 
Pearce  Esther  Pentreath  (1891^  bk,  i.  iv  ;  But  aw  twingled  like  an 
angle-dutch,  Thomas  Raiidigal  Rhymes  {,1895)  24;  Cor.'  Wrig- 
gling like  an  angle-twitch  ;  Cor.2 

2.  A  slow-worm. 

3.  In  phr.  to  have  an  angle-twitch  in  the  bonnet,  to  be  not 
quite  sane. 

Dev.  Eh,  daddy  says  t'ers  an  angle-twitch  till  her  rewdon, 
Madox-Brown  Duale  Bluth  (18761  bk.  iv.  ii. 

[See  Nares  (s.v.  Angel-touche) ;  His  baites  are  Tag- 
wormes,  which  the  Cornish-English  term  'Angle  touches,' 
Carew  Cornwall  (1602 1  26.  ME.  Greyte  wormes  )>at 
are  called  angel  twjxches,  MS.  in  Prompt.  279.  OE. 

ANG-NAIL  or  ANGER-NAIL,  see  Agnail. 

ANGOLA,  sb.  w.Yks.  Cotton  and  fine  wool  mixed 
in  the  fibre,  spun  in  the  same  waj'  as  wool,  the  feel  of 
wool  thus  being  obtained,  while  the  cotton  prevents 
shrinkage  by  washing  or  perspiration  (J,F.). 

Hence  Angolas.  A  term  used  in  the  rag  trade  for 
underclothing  made  from  cotton  and  wool,  but  chiefly 
cotton  iM.F.j. 

ANGRY,  adj.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Wor.  Oxf  Hnt.  Cmb.  e.An. 
Sus.  Hmp.  Som.  [a'ljri,  a'ggri,  ae'rjri.]  Inflamed,  red. 
Used  with  reference  to  a  wound  or  sore. 

Nhb.'  Me  fingr's  beeldin'  aa's  flaid — it  leuks  se  angry.  Dur.', 
Cum.'2,  Wm.',  n.Yks.',  ne.Yks.'  w.Yks.  J. T.) ;  w.Yks.s,  Lan.', 
m.Lan.'  Chs.'  That  thumb  o'  hisn's  looks  main  angry.  s.Chs.' 
Stf.^  That  bad  pl^s  on  thoi  'and  liuks  very  angry\  nw.Der.'  Lin. 
Streatfield  Zp;.  fl/irf />t7;;cs  1.1884)  315,  n,Lin.',  Lei.'  Nhp.'  It's 
a  bad  wound  ;  it  looks  so  very  angry.  War.''  Rub  a  little  ointment 
on  that  sore,  it  has  an  angry  look  ;  War.^  ne.Wor.  A  wound  or 
sore  place  '  looks  very  angrj' '  (J. W.P.I.  Oxf.' .1/S.  add.  Hnt. 
(T.P.F.)  Cmb.'  That  there  cut  on  your  finger's  rare  and  angry — 
you'd  better  put  a  hutkin  on.  e.An.'  Mj' kibe  is  very  angry  to-night 
Nrf.,  SuT.,  Sus.,  Hmp.  A  person,  when  angry,  generally  looks  red  ; 
so  does  the  inflamed  part  of  the  body,  Holloway.  w.Som.'  He 
was  getting  on  very  well  till  s'mornin,  but  now  the  leg  looks 




[This  serum  .  . .  grows  red  and  angry,  Wiseman  St(rjocty 
(Johnson)  ;  I  have  rubb'd  this  young  quat  almost  to  the 
sense,  And  he  grows  angry,  Shaks.  Uth.v.  i.  12;  Pedigiwni, 
angrie  l<ibes,  chilblanes,  Florid  (1611).] 

ANGUISH,  sb.    Sur.  limp.  Cor.    [ae  rjwij.] 

1.  Inflammation. 

Sur.  It's  nice  and  cooling  is  that  Elder  ointment  I  made  ;  it  keeps 
off  the  anguish,  N.  &  Q.  (18801  6th  S.  i.  238.  Hmp.'  Of  horses 
it  is  said,  '  If  we  foment  it,  it'll  take  the  anguish  out  of  it,'  Cor.^ 
There  is  a  deal  of  anguish  in  my  finger.  That  is  the  anguish 
coming  out  [said  of  water  running  from  an  inflamed  eye]. 

2.  Pain  felt  at  a  distance  from  the  actual  wound  or  seat 
of  disease,  commonly  known  as  '  sympathy.' 

Cor.3  My  hand  is  swelled  and  I've  got  a  swelling  too  in  my  arm- 
pit, hut  that  is  from  the  anguish  of  it.  The  pain  that  arises  in  one 
tooth  from  sympathy  with  another  corresponding  one  in  decay  is 
called  anguish. 

[OFr.n;(^j5'o/s5f,anguish,  agony  of  mind  or  body  (Cotgr.).] 

ANGUISHED,  ppl.  adj.     Lin.     Pained,  troubled. 

n.Lin.l  I  was  straangely  ang\iished  in  my  joints  all  thrif  Thomas 
th'  wizzard. 

[My  soule  was  angwishid  in  me,  Wyclif  (1382)  Jon. 
ii.  8.  Anguished,  pp.  of  anguish,  vb.  I  anguysshe,  Je 
(tngoysse\  This  wounde  anguyssheth  me,  cesle  playe  »ie 
aiigovsse,  Palsgr.] 

ANGUISHOUS,  rtf^:  Lan.  Chs.  [a'qwijas.]  (i)  Pain- 
ful, causing  pain.     (2I  Sorrowful,  oppressed  with  pain. 

(i)  Chs.'  i,a)  Lan.'  He  lookt  quite  anguishous,  an  aw  felt  sorry 
for  him. 

[ill  Ful  anguisshous  than  is,  god  woot,  quod  she, 
Condicioun  of  veyn  prosperitec,  Chaucer  Ti:  ij^  Cr.  in. 
816.  12)  For  I  was  al  aloon,  y-wis,  Ful  wo  and  ancjuissous 
of  this,  Chaucer  R.  Rose,  520.  OFr.  aiigiiissiis,  Fr.  cingois- 
srii.v  (P.\lsgr.  305).] 

ANIE,  .sA.     Sc.     A  small  one. 

Abd.  Gie's  a  bonny  anie.  It's  but  a  wee  little  anie  (G.W."). 
Knr.  Anie,  a  little  one  (Jam.).  Edb.  A  mother  speaking  of  the 
youngest  of  her  children  sajs  '  The  wee  ane  '  or  '  The  wee  anie.' 
What  bowl  [ofporridge]  will  ye  tak,  Jamie? — The  wee  anie  (J. W.M.). 

[Dim.  of  ane,  n.  dial,  form  of  lit.  E.  one.     Ane  +  -y.] 

ANIGH.  adv.  and  pirf>.  Stf  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Won  Shr. 
Glo.  Oxf  Brks.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  Som.  Aus.  [anr, 
anai' ;    Lei.  anoi'.] 

1.  adv.     Near. 

Lei.'  Oi'll  gic  ye  a  clout  if  yo  coom  anoigh.  War.'  ^  Shr.' 
The  doctor  never  come  anigh.     Glo.'.  Sus.' 

2.  prep.     Near  to,  near  ;  gen.  with  vb.  of  motion. 

s.Stf.  Do'  let  him  come  anigh  me,  Pinxock  Dlk.  Cv.  Ann.  (1895). 
Stf.2  Ei  nivor  kum  anoi  mi  for  a  wik.  Nlip.'  He  lives  anigh 
me.  s.War.'  Don't  ye  go  anigh  him.  se.Wor.'  Don't  you  get 
anigh  them  osses.  Oxf.',  Brks.'  Sur.'  And  for  all  that  I  was 
bad  so  long  he  never  come  a-nigh  me.  Hmp.',  I.W.'  w.Som.' 
Used  with  vbs.  implying  motion  only.  Dhur  acwz  liz  nuy  dhu 
roa'ud,  biid  a.iy  nuvur  diidn  goo  unuyum  [their  house  is  near  the 
road,  but  I  never  went  near  them].  [Aus..  N.S.W.  We  mustered 
the  cattle  quite  comfortably,  nobody  coming  anext  or  anigh  us 
any  more  than  if  we'd  taken  the  thing  by  contract,  Boldrewood 
Rohbi-n  (i888^  I.  xi.] 

[.■i-iprep°)  +  uiiili.'\ 

ANIGHST,  prep,  and  adv.     Dcr.  Wor.  Ilrf  Glo.  Oxf 
Brks.    Sus.    Hmp.    Wil.    Dor.    Cor.     Also  written    anist 
Den*  nw.Der.' Cor."  ;  anyst  Cor.*     [anaist,  ani'st.] 
1.  prep.    Near,  near  to  ;  got.  used  with  v.  of  motion. 

Der.*,  nw.Der.'  Wor.  I  'ootln't  live  anighst  her  wotcver,  OuTis 
Vig.  Mott.  in  Wor.  Jni.  s.Wor.'  Hrf.'  They  never  come  anighst 
me.  Glo.  I  never  cud  get  anist  un  iS..S.B.);  Master  Michael  .  .  . 
oodn't  let  un  come  anighst  the  house,  Gissing  ViH.  Hampden 
(1890)  II.  v;  Glo.'  Oxf.'  A  said  'twas  I  as  'ut  'im,  an'  I  never 
went  nooer  anighst'n.  Brks.  Blessee,  child,  doantee  go  anigst  it, 
lluGiiF.s  T.  Brown  (1856)  37;  Now  thou'rt  like  to  get  Ih'  lotment 
tliou'lt  not  go  anj'st  'un,  ib.  T.  Brown  O.xf.  (1861)  xix ; 
Brks.'  Best  not  come  anighst  that  ther  boss,  med  be  he'll  kick  'e. 
e.Sus.  HoLLOWAV.  Hmp.'  Wil.  The  miller  zeed  it  ael,  but 
couldn't  come  anighst  un,  Akerman  Spring-tide  (1850)  48  ;  Wil.' 
Nobody's  bin  anighst  us  since  you  come  ;  Wil.*  Dor.'  Don't  goo 
aniste  en.  Cor.  Don't  you  come  anist  my  door  agen  for  a  bra' 
spur,  Forfar  Wizard  {^i&-j\\  54  ;  They  durstn't  ha'  gone  anighst 
a  shop,  Parr  Adam  and  Eve  (i88o)  I.  276.      w.Cor.  So  take  and 

go  the  west  [way]  home  and  dos'en  aw  come  anist  me,  Thomas 
Randigat  Rhymes  ,1895   7.     Cor.*  Don't  go  anist  him,  MS.  add. 
2.  adv.    Nearly,  almost. 

Dor.  You've  .said  anighst  all.  Hardy  Tbarr  (1882)  327,  ed.  1895. 

\A-  (pref.^")  + Highest,  superl.  of  nigh.] 

ANIGHT(S,  adv.  Wan  Won  Som.  [anai-t]  At  night, 
of  a  night. 

War.,  Wor.  I  can't  sleep  anights  'H.K.).  s.Wor.'  w.Som.*  You 
can't  never  do  it  by  day,  but  you  can  zometimes  anight. 

[Bid  him  take  that  for  coming  a-night,  Shaks.  As  You, 
II.  iv.  48 ;  Though  I  him  wrye  a-night  and  make  him 
warm.  Chaucer  C.  T.  n.  1827.     A-,  on  +  night.] 

ANIND,  see  Onhind. 

ANISE,  sb.  A  plant-name  applied  to  (i)  Alyssum 
niariliiuiim  (Dev.)  ;  (2)  Koniga  niaritima  (Dev.) ;  (3) 
Myrrliis  odorata  (Dun). 

Dev.''  Anise,  the  same  as  Sweet  Alice. 

[Dial,  uses  of  rt/HA-f?  (Pintpinella  atiisunt),  Fr.  anis,  Lat. 
aiiisnni.  On  aiiTaoi/.] 

ANK,  V.  Lan.  To  be  of  opinion,  to  assert  em- 

Lan. '  Con  aw  ? '  cried  Jimmy  ;  '  aw  ank  a  con,'  Standing  Echoes 
(1885)  24.  e.Lan.  In  common  use  among  the  natives  of  the  Tod- 
morden  valley,  and  in  Burnley  (F.E.B.V 

[Etym.  obscure.  Perh.  the  same  word  as  hank  (to 
fasten),  q.v.] 

ANKER,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Con  [a'gkar,  ae-r)ka(r).] 
L  A  liquid  measure  :  ten  imperial  gallons. 
Sc.  I  had  whiles  tvva  bits  o'  anjvcrs  o'  brandy,  Scott  Rob  Roy 
(1817)  xviii  ;  Anker,  a  liquid  measure  formerly  in  use  in  all  districts 
that  traded  with  the  Dutch  (Jam.  Siippl.).  S.  &  Ork.'  Danish 
anker,  38  Danish  quarts,  10  imperial  gallons.  Nhb.  About  ten 
ankers  of  gin,  Richardson  Borderers  Table-bk.  (1846}  VII.  175. 

2.  A   small    cask  adapted  for  carrj'ing,  and  containing 
about  four  gallons. 

Sc.  Tun,  anker,  and  c.ig,  Drummond  Muchoniachy  (1846^  66. 
s.  &  w.Sc.  A  small  barrel  used  by  smugglers  for  carrj'ing  their 
brandy'  on  horseback,  &c.  ;  also  the  small  barrel  open  at  one  end 
used  for  holding  the  oatmeal  in  daily  use.  Still  so  used  in  se- 
cluded districts  of  the  s.  and  w.  of  Scotland,  and  is  a  big  or  a  wee, 
a  muckle  or  a  little  anker,  according  to  its  size  or  capacity  (Jam. 
Stip/>/.).  Frf.  Some  bring,  in  many  an  anker  hooped  strong.  From 
Fhisliing's  port,  the  palate-biting  gin,  Tennant  Ansler  (i8ia)  viii. 
Cor.  We'll  drink  it  out  of  the  anker,  my  boys,  Dixon  Sngs.  Eng. 
Pros.  I  1846"  160,  ed.  1857  ;  Cor.'  ;  Cor.*  '  Free-traders'  Imported 
their  '  moonshine  '  in  such  ankers  when  the  nights  were  dark. 

3.  A  dry  measure. 

S.&  Oik.'  An  anker  of  potatoes,  one-third  of  a  barrel.  Or.  &SI1.I. 
A  dr\-  measure  similar  to  the  firlot,  for  measuring  potatoes  (Jam. 

[1.  Anker,  a  liquid  measure  chiefly  used  at  Amsterdam. 
It  is  the  fourth  part  of  the  awm,  and  contains  two  stckans  : 
each  stekan  consists  of  sixteen  mengles  ;  the  mengle 
being  equal  to  two  Paris  pints,  Chambers  Cycl.  (1788);  . 
A  fevs' anchors  of  right  Nantz,  Smollett  Per.  Pick.  (1751) 
I.  ii.  10.— Du.  anker,  a  measure  of  wine,  the  fourth  part 
of  an  awm  (aani) ;  also  a  cask  holding  the  above  quantity; 
the  word  is  also  used  in  the  fish-trade  (  De  Vries).  G.  and 
Dan.  anker,  Sw.  ankare  (Serenius)  ;  MLat.  anceria  (OFr. 
ancere)  ;  see  Ducange.] 

ANKERLY,  adv.    ?  Obs.   Sc.    Unwillingly. 

SIk.  Jam.)    [Not  known  to  our  correspondents  ] 

[Perh.  a  dcriv.  of  anker  (OE.  ancor),  an  anchorite,  in 
rci.  to  his  unwillingness  to  join  in  the  society  and  pleasures 
of  the  world.] 

ANKLING,  see  Hankling. 

ANKOR,  sb.  Nhb.  [a  qkar.]  The  bend  of  a  scythe 
or  adze. 

Nhb.'  Some  men  prefer  the  angle  at  which  a  scythe-blade  is  set 
from  the  handle  to  be  more  or  less  acute.  Hence  the  direction  in 
fi.sing  a  new  handle  is  '  Give  'or  a  bit  mair  ankor,'  or  '  A  bit  less 
ankor,'  as  the  case  may  be.  The  same  direction  is  given  in  fixing 
a  new  handle  to  an  adze. 

[Perh.  a  use  of  anchor,  with  regard  to  the  angle  made 
by  the  fluke  with  the  long  shank. J 

ANKSOME,  see  Anxom. 




ANLET,  sb.  w.Yks.  [a'nlat.]  A  mark  in  the  shape  of 
an  annulet,  or  small  ring. 

w.Yks.l  Anlet,  the  mark  on  a  stone,  being  an  ancient  boundary 
in  this  neighbourhood. 

[Annelet.  a  little  ring  for  the  finger  ;  any  annelet  or 
small  ring  used  about  apparel  or  armour,  Cotgr.] 

ANNAUST.  see  Anewst. 

ANNEX,  sb}  Nhb.  s.Pem.  Cor.  Written  anny  s.Pem. 
The  Kittiwake,  Rissa  tridactyla. 

Nhb.'  s.Pem.  Laws  Little  Eiig.  ( 18881  419.  Cor.  Rodd  Birr/s 
(18801314.  [i'oRSTER  Swallow  t^iSi-])  gz  ;  Swainson  iV;rfi  (1885) 

[See  Annet,  sb.'^] 

ANNEX,  sA.2    Nhb.  Lan.     [a-nst.] 

1.  The  common  Gull,  Lants  caitits. 
Nhb.  SwAiNSON  Rircls  1  1885)  208. 

2.  A  '  gull,'  a  silly  fellow. 

Lan.  That  eendless  annut  o*  thoine's  keen  bitter,  Scholes  Tim 
Ganiwattle  (1857)  39. 

[Perh.  equiv.  to  ON.  oiid  (gen.  aiidar),  a  duck,  Dan.  and, 
cp.  OE.  eiicd.] 

ANNOY,  V.  Yks.  Lan.  War.  Shr.  Ess.  {obs.)  Som. 
Also  by  aphaeresis  noy  w.Som.'     [snoi',  noi.] 

1.  To  hurt,  trouble,  damage. 

War.^  It  does  not  annoy  my  memory  [to  write  down  dialect 
words].  Shr.^  That  theer  bit  o'  roche  'as  annoyed  my  spade. 
Ess.  Leaue  oxen  abrode  for  anoieng  the  spring  [shoots  of  under- 
wood], TussER  Ilnsbainlnc  (1580)  105,  st.  11.  w.Som.^  Don't  you 
believe  it,  he  widn  noy  you  'pon  no  'count  in  the  wordle. 

2.  Hence  (i)  Annoyance,  sb.  offence,  damage;  (2) 
Annoisome,  adj.  hurtful ;  (3)  Annoyment,  sb.  intent  to 
injure,  malice  ;  (4)  Annoyous,  (5)  Annoyful,  adj.  trouble- 

(i)  w.Som.^  Nif  you'll  plase  to  let  us  put  up  the  ladder  in  your 
garden,  we'll  take  care  not  to  make  no  noyance.  (2)  w.Yks. 2  No 
man  shall  put  any  scabbed  horse  to  the  common  whereby  they 
male  be  annoysome  or  troublesome  to  his  neighbours  {obs.).  (3) 
w.Som.i  I  knows  em  purty  well,  'tis  alla-do'd  vor  noyment.  Lan.' 
(4)  Anoyful.     (51  Yo're  varra  anoyous  ;  give  oer. 

[1.  I  noye  or  hurte  one,  Je  iiiiys,  Palsgr.  ;  It  dooth  no 
good  .  . .  but  anoyeth,  See  ye  nat,  lord,  how  mankinde  it 
destroyeth  ?  Chaucer  C.  T.  f.  875.  AFr.  anoyer  (mod. 
ennuyer).  2.  Annoyance.  Suftrance  suft'reth  swetely  all 
the  anoyaunces  and  the  wronges  that  men  doon  to  man 
outward,  Chaucer  C.  T.  1.  655. — Annoyful.  AUe  tarying 
....  anoyful,  ib.  B.  2220. — Annoyment.  I  warrant  she 
neucr  fele  anoyment,  Play  Sacr.  (Matzner). — Annoyous. 
Ony  thing  That  anoyus  or  scathfuU  be,  Barbour  Bruce, 
V.  249 ;  Thilke  thinges  shullen  ben  unjoyful  to  thee  or 
elles  anoyous.  Chaucer  Doelh.  n.  v.  95. — Annoysome.  Cp. 
the  aphetic  lit.  E.  form  noisome :  The  noisome  pesti- 
lence, Bible  Ps.  xci.  3,] 

ANNUAL MEADO-W  GRASS, />/?,<-.  Sus.  Poa  annua; 
called  also  Causeway  grass,  q.v. 

Sus.  The  annual  meadow,  vernal,  smooth  .  .  .  seem  to  be  best 
adapted  for  the  feed  of  sheep,  Marshall  Revieui  (1817;  V.  489. 

ANNY,  see  Annet. 

ANOINT,  V.  Nhb.  Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Der.  Nhp.  Shr.  Hrf 
Glo.  e.An.  Ken.  Wil.  Dor.  Som.  By  aphaeresis  'noint 
Wm.  n. Yks.i  w. Yks.'^  ^  c^g  1 2  s.Chs.»  w.Som.^ ;  nint  Wil.'  ; 
ninte  Shr.' ;  again  corrupted  to  oynt  Suf  ;  aint  e.An.' 
Nrf '  Suf ' ;  aaint  Nrf '  Suf '  [anoi  nt,  noint,  naint,  aint.] 
1.  To  thrash,  chastise  by  word  or  act,  '  to  baste.' 

Nhb.  Aw'd  peel  her  te  the  varry  sark  Then 'noint  herwiv  a  twig 
o'  ycck.  Wilson  Pitman's  /'av(i843)  11.  Wm.  Maister's  nointcd 
me  to  day  for  talking  in  class  (B.K.).  n.Yks.',  w.Yks.^;  w.Yks.^ 
Au'll  noint  thee.  Chs.^  ^^  g.chs.'  Shr.'  Billy,  if  j'o' dunna  come 
back  and  get  on  wuth  that  leasin'  I'll  ninte  yore  'ide  fur  yo'. 
Shr.  &  Hrf.  Neint,  to  beat.  Bound  Prov.  (1876).  Hrf.  I  saw  Bill 
Jones 'niiiting  the  parson,  A'.  &  O.  (i865')3rd  .S.  viii  547.  e.An.'. 
Nrf.'  Suf.'  I'll  aaint  yar  hide  for  ye.  Ken.'  Wil.'  I'll 'nint  yc 
when  I  gets  home!  Dor.  Anoint,  to  beat  (W.W.S.).  w.Soni.' 
Jimmy!  tumm'ld  down  again  and  dirt  yer  pinny  I  you  bad  boy,  I'll 
noint  your  bottom  vor  'ee,  I  will,  you  young*  rascal ! 

Hence  Anointing,  a  thrashing. 

Wm.  He  gat  hissel  a  good  nointing  for  his  pains  (B.K.).  s.Chs.' 
They  gen  [gave]  him  a  pratty  nointin'.      Nhp.'  You'll  get  a  good 

nineting,  3'oung  lad.     Shr. 2      Shr.  &.  Hrf.  I'll  give  you  a  ueinting, 
Bound  Prov.  (1876).     Glo.i 
2.  To  run,  hurry  away. 

w.Yks. ^2  A  man  said  of  his  mare,  '  You  should  see  her  nant  up 
them  hills.'  Now,  lad.  noint  it.  He  did  make  us  nanty.  nw.Der.' 
Shr.'  They  wun  comin'  alung  as  fast  as  the  pony  could  ninte. 
Shr.,  Hrf.  How  that  horse  did  neint  along.  Bound  Prov.  (1876). 

[1.  I'll  . .  .  anoint  him  with  a  cat-and-nine-tails,  Smol- 
lett Rod.  Random,  v.  ME.  The  kyng  away  fly.  Which 
so  well  was  anoj'nted  (Fr.  si  bien  oingt)  indede,  Ro)n. 
Partenay,  5653.  2.  The  sense  'to  hurry  along'  is  a 
development  trom  sense  1 ;  cp.  the  use  of  beat,  pelt,  in  the 
sense  of  hurried  movement.] 

ANOINTED,  ppl.  adj.  In  gen.  dial,  use  in  Irel.  and 
Eng.  Also  by  aphaeresis,  nointed  n.Yks.'^  m.Yks.^ 
Chs.''^  Lin.^  Rut.^  Lei.'  w.Som.'  nw.Dev.' ;  nineted  Nhp.' 
se.Wor.'  Shr.i=  Hrf^  I.W.=  ;  niented  I.W.^ 

1.  Of  persons:  thoroughly  bad,  wholly  given  up  to  evil 
courses,  notorious.  'Why,  you  anointed  rogue,' says  he,  Kennedy  Banks  Bow 
(1867)  287.  n.Yks.i ;  n.Yks  =  A  nointed  3'outh.  s.Lan.  The  ex- 
pression a'neignted  yungrogue' was  common  in  this  district  some 
years  ago.  It  is  seldom,  if  ever,  now  heard,  Manch.  City  JVezvs 
(Feb.  8,  1896).  Chs. "2  Lin.  He's  a  'nointed  one,  Thompson 
Hist.  Boston  (18^6) -J  16.  Knt.  EhLis  Proniinc.  (1889)  V.  256.  Lei.' 
A'sa'nineted 'un,a  is.  Nhp.'  Wor.  Called  him  an  '  anointed  young 
vagabond,' A'.  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  viii.  452.  se.Wor.'  'E's  a  nineted 
un,  *e  is.  s.War.'  He's  an  anointed  young  rascal.  Shr.'  E's  a 
nineted  pippin  [said  of  a  vicious  youth]  ;  Shr .2  Hrf.2  Ninetedum, 
corruption  of  '  anointed  one.'  Him's  a  ninted  yarb.  Hnt.  He's 
the  most  anointed  young  hound  I  ever  met  in  my  life.  A'.  &  Q. 
(1865')  3rd  S.  viii.  452.  Nrf.  We  commonly  hear  a  very  bad  boy  or 
man  called  '  an  anointed  willain,'  ib.  (1867)  3rd  S.  xii.  237.  Suf. 
(F.H.)  Ken.  Anineted,  nineted,  audacious,  fast  (A.M.) ;  Ken.l  He's 
a  regular  anointed  young  dog.  The  devil's  own  anointed  young 
rascal.  I.W.'  ;  I.W.2  Don't  hay  ndthin  to  do  wi'  that  feller,  he's 
a  nineted  rogue.  w.Som.'  There  idn  nit  a  more  nointeder  young 
osebird  in  all  the  parish.  Dev.  He  is  an  anointed  wretch.  Reports 
Provinc.  (1882)  7.  nw.Dev.'  Cor.  Aw,  he  was  an  anointed  old 
rascal,  '  Q.'  Tmy  Town  (1888 1  xi ;  That  bov'd  end  badlj'.  for  aw  was 
a  most  anointed  1cm,  Thomas  Randignl  Rhymrs  [  1895)  3  ;  Cor.'  2 

Hence  Ninety-bird,  one  who  is  given  up  to  evil  ways. 


2.  Very  great,  terrible. 

w.Som.  It  was  an  anointed  shame,  Elworthy  Grant.  (1877)  22. 

[Anointed  in  this  sense  is  prob.  conn,  with  anoint,  vb.  (to 
thrash).  An  '  anointed  scoundrel '  would  mean  a  scoundrel 
who  has  deservedly  been  well  thrashed.] 

ANOINTER,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf  War.  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf 
Bck.  Wil.  Som.  Also  written  nointer  Yks.  Chs.'  s.Chs.' ; 
nineter  War.''  Glo.'  Wil.' ;  neinter  Chs.' 

1.  A  scapegrace,  a  mischievous  fellow.    Also  used  as  adj. 
w.Yks.  Lenls  Merc.  Siippl.  (May  31,  1884)  8.      Chs.'     s.Stf.  He's 

a  reglar  nointer,  I'd  believe  anythin'o' him,  Pinnock  Blk.  Cy.  Ann. 
(1895).  War.  Northall  Flk-Phr.  (1894).  w.Wor.  That  lad's  a 
nineter,  sir,  he  is.  He'll  fight  like  a  rohm,Beirow's  J>-n.  (Mar.  10, 
1888).  s.Oxf.  David  Loveday  names  his  dog  *  Nainter'  because  it  is 
troublesome,  barking  at  the  wrong  time,  and  sometimes  worrying 
the  sheep,  Ftt-Z.o)cy»iz.  (1884)  II.  188;  'She  alius  were  a  reglar 
nineter,'  said  her  father  with  a  delighted  chuckle.  '  Whatever's  a 
nineter,  uncle  ?' asked  Sam.  'Anineter?  Why,  a  nineter's  a  reglar 
Bedlam,'  answered  Tom,  Rosemary  Chilterns  1^1895 1162.  Bck.  He's 
a  nice  young  nineter,  he  is!  (A.C.)     Wil.' A  nineter  young  rascal. 

2.  A  trickster,  a  sharp,  crafty  person. 

w.Wor.  He  be  a  nipper  and  a  nineter,  he  be  (W.B.).  Glo. 
Som.  Nineter,  Sweetman  Wincanton  Gl.  (1885). 

3.  An  energetic,  pushing  person. 
s.Chs.'  Hey's  a  nointer,  that  mon. 

4.  A  miser,  a  skinflint. 
Wil.  Slow  Gl.  \  1892) ;  Wil.' 

5.  Of  things  :  causing  perplexity  or  surprise ;  a  '  puzzler.' 
w.Yks.  That's  a  nointer  (G.B.W.) ;  (B.K.) 

[Anoint,  vb.  (q.v.) -f--fr.  The  word  means  prob.  one 
who  deserves  an  '  anointing,'  i.  e.  a  thrashing.  The  use 
of  the  suffix  -fr  (of  the  agent)  is  remarkable.] 

ANOINTING,  adj     Bck.     Mischievous. 

Bck.  Aint  he  a  nineting  young  rascal?  (A.C.) 

[See  Anointed.] 




ANON,  adv.     Dev.     [ano'n.]     To-niglit. 
Dev.  GuosE  ^1790)  MS.  aiiil.  {C.)      Dev.  &  Cor.  Monthly  Mag. 
(18081 II.  621.      Dev.3  YQ  shet  aw.iy  'omc  Hill,  iis'll  vollcrcc  anon. 
Midden  be  airly,  tlio'  tweel  be  avorc  owly-light  [midnight]. 

[This  sense  is  due  to  the  earlier  use  of  a)ion  in  the 
sense  of  soon,  in  a  short  time.  I  am  gone,  sir,  And  anon, 
sir,  I'll  be  with  you  again,  Shaks.  Tivelfth  Ni.  iv.  ii.  131. 
OE.  on  lilt,  into  one  (moment).] 

ANON,  int.  Widely  diffused  throughout  the  dial,  of 
Sc.  Irel.  Eng.  Amer.  Also  written  anan  N.Cy.'  Chs.'*^ 
s.Chs.'  Der.'  e.An.'  I.W."  Wil.'  Cor.'^;  non  n.Yk.i''; 
nan  Nhp.=  Hrf  Glo.i  e.An.'  Hnip.'  I.W.'  Wil.'  Dev.' 
nw. Dev.' Cor.";  nam  e.An.'^ ;  a'an  e.An.' ;  annan  Dor.' 
[ano-n,  ana'n,  non,  nan.]  An  interrogation.  What  did 
you  say?  A  mode  of  expressing  that  the  hearer  has  failed 
to  catch  the  speaker's  meaning. 

Sc.  The  brute  of  a  lad  puzzles  me  by  his  '  anan,'  and  his  '  dunna 
knaw,'  Scott  Redg.  (1824)  v.  Ir.  '  Anan  ! '  said  she,  not  under- 
standing his  question,  Lever  Maitiiis  (i&^t)  I.  195,  ed.  1872.  Dur. 
Traveller.  '  Pray  which  is  the  road  to  Durham  ? ' — Clown.  'Non!' 
(J.H.)  n.Yks.i  Anon  or  anan  is  an  interjectional  sound  of  doubting 
inquiry,  similar  to  the  utterly  inexpressible  (by  letters)  sound  of 
assent  or  attention  which  is  emploj-ed  by  many  Yorkshire  people 
when  listening  to  a  narrative  or  a  remark  where  verbal  observa- 
tions are  unneeded.  w.Yks.',  Chs.'^  ;  Chs.^  Anan,  what's  that' 
s.Chs.*  I  have  never  got  the  word  at  first  hand,  and  think  it  died 
out  with  the  last  generation.  Der.'  Ohs.  (i8goi.  Nhp.^  Wor. 
Anan,  what  do  you  say  ?  Porson  Quaint  ll'ds.  (1875"!.  Hrf.',  GIo.' 
e.An.'Oftencontracted  to  A'an,or  N'an.  Nrf.  Anan?  An?  N.  &  Q. 
(1850)  ist  S.  ii.  217.  Ken.  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  yV.)  w.Sus. 
Anan,  Nan.  This  interjection  has  the  same  sense  as  the  word 
'hay  '  in  Hampshire,  HoLLOWAY.  Hrap.',I.W.*  Wil.' Anan, 'Nan. 
Used  by  a  labourer  who  does  not  quite  comprehend  his  m.istcr's 
orders.  Dor.'  Som.  Anan,  Nan,  eh  !  what?  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (,18731. 
Dev.*,  nw.Dev,*  Cor.  Anan.  An  interjection  used  t>y  old  people 
witliin  remembrance,  though  now  extinct,  Quiller-Couch  Hist. 
Folpo-ro  11871"!  172;  Cor.i*  [Amer.  Anan,  how?  The  word 
is  common  in  Pennsj'lvania,  Bartlett.  We  have  in  Philadelphia 
'Anan,'  intcrrog.  what?  A".  &  Q.  (,1870)  4th  S.  vi.  249.] 

[See  Anon,  adv.] 

ANONSKER,  adj.  n.Yks.  [ano'nskaCr).]  Eager, 
desirous,  set  upon  a  thing. 

n.Yks. 1 ;  n.Yks.^  They've  setten  him  anonsker  o'  t'sea  [anxious 
to  become  a  sailor], 

[Of  ON.  origin  ;  cp.  Dan.  an,  on  +  ^nske,  wish.] 

ANOTHER,  in  conip.  (i)  -gates,  (2)  -guess,  (3)  -kins,  of 
a  different  kind  ;  (4)  -when,  another  time. 

(1 1  Lan.*  (2)  Lei.'  Shr.'  Another-gucss  sort,  generally  t,iken 
in  the  sense  of 'better.'  Ah!  the  poor  toud  missis  wuz  another 
gis-sort  o'  body  to 'er  daughter-law.  GIo.  Thelikeo'webeanother- 
guess  sort  of  folk,  GissiNGZyo^/io//Ai'sPnm/:  (1889)  I.  117  ;  Glo.^  You 
are  another  guess-sort  of  a  man.  13)  n.Yks.'  He  was  anotherkins 
body  tc  t'ither  chap  ;  n.Yks  ^  That's  anotherkins  tecal  [a  different 
version  of  the  story].  m.Yks.'  That  plum's  of  anotherkins  sort. 
(4)  Ken.' 

[Annlher-gales.  When  Hudibras  about  to  enter  Upon 
an  othcrgates  adventure,  Butler  Hiid.  i.  iii.  42;  He 
would  liave  tickled  you  othcrgates  than  he  did,  Shaks. 
Tiveljlh  Nt.  V.  i.  198.  Anothcr-gaks,  i.e.  of  another  gate, 
of  another  way ;  see  Gate.  Orig.  an  adv.  gen.  in  -es, 
a  late  analog.  ^oxm?i.\\ox\.~  Anothcr-gness.  At  present 
I  am  constrained  to  make  another  guesse  divertiscment, 
Com.  Hist.  Francion  (Nares).  This  is  a  form  of  anolher- 
gates,  which  was  also  pron.  another  gets.   Sec  Othcrgates.] 

ANOUST,  sec  Anewst. 

ANO'W,  see  Enow. 

ANOWER,  see  Inower. 

ANPARSE,  ANPASSY,  see  Ampersand. 

ANSEL,  sec  Own-self. 

ANSELL,  ANSTIL,  see  Hansel. 

ANSH.  see  Haunch. 

ANSWER,  I'.'     Chs.  War.  Som.     [ans3;r).] 

1.  To  last,  endure. 

w.Som.'  That  there  poplar  'ont  never  answer  out  o'  doors,  t'll  be 
a  ratted  in  no  time. 

2.  With  prep,  to,  (i)  to  succeed  with  ;  (2)  to  be  easily  led. 
Chs.'  (i)  It  is  said  that  clay  land  easily  answers  to  bones.    (2)  He's 

a  soft  sort  0'  chap  ;  he'll  answer  to  owt.      War.  (J.R.W.) 

ANS"WER,  sb.  and  v.'^     Irel. 

1.  ,sV;.     A  bite  (in  fishing). 
Wmth.  Did  you  get  ere  an  answer? 

2.  V.     To  bite  (of  fish). 

n.Ir.  Are  there  many  fish  there  ? — Yes,  because  they  answered 
them  manv  a  time  (S.A.IJ.). 

ANS'WERABLE,  (ifl>'.     Sus.  Som.  Dev.    [aensarabl.] 

1.  Durable,  lasting. 

w.Som.'  A  man  said  to  me  of  a  draining  tool.  '  Dhik'cc  soa'urt 
bee  dec'urer,  biit  dhai  bee  moour  aan'surublur  '  [that  sort  are 
dearer,  but  they  arc  more  answerable,  i.e.  cheaper  in  the  end]. 
Dev.  'Twas  good  answerable  reed  [for  thatching],  Reports  Provinc. 
(1887)  3. 

2.  With  prep,  to,  corresponding  to. 

Sus.  They  did  pretty  middlin'  answerable  to  their  size,  Egerton 
Flks.  and  IVays  (1884)  85. 

[1.  Answerable,  conscntaneus,  Coles  (1679).  2.  The 
daughters  of  Atlas  were  ladies  who  brought  forth  children 
answerable  in  quality  to  those  that  begot  them,  Raleigh 
Hist.  H'orld  (  Iohnson).] 

ANS'WERING,  //■/>.  used  as  prep,  and  conj. 

1.  p/rp.     Corresponding  to. 

Cum.,  Wm.  Answering  this  time  last  week  [at  the  correspond- 
ing time],  Sullivan  Cum.  and  Wm.  (1857)  90. 

2.  conj.     Provided  that. 

Cum.,  Wm.  Answering  he  comes,  Sullivan  Cum.  and  IVm 
(18571  90. 

ANT,  t;.'  Sh.I.  [ant.]  To  show  attention  to,  respect, 

Sh.I.  Ant,  to  pay  regard  to  (Coll.  L.L.B.'i;  Freq.  used  with 
negative,  '  Never  ant  him'  (K.I.V,  An  prickin  nerves  ant  no  da 
will's  intent.  Burgess  Rasniie  (1891  i  1 18.      S.  &  Ork.' 

ANT,  !'.=     Chs.     [ant.]     A  method  of  ploughing. 

Chs.'  ifo  plough  out  a  small  subsoil  furrow  from  a  reen. 

ANTELUTE,s6.    ^  Obs.     Shr.    [a-ntilut  ]    A  tea-party. 

Shr.'  Now  then,  girls,  if  yo'n  look  sharp  an'  get  yore  work  done, 
yo'  sha'n  g60  to  the  antelute. 

ANTER,  see  Aunter. 

ANTERIN,  see  Undern. 

ANTERS,  ANTHERS,  see  Aunters. 

ANTHILL-GRASS,  sb.  Midi,  counties.  Festiica  syl- 

Midi.  Marshall  Rur.  Econ.  (1790")  107,  ed.  1796. 

ANTHONY  OVER,  sb.     Gall.     A  child's  game  at  ball. 

Gall.  The  bairns  vexed  his  soul  b}-  playing  *  Antony  Over  '  against 
the  end  of  his  house,  Crockeit  Stiikit  Min.  (1893^  99  ;  Throwing 
a  ball  over  a  house,  from  one  party  of  children  to  another  ^S.R.C.). 

ANTHONY-PIG,  sb.  Chs.  Dor.  Hrt.  Ken.  Hmp.  Dev. 
Also  written  Tanthony-pig  Chs." 

1.  The  smallest  pig  of  a  litter,  the  favourite  one  supposed 
to  be  dedicated  to  and  under  the  special  protection  of 
St.  Anthony,  the  patron  saint  of  swineherds. 

Der.2  Anthony-pig,  the  ruckling  of  the  litter  ;  nw.Der.'  Hrt. 
We  call  a  poor  starved  creature  a  Tantony  pig,  Salmon  Hist,  oj 
Hrt.  (1728).  Ken.  The  favourite  pig  of  the  farrow,  Grose  ingo^i; 
The  word  Anthony  is  by  analogy  used  as  a  diminutive  generally 
(P.M.);  Ken.'  Hmp.  Tanthony-pig,  A'.  &  Q.  (1851)  ist  S.  iii.  429. 
Dev.^  Anthony's  pig  is  also  called  nessel  tripe. 

2.  Fig.    One  who  follows  close  at  heel. 

Chs.' ;  Chs.^To  follow  anyone  like  a  Tantony  pig,  is  to  stick  as 
close  to  him  as  St  Anthony's  favourite  is  supposed  to  have  done 
to  the  saint. 

[He  will  follow  him  like  a  St.  Anthony's  pig.  St.  A. 
is  notoriously  known  for  the  patron  of  hogs,  having  a  pig 
for  his  page  in  all  pictures.  Fuller  Worthies,  II.  56. 
Tantony  rcpr.  St.  Antony.  "The  form  occurs  in  Swut: 
Lord  !  she  made  me  follow  her  last  week  through  all  the 
shops  like  a  Tantiny  (sic)  pig.  Polite  Conv.  I.l 

ANTIC,  sb.  and  adj.  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Dur. 
Lan.  Dcr.  Brks.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  hantic, 
hantick,  hanteck.   See  below,    [antik,  asntik.] 

1.  sb.  Gen.  used  in  the  pi.  Manauvrcs,  movements, 
odd  ways  and  tricks. 

Sc.  Antick,  a  foolish  ridiculous  frolic  (Jam.").  Dur.'  Lan.  Tom 
oth-Grinders  an  Owd  Lurry  wi  him,  laighin',  dancin,  an  playin 
o  maks  o  antiks,  ^/irHoi  o'  Flufis  Quortiii'  vi886;  13.  nw.Der.', 
Brks.'  w.Som.'  Hot  ailth  the  mare  !  her's  all  vull  o'  her  hanlics. 
Dev.  I  niver  did  zee  nobody  za  vull  ov  hantecks  as  "er  is,  Hewett 




Peas.  Sp.  (1892^  86;  Dev.'  What  hanticks  a  had!  naddling  his 
head,  drowing  out  his  hands,  and  blasting  up  his  ees  to  the  gurt 
oaks.  Naut.  After  this,  we  had  a  little  few  more  '  antics,'  as  the 
sailors  call  them,  moving  from  columns  of  divisions  with  the  ships 
in  line  ahead  into  other  formations  in  line  abreast,  then  by  sub- 
divisions and  so  forth,  5/rtHa'rt/-rfi.Aug.  12,  188913,  col.  I.  [Anticks, 
gesticulations  such  as  Merry  Andrews  employ,  Grose  (1790;  MS. 
add.  'C.i] 

2.  A  fool,  a  buffoon  or  clown. 

Cor.i  You  dunderheaded  old  antic, — lave  that  to  the  musicianers, 
'  Q.'  Three  Ships  1 18901  i ;  Cor.'  I  never  seed  such  an  antic  in  my 
born  days  ;  Cor.^  Such  an  antic. 

3.  adj.     Droll,  grotesque. 

N.I.1  He's  very  antic.     Antickest  [most  funny], 

4.  Frantic  with  excitement,  mad,  unmanageable. 
•w.Som.i  Hantic.     n.Dev.  What's  the  matter?  .  .  .  what  art  tha 

hanteck  ?  E.viii.  Cilship.  (  1746  1.  620  ;  Hantick,  wanton  and  unruly, 
Grose    1790)  MS.  add  [M.)  ;    Dev.i 

[1.  Antic,  he  that  plays  anticks,  Johnson  ;  To  dance 
anticks  is  to  dance  like  a  Jack-pudding  after  an  odd  and 
ridiculous  manner,  Kersey.  2.  Antick,  a  buffoon  or 
juggler,  Kersey  ;  Jugglers  and  dancers,  anticks,  mum- 
mers, mimicks,  Milton  S.A.  1325;  There  the  antic 
(i.  e.  Death)  sits.  Scoffing  his  state,  and  grinning  at  his 
pomp,  Shaks.  Ric/t.  II.  m.  ii.  162.  3.  The  prize  was  to 
be  conferred  upon  the  whistler  that  could  go  through  his 
tune  without  laughing,  though  provoked  by  the  antick 
postures  of  a  Merry  Andrew,  Addison  Sped.  No.  179  ; 
He  came  running  to  me  . . .  making  a  many  antic  gestures, 
De  Foe  Crusoe  (1719)  183.  It.  antico  (ancient),  a  term 
applied  in  the  i6th  cent,  to  the  grotesque  work  found 
ammg  the  ruins  in  Rome,  and  ascribed  to  the  ancients.] 

ANXIOUS,  adj.  Pern,  [e'njss.]  Ancient,  beautiful 
with  age,  rare. 

s.Pem.  ''Tis  an  antious  old  place,'  said  of  a  somewhat  ruinous 
building  (^E.  D.)  ;  The  idea  of '  beautiful '  is  always  associated  with 
that  of  '  old  '  or  '  ancient.'  It  is  difficult  to  know  which  of  the  two 
is  uppermost  in  the  mind  of  the  speaker.  It  is  certain  that  the 
word  is  never  used  when  mere  age  is  considered.  This  chist  [chest] 
is  a  very  antious  one.  Oh,  here's  an  antious  set  of  china  !  This 
pictier  [picture]  is  owld  an'  hansom,  David,  deed,  it's  antious 
(,W.M,M.  . 

ANTLE,  see  An,  Hantle. 

ANTLE-BEER,  adv.  Dev.  [as-ntl-biafr).]  Cross- 
wise, irregular  (the  form  of  two  uprights  and  one  cross- 
piece,  like  a  door-frame). 

n.Dev.  Et  wel  zet  arter  tha  antlebeer  lick  the  dooms  of  a  door, 
E.vm.  Scold.  (17461  1.  274;  Grose  (1790). 

Werxcejig.  cross-grained. 

Dev.  They  only  thought  it  was  my  '  appurted  witherful  develtry^' 
as  they  called  it,  and  Nurse  added  that  1  was  '  antle-beer,' Madox- 
Brown  Dwale  Blulh  (1876)  bk.  iv.  i. 

ANTLING,  see  Hantling. 

ANTONMAS,  .sA.  Sh.I.  St.  Anthony's  Day,  a  festival 
held  Jan.  29,  twenty-four  days  after  Christmas  (old  style). 

Sh.I.  Jan.  29.  By  oldest  people  called  St.  .Anthony's  Day.  now 
Fower-an-twenty  Day,  and  UphellyA.  \w\&^t\^%.  Ma}isoils  Aim. 
(1893'!  16;  Antonmas  is  observed  here  yearly  as  the  last  day 
of  Yule-tide.  In  the  country  districts  the  young  people  meet  and 
have  a  dance,  but  in  Lerwick  there  is  generally  a  torchlight 
procession  of  guizers,  who  afterwards  make  a  bonfire  of  their 
torches  and  then  proceed  to  the  houses  thrown  open  for  their 
entertainment  where  they  have  fiddling  and  dancing  (K.I.); 
Antinmas.  St.  Anthony's  Day  in  the  calendar  [new  style]  is  17th 
January    Jam.  Suppl.K     S.  &  Ork.' 

\Aidhoiiy  +  tiias.'>  (a  Church  festival).] 

ANTRIMS,  sb.  pi.  Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Der.  War.  e.An. 
Also  written  antrums  e.An.'  Suf.';  antherums  n.Yks.* 
[a'ntrimz,  a'ntramz.] 

1.  Airs,  whims,  caprices,  with  an  implication  of  temper. 
N.Cy.^      Wra.  Antrums,  tantrums,  flightincss,  airs  that  one  gives 

oneself,  Gibson  Let;,  and  Notes  (1877;  91.  Chs.'  At  j'our  antrims 
again:  Chs.2  3,  Dar.2,  nw.Der.i,  'War.  (J.R.W.),  eAn.i,  Nrf.i 
Suf.'  'As  in  'as  antrums  this  morning, 

2.  Doubts,  hesitations. 

(Etym.  unknown.     See  Tantrums,] 
ANTRUM,  see  Undern. 

ANT-TUMP,  sb.  'War.  Wo'r.  Shr.  Hrf.  Also  written 
anty-tump  War.'^  Shr.' Hrf.' :  anti-tump  w.Wor.'  [anti- 
tump,  a'nt-tump.]     An  ant-hill. 

War.2,  w.Wor.i.  s.Wor.'  Shr.'  'E  raved  an'  tore  like  a  bull  at 
a  anty-tump.     Hrf.' 

[Aiil+linttp,  q.v.] 

ANUNDER,  adv.  and  prep.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum. 
Win.  Yks.  Som.  Dev.  Also  written  annundher  N.I.'; 
anonder  n.Sc.  (Jam.)  Cum.';  anuner  Nhb';  anoner 
Abd.  (Jam.);  in-under  Nhb.'  n.Yks.^  w.Som.'  nw.Dev.'; 
innundher  N.l.':  in-ondern.Yks.^  [anu  nd3(r),  anu'na(rj.] 

1.  adv.     Beneath,  under  (of  actual  position;. 
N.I.',  N.Cy.'     Nhb.'  Aa's  gan  anuner.      nw.Dev.' 

2.  prep.     Under,  underneath. 

Sc.  As  a  hen  gathereth  her  chickens  anunder  her  wings,  Hen- 
derson il/a//.  (1862)  xxiii.  37.  Sh.I.  He  aims  me  a  lick  just  anunder 
da  belt.  Burgess Rasmie  (1891)  15.  Abd.  A  lamb  anoner  Nory'scare, 
Ross  Heleiiore  (17681  12,  ed.  1812.  Ant.  Anondther,  Anonder 
(W.J.K.').  Nhb.  His  left  han's  anunder  me  heed,  Robson  S«^.  5o/. 
(i860:  ii.  6;  Anunder  his  care,  ib.  Bk.  of  Ruth  (i860)  ii.  12;  Nhb.' 
Theboxisinunderthebed.  Dur.  Ah  sat  doon  unnonderhis  shaddow 
wih  greet  deleyght,  Moore  Sug.  Sol.  (i860)  ii.  3.  Cum.  En  onder 
them  he  said  was  two  lile  princes  buried,  Mary  Drayson  (,1872) 
13  ;  Ciim.3  If  I  stopt  anonder  ya  tree  i'  t'wud.  I  stopt  anonder 
twenty.  23.  At  keeps  o'  he  cares  anonder  j'a  hat,  55.  Wm.  An 
buried  him  snugly  an-under  some  trees.  Whitehead  Leg.  (1859 1  8  ; 
Ye'll  be  best  anonder  t'blankets.  I  isn't  in  anonder  t'least  doubt 
about  it  vM.P.).  n.Yks.  Ah  sat  me  down  on  t'binch  in  under  t'awd 
yak  tree,  Tweddell  Clevel.  Rhytnes  1^1875  '<  48.  w.Som.'  Dhai  vaewn 
un  tu  laa's  aup-m  dhu  taal'ut,  een  uun'dur  u  buun-1  u  aa"y  [they 
foiTlid  him  at  last  up  in  the  tallet,  underneath  a  bundle  of  hay]. 

3.  Beneath  in  command,  in  subjection  to. 

n.Yks. 2  He  was  in-onder  t'other  man  [in  office].  w.Som.^  Our 
Bill's  a  go  to  work  to  the  brew-house,  in  under  Mr.  Joyce  the 

[ME.  Ther  nis  non  betere anonder  sunne,  A".  Horn, ^6-]. 
All,  on  -f  under.] 

AN"VIL,  sb.  Ken.  [ae  nvl.]  In  coiiip.  Anvil-clouds, 
clouds  of  the  shape  of  an  anvil,  supposed  to  betoken  rain. 


ANXOM,  adf.     Yks.     [arjkssm.]     Anxious. 

e.Yks.  He'd  monny  a  anksome  lewk  at  his  store,  Nicholson 
Flk-Sp.  (18891  42  ;  e.Yks.'  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[A  form  of  anxious,  contam.  with  the  suff.  -some ;  cp, 
fearsome,  q.v.] 

Hence  Anxomness,  anxiety. 

e.Yks.i  MS.  add.  iT.H. ) 

ANY,  adv.,  adj.  and  pron.  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Irel,  and 
Eng.     See  below,     [eni,  o'ni.] 

1.  adv.    At  all. 

n.Yks.  It  dizn't  dry  onny  (I.W.).  ne.Yks.'  It  didn't  rain  onny, 
s.Not.  Ah  don't  see  as  she's  improved  any  iJ.P.K.).  sw.Lin.' He's 
not  worked  any  sin*  June.  She  can't  sit  up  any.  Wor.  If  I 
leaves  it  till  to-morrow  it  won't  hurt  any  (H.K.).  s.Oxf.  They  be 
.Sunday  does  .  .  .  and  scarce  wore  any,  Rosemary  Chiltenis  [  1895) 
76.  Suf.  He  tell  them  brick  every  now  and  agin  to  see  if  they'\'e 
wasted  any  (C.  G.  de  B.\  Sur.'  The  cuckoo  don't  sing  this  year 
scarce  any.  Slang.  You  don't  want  bein'  made  more  drunk  any, 
Kipling  Badalia  (1890I  7. 

2.  prou.  One  of  two  things  indifferently,  either. 

Wm.'  Ther's  nobbet  twoa  left — will  ta  hev  onny  on  em  ? — Ay,  aa'l 
tak  onny  on  em  than  likes  to  gic  ma'.  s.Lan.  John,  fetch  me  one 
of  those  two  pairs  of  trousers  out  of  my  wardrobe. — Which  shall  I 
bring  ? — Oh,  any  of  them  will  do  1  S.W.). 

3.  In  phr.  (i)  Any  bit  like,  tolerably  good,  used  with 
ref  either  to  the  weather,  health,  or  behaviour ;  (2)  — 
body,  an  indef  pers.  pron.  also  construed  as  pi. ;  (3)  — end 
up,  in  any  case,  at  any  rate ;  (4)  —  make,  any  kind  ;  (5) 
—  tiiore,  for  the  future  ;  used  in  positive,  as  well  as 
negative  phr. ;  (6)  —  more  than,  only,  but  that ;  (7)  — 
road,  anj-way,  anyhow;  (8)  — road  up,  in  any  case; 
(9)  —  llung,  at  all  ;  (10)  —  way  for  a  little  apple,  easily 
persuaded  ;  (11)  —  way  up,  in  any  case;  (12)  — wise,  in 
any  way. 

1  ne.Yks.'  Wa  s'all  be  leadin'  ti-moom  if  it  be  onny  bit  leyke. 
e.Yks.'  Ah  could  lia  putten  up  vviv  her  if  she'd  been  onny-bit-leyk. 
w.Yks.  Noa  two  fowk  owt  to  be  moor  comfortable  if  Iha'd  be 
ony-bit  like.  Clock  Aim.  (18781  48;  w.Yks.^  I'll  come  and  see  thee 




tomorrow,  if  it's  onny-bit-lil<c.  Lan.'  If  th'  weather's  onny-bit- 
like.  nw.Der.  (H.R.)  (2)  n.Wil.  'Tis  cowld  enough  to  vriz  any- 
body. Anybody  caant  do  nothin  now  wi'out  bein  took  up  far't 
(E.H.G.).  w.Som.i  Un'ce  baudee  kdod-n  voo'urd-u  diie  ut,  neef 
dhai  diid-n  diic  ut  nai-tuymz,  keod  ur?  [one  could  not  aflord  to 
do  it,  if  one  did  not  do  it  night  times,  could  they  ?]  (3)  s.Chs.'  I'll 
send  ye  a  chcm  [team]  anny  end  up.  Stf.=  I  dunna  know  when 
arjack'scumin'iroi'llletyer  knowonyend  up.  (4;  m.Yks.' 
Onnymak,  any  shape,  form,  or  sort.  (5)  n.Ir.  A  servant  being  in- 
structed how  to  act,  will  answer  '  I  will  do  it  any  more '  i  G  M.  H."). 
(6)  War.2  I  wouldn't  a-gonc  any  more  than  I  promised  to  buy  Dick 
a  trumpet.  Wor.  I  wouldn't  do  it  any  more  than  I've  got  so 
much  else  to  do  (H.K.).  s.Wor.'  1  should  be  sure  to  go  to  church 
any  more  than  I've  not  got  a  gownd  to  my  back.  n.Wil.  I  shouldn't 
trouble  to  pick  them  apples  to-day,  any  more'n  might  be  wet  to- 
morrow (E.H.G.).  Wil.'  He's  sure  to  come  any  more  than  he 
might  be  a  bit  late.  (7)  w.Yks.  (J.W.)  s.Stf.  Any  road ,  you  tell 
'em  that,  Murray  Rainbow  Gold  (1886)  137.  [Aus.,  N.S.W.  I  don't 
want  to  blow — not  here,  any  road  — but  it  takes  a  good  man  to  put 
me  on  my  back,  Boldrewood  Rvb'.icry  (1888)  I.  i.]  (8)  Stf.^ 
1  dunna  know  when  ar  Jack's  cumin  whom,  bur  oi'll  let  yer  know 
ony  road  up.  (9)  sw.Lin.i  He's  never  ailed  anything.  (101 
N.Cy.'  Ony  way  for  a  little  apple.  ( 1 1 1  Stf.^  Oi'll  let  yer  know  ony 
way  up.  (12^  Sur.  I  knowed  you  ha' time  enough  to  wait  at  this 
plaace,  anywise,  Bickley  Si(»-.  Hills  (1890)  III.  iv. 

[1.  Cp.  the  use  of  'any-thing'  in  Chavcer  :  For  if  hir 
wheel  stinte  any-thing  to  torne,  Tr.  &=  Cr.  i.  848.  2.  And 
if  that  any  of  us  have  more  than  other,  Lat  him  be  trewe, 
and  parte  it  with  his  brother,  ib.  C.T.  d.  1533.] 

ANYESDER,  sb.     Sh.I.     A  sheep  in  its  second  year. 

S.  &  Ork.i 

\.4>i.  one+yester  (yearster),  repr.  jv^nr-f-suff.  -ster.'\ 

ANY  KIN,  at^.  Obsol.  Yks.  [o'ni  kin.]  Of  any  kind 
or  sort. 

n.Yks.  D'ye  knaw  ov  onny  kin  things  like  them  ? — I  deeant  think 
I  hev  onny  kin  things  like  them  ( I.W. ) ;  n-Yks.'.  m.Yks.^ 

[Noe,  for  anikins  chanse  Sal  I  noght  take  sli  a  nojjer 
venganse,  Cursor  M.  1941.] 

ANY  WAY(S,  adv.  [hr.  Irel.  Cum.  Yks.  War.  Oxf. 
Sur.      See  below. 

1.  In  any  way,  in  any  respect,  by  any  means. 

e.Yks.'  Was  he  onny  ways  put  cot?  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  War. 
If  the  child  ever  went  any  ways  wrong,  Geo.  Eliot  S.  Marner 
(1861 1  xiv.  s  Oxf.  I'll  go  if  I  anyways  can,  Rosemary  C/iil/cnis 
(18951  17.     Sur.'  We  can't  make  anyways  sure. 

2.  At  all  events. 

Ir.  I  may  be  poor,  but  any  way  I'm  honest  fA.S.P.).  n.Yks. 
Anyways  I'm  mista'en  if  he  is,  Linskill  Bclw.  Heather  and  N.  .Sia 
(1884)  i.  w.Yks.  Onnyway,  thah'rt  noan  bahn  wi'  us  {Al.B.'i. 
[Amer.  Block  Island  is  rather  a  wisht  kind  of  a  place  any  way,  J^lk- 
Lore  Rec.  (1881)  IV.  93.] 

3.  In  every  way,  in  all  respects. 
Cum.i  This  is  enny  way  as  good  as  that. 

4.  Carelessly,  confusedly. 

n.Yks.  He  thrust  them  tegilher  onnyway  (I.W.).  e.Yks.^  Onny 
ways,  A/S.  add.  (T.H.) 

[1.  All  those  who  are  any  way  concerned  in  works  of 
literature,  Addison  Sped.  No.  529;  All  those  who  are  any 
ways  afflicted  ...  in  mind,  body,  or  estate,  Bk.  Com.  Pr. 
(Prayer  for  all  conditions  of  men).] 

ANY  "WHEN,  adv.  Lin.  Bdf.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  limp. 
I.W.  Wil.  Dor.     At  any  time. 

n.Lin.'  I'll  goaony-when  you  like,  if  nobbut  it  duzn't  raain.  Bdf. 
(F.H.),  Ken.  (P.M.)  Sur.  I  can  come  the  first  week  in  November 
or  any  when  from  Nov.  i,  N.  &  Q.  (1881)  6th  S.  iv.  367  ;  Two 
pence  is  good  enough  for  eggs  any  when,  ib.  542  ;  Sur.'  Sus. 
*Anywhen'  may  be  heard  anv  day  and  every  day.  A'.  &  Q.  (1853) 
1st  S.  vii.  335  ;  Sus.',  Hmp.',  I.W.',  WU.  (W.C.'P.)  Dor.  If  I  was 
quite  suie,  I  would  go  any-when.  Hardy  Tess  (1891)  vi  ;  Dor.' 

[He  giveth  not  himself  to  wildness  any  when,  ///.?/. 
Jacob  iS^  Esau  (1568J,  Dods/ty's  Old  Eng.  Plays,  II.  196 
(ed.  Hazlitt).] 

APACE,  adv.     Lan.     [ape's.]     By  degrees,  steadily. 

Lan.  A  man  who  was  making  headway  in  his  business  quietly 
without  much  show  would  be  said  to  be '  getting  on  apace '  (S.  W.). 
ne.Lan.^  He  will  get  on  apace. 

[The  word  now  means  in  lit.  E.  '  at  a  good  pace.'  The 
dial,  meanings  are  nearer  the  usage  of  Chaucer,  where 
it  often  implies  a  slow  pace :   In  lasse  whyle  Than  thou 

wolt  goon  a  paas  nat  but  a  myle,  C  T.  c.  866  ;  And  forth 
she  waiketh  esily  a  pas,  ib.  f.  388.  Fr.  a  pas.  Cp.  pas  a 
pas,  step  after  step,  Cotgr.] 

APAST^/.r(/>.  and  adv.  Yks.  Stf.  War.  Hmp.  WiL  Som. 
[apast,  apa  St.] 

1.  pnp.     Of  time  :  after,  past. 

s.Stf.  Ten  apasl  seven  by  the  clock,  Pinnock  Bit.  Cy.  Ann. 
(1895).     Hmp.'     Wil.  Slow  GI.  (189a). 

2.  Of  place  :  beyond,  past. 

w.Yks.  Ah've  gotten  apast  Sarah  Alice  at  suramin'  [arithmetic], 
Leeds  Merc.  Su/>f>l  {May  23,  iSgi).  Hmp.'  Som.  Jen.mngs  Ois. 
Dial.  w.Eng.    1825). 

3.  adv.     Of  place  :  past. 
War.2  He's  just  gone  apast. 

[ME.  apassed  (pp.  of  apnssmi  in  A  Hit  P.  I.  539,  and 
Chaucer  Boilli.  11.  v.  35.     OFr.  apasser,  to  pass  on.] 
APE,  sb.    Yks.  Lan.     fep.] 

1.  A  mischievous,  troublesome  child. 

m.Yks.l  Thou  young  ape,  get  out  of  the  road  with  thee,  before  I 
pick  thee  over.     ne.Lan.' 

2.  Coiiip.  Ape-faced. 

n.Yks.2  Yap  feeac'd,  pug-nosed,  monkey-faced. 

APEAK,  adv.     n.Yks.     [apia'k.]     In  a  peak. 

n.Yks.^  Belt  apeeak  ;  built  up  to  a  point  or  pyramid. 

\A-,  on  -I  prak.\ 

APEN,  sec  Open. 

APERN,  see  Apron. 

APESOME,  see  Apish. 

APICKABACK.  see  Pickaback. 

APIECE,  adv.  n.Cy.  Der.  [aprs.]  Severally,  to  each 

n.Cy.  Now  lads  !   here's  healths  apiece  (Hall.')      nw.Der.' 

[Neither  have  two  coats  apiece,  Bible  Luke  i.K.  3.  A 
piece,  for  each  one  piece,  hence  severally.] 

A-PIECES,  adv.  piir.  Lan.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.  e.An. 
[apTsaz.]     In  pieces,  to  pieces. 

Lan.  I  fund  foak  bizzy  knokink  the'r  heaws  sides  epeeses, 
Walker  Plebeian  Pol.  (17061  7,  ed.  1801.  ne.Lan.',  Lin.',  Nhp.', 
War.  (J.RW.),  e.An.'     Suf.'  Ta  crumble  all  'apieces. 

[What  so  many  may  do.  Not  being  torn  a-pieces,  wc 
have  done,  Shaks.  Hen.  VllI,  v.  iv.  80.     A-,  on+pieces.'\ 

APIEST,  see  Alpiust. 

APISH,  adj.     n.Yks.     [yepi/.] 

n.Yks.2  Yapish,  Yapsome,  impertinent. 

APISTY-POLL,  adv.  Dor.  Of  a  child  :  carried  on 
the  back  or  shoulders.     Cf.  pick-a-back. 

Dor.  Gl.  (1851);  Dor.'  A  mode  of  carryiiig  a  child  with  his  legs 
on  one's  shoulders,  and  arms  round  the  neck  and  forehead. 

APLACE,  adv.  Cld.  (Jam.)  Conveying  the  idea  that 
one  is  present,  as  ojiposed  to  that  of  his  being  absent: 
as  '  He's  better  awa  nor  aplace,'  i.e.  it  is  better  he  should 
be  absent  than  present. 

[Things  abused  to  idolatry  .  .  .  are  farre  better  away 
then  aplace,  Gillespie  Cerehi.  (1637)  in.  ii.  22  (N.E.I).); 
To  telle  How  such  goddes  come  aplace,  Gower  C.A.  11. 
152.     A-.on+ place.] 

APLOCH,  see  Ablach. 

APOD,  see  Uphold. 

APONTED. /./).     Dor.     [apo'ntad.]     Tainted. 

Dor.'  Deos  \-ish  is  a-ponted. 

[A-  {pref.^)+ pouted,  pp.  of  pout  (\.o  bruise),  q.v.] 

APPARATUS,  56.'  vv.Cor.  [aepare'tas.]  A  kitchen 

w.Cor.  The  cooking  stove  in  the  kitchen  is  so  called  (T.C.P.) ; 
I  have  never  heard  this  word  in  Penzance,  but  several  times  at 
Falmouth  (M.AC). 

APPARATUS,  5*.«    Nhb.  Dur.    See  below. 

Nhb..  Dur.  Apparatus,  machinery  at  the  surface  for  separating 
the  small  coals  (screened  out  from  the  round)  into  nuts  and  duff. 
The  small  coals,  which  have  passed  through  the  screen,  are  drawn 
up  either  a  vertical  or  an  inclined  framing,  in  a  tub  called  an  ap- 
paratus tub,  which  teems  itself  at  the  top  of  the  frame,  and  is  passed 
over  two  or  more  screens,  Nicholson  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1888). 

APPEAL  TO,  V.  Sur.  [api'l.]  To  approve  of,  find 
benefit  from. 

Sur.'  How  do  you  find  the  whiskey  suit  you  ? — I  appeal  to  it 
very  much.    [Unknown  to  our  other  correspondents.] 




APPEAR,  s6.     Glo.     [api-3{r).]     Appearance. 

Glo.  Often  used  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bisley  (H.S.H.)  ;  Glo.l 

[Which  she  on  every  little  grass  doth  strew .  .  .  against 
the  Sun's  appear,  Fletcher  Faiihfiil  Shepherd  (c.  1610)  v.  i. 

APPEAR,  V.  n.Irel.  Of  ghosts :  to  '  walk,'  to  haunt 

n.Ir.  Ghosts  still  '  appear '  in  old  churchyards,  or  when  a  murder 
of  a  particularly  striking  kind  has  been  committed  (R.M.Y.)  ;  N.I.l 

[And  many  bodies  of  seyntis  . . .  apperiden  to  many, 
Wyclif  (1388)  Matt,  xxvii.  53.] 

APPEARENTLY.rto'ii.  m.Yks.  [apiaTantli.]  Seebelow. 

m.Yks.i  In  freer  use  as  an  affirmative  response  than  is  usual  in 
ordinary  speech.  We's  ganging  to  t'feast,  ye  see,  appearently. 
It's  boon  to  weet,  appearently  [it  is  going  to  wet  (or  rain)]. 

APPELL,  V.     Obs.     Sc.  (Jam.)     To  challenge. 

Sc.There  were  many  Southland  men  thatappelled  otherin  barrace, 
to  fight  before  the  King  to  the  dead,  for  certain  crimes  of  lese- 
majesty,  PnscoTTiE  (ed.  1768)  234. 

[ME.  I  appelle  hym  for  trouthe  broken,  Roivland  &=  Ol. 
(1400)  343  (N.E.D.).     Lat.  appellare,  to  call  upon.] 

APPERIL,  sb.     s.Irel.     Risk,  peril. 

s.Ir.  Don't  be  out  of  her  on  yourapperl.  Lover  Leg.  (1848")  II.  289. 

[Faith  !  I  will  bail  him,  at  mine  own  apperil,  B.  Jonson 
Magii.  Lady,  v.  x ;  Let  me  stay  at  thine  apperil,  Timon, 
Shaks.  Timon,  i.  ii.  32.     A-  (prcf}°)->rperil.\ 

APPERNTLE,  s6.     Chs.  Shr.     [a'pantl.j    An  apronful. 

s.Chs.i  A  apperntle  o'  tatoe-pillins  for  th'  pigs.  Shr.i  W'eer'n 
'ee  bin  laisin,  Peggy?— I'  the  paas'ns  piece;  I've  got  whad  yo' 
sin,  an'  a  good  apparntle  o'  short  ears. 

{Appcni,  apron  + -/A'  (stiff.);  this  is  a  common  suff.  in 
the  Shr.  dial. ;  cp.  cantk.  hantle,  biicL-ctlc,  pocketle.  It  is  prob. 
an  equiv.  of -/»/;  see  Shr.'  (gram,  xliii).] 

APPETIZE,  V.  Sc.  Nhb.  In  pp. :  having  appetite  for 

Sc.  I  am  well  appetizcd  for  my  dinner,  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II. 
436  ;  Supper  for  which  I  feel  rather  more  appetized  than  usual, 
Scott  Monastery  (1820")  39,  ed.  1879.     N.Cy.',  Nhb.l 

[A  deriv.  of  appetite  (Fr.  appetit),  foiuied  on  the  analogy 
of  vbs.  in  -/sp.] 

APPING,  see  Happing. 
APPLE,  sb} 

1.  Tlie  cone  o{  Finns  abies  (Lin.  Won). 
Wor.  (H.K.) 

2.  Comb,  (i)  Berk  apple,  Finns  sylvestiis  (n.Yks.) ;  (2) 
Deal —  (e.An.),  (3)  Fir—  (nw.Cum.  Lin.  Sus.  Hmp.), 
(4)  Pine —  (Hrt.  Nhp.),  the  cone  of  P.  abies. 

(4)  Nhp.i  Pie-apple  or  Pur-apple,  the  cone  of  the  fir.  Hrt.  Cones, 
or  what  we  call  pine-apples,  Ellis  Sbep.  Guide  (1750)  134. 

[The  fir-cone  was  formerly  called  a  pine-apple,  q.v.] 

APPLE,  sb.'^  [apl,  Eepl.]  Fyiits  mains.  Irel.  Nhb. 
Lin.  Nhp.  Wor.  Shr.  Hmp.  Wil.  Som.  Dev.  Cor. 
1.  Comp.  (i)  Apple-bee,  a  wasp;  (2)  -dumplings,  plant- 
name,  the  great  hairy  willow  herb  ;  (3)  -headed,  see  below ; 
(4)  -meat,  pies,  tarts,  &c.,  made  witli  apples  ;  (5)  -mill,  a 
machine  in  wliich  apples  are  crushed  in  cider-making; 
(6)  -pear,  a  variety  of  pear ;  (7)  -potato,  a  certain  kind  of 
potato ;  (8)  -scoop,  a  scoop  or  spoon,  made  of  bone,  used 
to  abstract  the  cores  from  apples ;  (9)  -shrub,  the  plant 
Weigelia  Rosea  ;  (10)  -wife,  a  woinan  who  sells  apples. 

(i)  Cot.  Monthly  Mag. {iBoQ)\l.,^2i.  (2)  Nhb.' Apple-dumplins, 
Epilobiiiiii  hirsitliini.  Called  also  Corran-dumplin.  (3)  Nhp.' Apple- 
headed,  a  term  applied  to  a  low,  stunted  oak  with  a  round  bushy 
head.  (4)  s.Dev.  (G.E.D.)  (5)  nw.Dev.'  (7)  Myo.  First  and  fore- 
most there's  no  better  than  the  apple-pratees,  Barrington  Skelehes 
(1830)  III.  xvi.  (8)  n.Lin.'  Apple-scohp,  an  instrument  made  of 
a  sheep's  metacarpal  bone,  sometimes  carved,  dyed  green,  &c.,used 
for  taking  the  cores  out  of  apples.  ne.Wor.  ( j.W.P. )  Wil.' Apple- 
scoop,  made  from  the  knuckle-bone  of  a  leg  of  mutton,  and  used  for 
eating  apples,  the  flavour  of  which  it  is  supposed  to  improve.  (9) 
w.Som.'  Apple-shrub,  the  IVeigelia  Rosea,  no  doubt  so  called  from 
the  likeness  of  its  flowers  to  apple-blossom.  It  was  only  intro- 
duced from  China  in  1855.  It  is  now  one  of  our  commonest 
flowering  shrubs.  Dev.  We  call  it  the  apple  shrub,  Reports  Proi'inc. 
(1885)  87.  (10  Nlib.'  Me  sent  the  a|iple-wives  to  mourn,  A  month 
iv  wor  awd  cassell,  Oliver  Local  Sngs.  (1824)  15. 

2.  Comb,   with  atlitb.  adj.,   applied  to  plants  or  fruit: 

(i)  Cane  Apple,  Arbntns  iinedo  or  strawberry-tree  (Irel.) ; 
(2)  Coddled  — ,  Epilobinm  hirsntnni  or  willow  herb  (Lin. 
Nhp.);  (3)  Morris — ,  see  below  (Hmp.)  ;  (4)  Scrog — , 
q.v.;  (5)  Scalded — ,  Lychnis  rt'm/v/rt  (Shr.) ;  (6)  Well — , 
see  below  (Hmp.). 

(3"i  Hmp.'  Morris-apple,  an  apple  with  very  red  cheeks.  (5) 
Shr.'  Scalded  apple,  Red  Campion.  (6)  Hmp.'  Well  apple,  alight 
yellow  apple. 

APPLE,  v}    Lin.  Wor.    To  gather  fir-cones  or  apples. 

Lin.  The  poor  people  supply  themselves  with  very  good  fuel  by 
gathering  the  fir-apples  ;  you  will  sometimes  see  twenty  children 
in  my  plantation  appleing,  as  they  call  it,  Young  Agiic.  Siirv. 
Wor.  (H.K.) 

APPLE,  v.^  Lin.  Nhp.  Hrt.  Used  of  roots.  To  form 
into  tubers. 

n.Lin.'  Apple,  to  bottom,  to  root.  Spoken  of  potatoes,  turnips, 
and  other  bulbs.  s.Nhp.  Unless  the  soil  has  some  mi.Kture  of  sand 
the  turnips  do  not  apple,  as  they  call  it :  that  is,  do  not  bottom  well, 
Morton  Nat.  Hist.  (1712)  487.  Nhp.'  Turnips  apple  well,  when 
the  roots  swell,  and  assume  a  bulbous  form.  Hrt.  [Turnips]  did 
apple  or  bottle  well,  Ellis  Mod.  Hitsb.  (1750)  IV.  iv.  70. 

APPLE-BIRD,  sb.  Dev.  Cor.  The  Chaffinch,  Frin- 
gilla  coelebs. 

Dev.  Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  Cor.  Swainson  Birds  (1885) 
63  ;  Cor.i2 

APPLE-BLOWTH,  sb.  Dor.  Som.  [aepl-blu}).]  Apple 
blossom.     See  Blowth. 

Dor.  When  the  apple-blooth  is  falling  and  everything  so  green, 
Hardy  Tess  (1891)  159.  Som.  To  inspect  the  apple-blooth  and 
hear  the  birds  sing,  Raymond  Gent.  Upcott  {i8g^)  105. 

APPLE-BOUT,  sb.  n.Wil.  [ae'pl-beut.]  An  apple- 


APPLE-CART,  sb.  Nhb.  Yks.  Der.  Lin.  Som.  Used 
metaph.  in  various  ways. 

1.  Of  the  human  body. 

n.Cy.  Down  with  his  apple-cart  [knock  or  throw  him  down] 
(Hall.).  n.Yks.  He'll  sharpen  thy  apple  cart  for  thee  [he  will 
thrash  thee,  if  thou  dost  not  take  care]  (I.W.).  nw.Der.'.  Lin.' 
Slang.  If  two  men  are  quarrelling,  and  a  friend  of  one  interferes, 
saying,  '  I  will  upset  his  apple  cart.'  it  means  'While  you  are  par- 
leying with  the  enemy,  I  will  knock  him  down,'  Farmer. 

2.  Of  anything  carried,  chiefly  in  phr.  to  upset  the  apple- 

Som.  Don't  upsit  th'  applecart !  That  is,  be  careful  you  do  not 
let  fall  anything  carried,  Pulman  Sketches  (1842)  77,  ed.  1871. 

3.  Of  a  plan,  project.     Also  in  plir.  as  above. 

Nhb.'  That's  upset  his  applecairt  for  him,  aa  think  [that  has 
completely  stopped  his  project]. 

APPLE-DERN,  sb.    Cor.     [ae-pl-dan,] 

Cor.^  Apple-dern,  the  dead  and  dry  stock  of  an  apple-tree,  il/S. 

APPLE-DRANE,  sb.    Som.  Dev.  Cor.    A  wasp. 

w.Cy.  Apple-drone,  a  wasp  ;  a  terrible  devourer  of  apples  and 
more  especially  when  they  are  beaten  or  ground  to  make  cider 
(Hall.).  w.Som.'  Common,  but  not  so  much  used  as  '  wapsy.' 
Dev.  Leek  bullocks  sting'd  by  appledranes,  P.  Pindar  Royal  Visit 
(1816)  HI.  365  ;  An'  apple-drcane  an'  a  drumble-drone  Wert  aw' 
Iher'  wert  ter  zee  ;  Th'  drunible  drone  lay  dead  i'  th'  snaw,  Th' 
yapple-dreane  i'  th'  dree  ! '  Madox-Brovvn  Dwale  Bluth  (1876)  bk. 
IV.  ii  ;  I  dreamt  there  wor  an  apple  drain  buzzin',  Peard  Mother 
Molly  (1889)  145  ;  There's  a  appledrane's  nist  down  in  the  cassia- 
tree  moot,  HewettPots.  5/1.  (1892)  47  ;  Appledrane,  a  waspor  bee, 
Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)     Cor.'  Apple-drain,  a  drone,  a  wasp. 

[.See  Drone.] 

APPLE-FOOT,  sb.  War.  Shr.  Glo.  An  apple  pasty  or 

War.3  An  apple  turnover  0/  clumsy  shape.  Shr.'  The  plural 
form  of  the  term  is  '  applefit.'  'Hiey  are  often  given  to  the  men 
for  their  '  bait.'  Now,  Dick,  bin  y6  gwein  to  get  any  bayye  [«V] ! — 
W'a'n  'ee  got? — Apple  fiit.     Glo.  Northall  Flk.  Phr.  (1894). 

APPLE-GARTH,  sb.  Obs.t  Yks.  [a-plga^.]  An 

n.Yks.2  e.Yks.'  Still  preserved  in  Apple-garth  looan— a  lane 
at  Bridlington  which  led  to  the  orchards  of  the  monastery,  previous 
to  the  dissolution.  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[ An  applegarthe, />o;;i(w'/(;»,  LEVifis  Manip.;  An  appelle 
ganb,  pomeinm,  Cath.  Angl.     See  Garth] 




APPLE-GOB,  s6.  Shr.  A  boiled  apple-dumpling.  Cf. 


APPLE-JACK,  sb.  e.An.  Apples  sliced  and  sugared, 
and  baked  in  a  pastry  crust.  Sometimes  used  of  apples 
pared,  and  baked  whole  inside  the  dough. 

e.An.'  A  homely  sort  of  pastr}',  made  by  folding  sliced  apples  with 
sugar  in  a  coarse  crust  and  baking  them  without  a  pan.  Also  called 
flap-jack,  applc-hoglin,  crab-lanthorn,  turn-over.  Nrf.  Wc  shall 
have  roast-beef  and  apple-jack  for  dinner  to-day  (P.  K.E.) ;  Nrf.' 
Apple-john,  sugared  apples,  baked  in  a  square  thin  paste,  the 
two  opposite  comers  flapped,  or  turned  over.  Suf.  An  apple  jack 
contains  only  one  apple,  whole  and  pared  (,F.H.) ;  Suf.'  Apple-jack, 
or  Apple-john,  sugared  apples,  baked  in  a  paste,  with  two  opposite 
corners  turned  over  the  apple,  or  flapped  so  as  to  form  a  '  three 

APPLE- JOHN,  sb.    Chs.  War.  e.An. 

1.  A  special  kind  of  apple. 

Chs.  War.  Wise  Shahcspere  (1861)  97.  e.An.'  Apple-john, 
John-apple,  a  species  of  apple. 

2.  See  Apple-jack. 

[1.  John-apple,  a  good  relished  apple  that  lasts  2  years. 
Kersey  ;  Nor  John-apple,  whose  wither'd  rind  entrench'd 
By  many  a  furrow  aptly  represents  Decrepid  age,  Phillips 
Cider  (Nares)  ;  I  am  withered  like  an  old  apple-john, 
Shaks.  I  Hen.  IV,  in.  iii.  5.  This  apple  is  so  called  because 
it  is  ripe  about  St.  John's  Day  (June  24).] 

APPLE-OWLING,  sZ».  Wil.  The  custom  of  knocking 
off  from  the  trees  the  useless  fruit  remaining,  after  the 
apple-harvest  has  been  gathered  in. 

Wil.'  Apple-owling,  knocking  down  the  small  worthless  fruit,  or 
*griggles.'  left  on  the  trees  alter  theapple  crop  has  been  gathered  in. 

APPLE-PIE,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  Glo.  Hrt.  Suf.  Ess.  Name 
given  to  various  plants:  {1)  Artemisia  vulgaris,  or  mug- 
wort  (Chs.)  ;  (2)  Carcia)iiitie  praleiisis,  or  ladj'-smock 
(Yks.) ;  (3)  Epilobiiiin  liirsitliiin,  or  great  hairy  willow 
herb  (Yks.  Chs.  Glo.  Hrt.  Suf.  Ess.)  ;  (4)  ?  Lychnis 
diiirita  (n.Yks.). 

(i)  Chs.'  Apple-pie.  (s^l  n.Yks.  Apple-pie,  from  time  immemorial 
the  name  for  the  hairy  willow  herb,  from  the  scent  of  its  flowers 
strongly  resembling  the  smell  of  warm  apple-pie  ^G.M.T.).  Chs.^ 
The  great  hairy  willow  herb  is  called  Apple-pie,  the  smell  re- 
sembling that  of  the  apple.  Glo.'  Hmp.'  (_4;  n.Yks.  Apple-pie, 
'{ Lyflntis  diiirua  (I.W.\ 

APPLE-PIE  BED,  sb.  Gen.colloq.  use  in  Eng.  A  bed 
made  by  way  of  a  practical  joke  with  one  sheet  so  folded 
as  to  make  entry  impossible. 

Nhp.'  Apple-pic  bed.  A  bed  is  so  called  when  it  is  made  with 
a  single  sheet,  one  end  tucked  under  the  pillow,  the  other  turned 
over  at  the  top,  which  doubles  the  sheet  in  the  middle,  and  pre- 
vents the  longitudinal  extension  of  the  occupant.  Colloq.  Some 
*  evil-disposed  persons  '  have  already  visited  his  room,  made  his 
bed  into  an  apple-pie,  plentifully  strewn  with  hairbrushes  and 
razors.  Sat.  Review  (^Nov.  3,  1883)  566,  col.  2  (Farmer);  The 
servants,  who.  to  begin  with,  thought  nothing  more  amusing  than 
the  young  gentlemen's  apple-pie  beds  and  bot, by-traps,  have 
reached  the  verge  of  mutiny  by  the  fifth  week,  Siniidaid  ^Aug.  3, 
1889)  5,  col.  2  ;  Apple-pie  bed,  so  called  from  the  apple  turnover, 
a  sort  of  pie  in  which  the  crust  is  turned  over  the  apples.  A'.  &  Q. 
(1894)  8th  S.  V.  347. 

APPLE-PIE  FLOWER,  s6.  n.Hmp.    See  Apple-pie  (3). 

APPLE-PIE  ORDER,  sb.  Gen.  dial,  use  in  Eng.  Phr. 
expressive  of  perfect  order  and  regularity. 

w.Yks.'  A  room  with  everything  tidy  and  properly  placed  is 
pronounced  to  be  *  in  apple-pie  order.'  Lin.'  The  house  was  in 
applepie  order.  0%0  MS,  add.  Colloq.  I  am  just  in  the  '  order ' 
which  some  folks — though  why  I  am  sure  I  can't  tell  you  —would 
call  apple-pie,  Barham  higoldsby  (1864)  Otd  Woman  in  Giey. 

APPLE-PIE  PLANT,  see  Apple-pie  (3). 

APPLE-PUMMY,  sb.  Som.  [ae-pl-pumi.]  The  pulp 
of  apples  remaining  after  all  the  cider  has  been  ex- 

w.Som.'  While  full  of  juice  and  in  process  of  cider  making, 
the  ground  apples  are  simply  pummy.  I've  a-drawd  a  load  o' 
apple-pummy  up  in  the  copse  ;  1  reckon  they  [the  pheasants]'ll 
zoon  vind  it  out. 

[Water  wherein  a  good  quantity  of  apple-pomice  hath 
been  boil'd,  Evelyn  Pomona  (1664)  95  (N.E.D.).] 

APPLE-RINGIE,  sb.  Sc.  Also  written  apple-ringy, 
apple-riennie  (B.  &  H.).  The  plant  Southernwood, 
ArliDiisia  ahrotonuni. 

Sc.  Would  \ou  like  some  slips  of  apple-ringy,  or  tansy  or  thyme? 
Petticoat  Tales  (1823)  I.  240  (Jam.);  The  aipple  ringie  and  the 
sweet  brier,  Ochiltree  Redbiiin  1895  ii.  Ayr.  The  window 
looked  into  a  small  garden  rank  with  appleringy,  and  other  fragrant 
herbs,GALT  Sir^Mrf/-ftK(i82r)  I.  44.  Lnk.  Here  is  plenty  of  apple- 
ringy,  Fraser  IVhaups  (1895)  i. 

[Apple-ringie  may  prob.  be  a  corr.  of  AFr.  averoine 
(Wright  Voc.  554.  14);  cp.  Vr-ournne.  Aiiroitne,  the  herb 
Southernwood,  Cotgr.     Lat.  abrotoiniin.] 

APPLE-SHEELY,  sb.  Nhb.  The  Chaffinch,  Fringilla 
coelebs.     See  Sheely. 


APPLE-STUCKLIN.  sb.  Nrf.  Suf.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  Also 
written  -stucklun  I.W.';  -stucklen  I.W.*  [aepl-steklan.] 
Apples  sliced  or  whole,  sugared,  and  baked  in  a  paste. 
CI.  apple-turnover. 

Nrf.,  Suf.,  Sus.,  Hmp.  A  homely  sort  of  pastry,  made  by  folding 
sliced  apples  with  sugar  in  a  coarse  paste,  and  baking  them  with- 
out adish  or  pan,  Hollowav.     I.W.';  I.W.' Apple-dumpling  baked. 

APPLE-TERRE,  sb.     Obs.     Sus.    An  orchard. 

e.Sus.  Hollowav  ;  Sus.'* 

[Apple  +  Fr.  terre,  a  piece  of  ground.] 

APPLE-TURNOVER,  sb.  Lin.  LeL  Wor.  A  kind  of 
apple-tart  baked  without  a  dish. 

n.Lin.'  Apple-turnover,  an  apple  puff.  Lei.*  Apple-turnover,  a 
large  puff,  made  with  a  circular  or  oval  piece  of  paste  doubled 
over,  and  containing  apples.     Wor.  (J.W.P.) 

APPLE-TYE,  sb.    Sus.    A  loft  where  apples  are  kept. 


[See  Tye.l 

APPLETY-MOY,  sb.  Wm.  [a-plti-moi.]  Apples 
stewed  to  a  pulp. 

Wm.  Applety-moi  consists  of  apples  stewed  until  soft  and  then 
crushed  to  a  pulp  (E.W.P.)  ;  Bobby  browt  oot  a  girt  weyshin  pot 
full  a  applety-moi.  Spec.  Dial.  (1885)  pt,  iii.  10. 

[Cp.  ME.  applemoyle  (also  poniesmoille  in  gloss.  Cookery 
5i's.  (E.E.T.S.  91) ;  apptilmoy  in  Form  of  Cury,  "ig.  Moy, 
tnuyle.  repr.  Fr.  mouille,  moistened,  soaked.] 

APPROBATION,  *(!>.  Rut.  [aprabejan.]  An  authori- 
tative opinion. 

Rut.'  I  can't  make  out  what's  wrong  wi'  her ;  so  I  shall  send  for 
Clark,  and  get  his  approbation  of  it. 

[An  old  meaning  of  this  word  was  the  action  of  authori- 
tatively declaring  good  or  true ;  hence  the  dial,  sense 
'opinion.'  By  learned  approbation  of  the  judges,  Shaks. 
Hen.  VHI,  I.  ii.  71.] 

APPROOF,  sb.     Yks.  Som.     [apruf.] 

1.  Approval,  praise. 

w.Yks.  Leeds  Mere.  Suppl.  (June  7,  1884).  m.Yks.  Speaking  of 
Hungarian  flour,  an  old  farmer  used  words  after  this  fashion — 
'  Such  rubbish  as  that  gets  no  approof  of  mine'  (W.B  T.).  Som. 
He  may  crack  about  his  dairy  as  much  as  he  do  like,  but  'e  see 
the  judge  giv'  he  no  approof  vWB.T.). 

2.  Obsol.     Courage,  pluck  tried  by  experience. 

w.Yks.  I  like  Jack  l>elter  nor  Tom  ;  there's  more  approof  in 
him  vW.B.T.). 

[This  word  is  noted  as  old  in  Johnson.  1.  One  and  the 
self-same  tongue.  Either  of  condemnation,  or  ajiproof, 
Shaks.  M.  for  Meas.  11.  iv.  174.  2.  A  soldier  and  ol  very 
valiant  approof,  ib.  All's  IVetl,  n.  v.  3.  OFr.  apiove,  proof, 

APPURTENANCES,  sb.  Cor.  The  heart,  liver,  and 
lungs  of  an  animal. 


[An  appurtenance  of  a  lamb,  visce-ra.  pantices.  Coles 
(1679).  J  'lis  word  is  freq.  found  in  its  aphetic  form 
piirleitance.  f|  v.] 

APRICOCK,  sb.  n.Cy.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Shr. 
Hrf  Soni.     |eprikok.]     The  apricot.     See  Abricock. 

N.Cy.',  n.Lan.',  n.Lin.'.  LeL'.  Nhp.',  War.s,  Shr.',  Hrf.'  Som. 
Jennings  Ubs.  Dial,  if  Eng.  (^1825). 

[Apricot  or  apricock,  a  kind  of  wall-fruit.  Joh.nson; 
An  apricock,  yl/rt//w;  praecoquum.  Coles  (1679);  Abricol, 
the  abricot  or  apricock  plumb,  Cotgr.;    Yond  dangling 





apricocks,  Shaks.  Rirli.  II,  in.  iv.  29 ;  Of  trees  or  fruites 
to  be  set  or  remooved,  i.  Apple-trees  ...  2.  Apricocks, 
TussER  Hiisb.  76.     Port,  alhncoque.     See  Abricock.] 

APRIL,  sb.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Der.  War. 
Coinp.  (1)  -errand,  an  errand  upon  which  a  person  is  sent 
on  the  first  of  April,  as  a  practical  joke  ;  (2)  -gawby, 
(3)  -sob.  (4)  -gobby,  (5)  -gowk,  (6)  -noddy,  various  names 
for  an  April  fool. 

(i)  n.Cy.  This  ...  is  called  a  '  gawk's  errand,'  '  an  April  errand,' 
•hunt  the  gowk,'  Flk-Lore  Rec.  (1879)  VII.  85.  (2)  Chs.i  April 
gawby.  War.  (J.R.W.)  (3)  Chs.i  April  gob.  nw.Der.i  April  gob, 
an  April  fool.  (4)  Chs.*  April  gobby.  (5)  n.Cy.  We  in  the  North  call 
persons  who  are  thus  deceived,  April  gowks.  Brand  Pop.  Antiq. 
(1777)  4°°  ■>  April  gowks  are  past  and  gone.  You're  a  fool  and  1  am 
none  [i.  e.  after  midday,  the  person  who  attempts  the  joke  is  called 
the  fool],  Flk-Lore  Rec.  (1879)  VII.  85.  Nhb.i  The  cuckoohas  become 
synonymous  with  jest  and  joke  ;  gowk  is  cuckoo.  Boy  ;  '  Hi, 
canny  man,  see  what  ye've  dropt.'  The  canny  man  turns  round  to 
see,  and  is  hailed  with  a  yell,  '  O,  ye  April-gowk  !  '  as  the  boy 
runs  off.  Cum.  One  of  these  gentlemen  we  hope  to  send  back 
to  London  as  our  representative  in  Parliament,  and  the  other  as 
an  April-gowk  [speech  of  a  political  West  Cumbrian  gentleman, 
Apr.  I,  1879]  (M.P.);  Cum.'  n.Yks.'^  April  gowk,  an  April  fool. 
The  old  custom  of  making  April  fools  is  said  to  have  proceeded 
from  letting  insane  persons  be  at  large  on  the  first  of  April,  when 
amusement  was  made  by  sending  them  on  ridiculous  errands. 
April  day  is  here  called  '  Feeals'  h.aliday,' fools'  holiday.  (6)nLan.' 
Apple-noddy's  past  an'  gone.  An'  thou's  a  noddy  for  thinkin'  on. 

APRIL-FOOL,  sh.  Lei.  One  upon  whom  practical 
jokes  are  successfully  played. 

Lei.'  A  person  may  be  made  an  April-fool  of  at  any  time  of  the 
year.     Ah  suppose  a  wanted  to  mek  a  Epril  fule  on  me. 

APRILLED,  ppl.  adj.  Dev.  [aprild.]  Sour,  on  the 
point  of  turning  sour,  applied  to  niilk  or  beer.  Also, 
jig.,  to  a  person's  temper. 

Dev.  Aprill'd,  turned  sour,  Moore //is/.  Dev.  (1829')  I.  353.  n.Dev. 
Why,  than  tha  wut  be  a  prilled,  or  a  muggard  [made  sour,  or 
sullen],  £'.v;k.  Scold.  (1746)!.  194;  Aprilld,  soured,  or  beginning 
to  turn  sour,  when  applied  to  milk  or  beer,  Grose  (1790')  MS.  rtflcl. 
(H.)  ;  Bin  'e  wur  aprilled  hours  ago,  Rock  Jim  an  Nell  (1867)  4. 
Dev.'  Why,  the  ale  was  worse  ;— that  was  a-pnll'd,  was  maukish, 
dead  as  dishwatter.  pt.  ii.  12. 

[A-  (pref?)  +  prilled,  pp.  oi prill,  q.v.] 

APRON,  sb.  Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  Also 
written  apern  se.Wor.'  w.Som.'     [apran,  a'pan.] 

1.  The  diaphragm  of  an  animal. 

e.Yks.'  n.Lin.'  The  inner  fat  of  a  pig  and  the  fat  of  a  goose 
are  called  the  pig-appern  and  the  goose-appern.  se.Wor.'  Apern 
or  Apun,  the  midriff  of  a  pig.  e.An.'  Apron,  the  cawl  or  omentum 
of  a  hog.  Dev.  He  drove  his  long  brow-antlcr  up  to  its  hilt  in 
the  hound's  side  ;  and  then,  in  withdrawing  it,  brought  out  that 
portion  of  the  interior  known  as  '  the  apron,'  Memoir  Russell 
(1878)  xiii. 

2.  The  skin  covering  the  belly  of  a  roast  duck  or  goose. 
n.Lan.'    Sus.,  Hnip.  Apron,  the  flat,  skinny  covering  of  the  body 

of  a  goose  or  duck,  Holloway.  w.Soni.'  The  skin  between  the 
breast-bone  and  the  tail  of  a  duck  or  goose  when  sent  to  table,  is 
called  the  apern. 

3.  The  abdomen  of  the  brachyurous  . .  .  crtistaceans,  as 
crabs  ;  so  called  because  it  is  folded  under  and  closely 
applied  to  the  thorax  (CD.). 

Bnff.'  e.Yks.'  Appron,  the  hinge-like  appendage  of  a  crab's 

4.  A  strip  of  lead  on  a  chimney. 

e.An.^The  upper  part  of  a  chimney  opening  above  the  grate.  Suf. 
A  piece  of  or  zinc  fastened  to  the  front  of  a  chimney  where  it 
joins  the  roof  to  prevent  the  rain  running  down  the  chimney  through 
the  roof  (C.G.B.). 

5.  Coiiip.  (i)  Apron-man,  a  tradesman,  a  mechanic  ; 
(2)  -piece,  (3)  -string  farmer,  see  below  ;  (4)  -string- 
hold,  property  held  in  virtue  of  a  wife  ;  (5)  -trade, 

(i)  n.Yks.2  (2)  e.Lan.'  Appron-piece,  the  front  part  of  a  fire- 
range  which  supports  the  oven.  (3)  s.Wor.  Apron  string  farmer, 
an  eiTeminate  town-bred  farmer(H.K.).  (4)Hrt.  A  man  being  pos- 
sessed of  a  house  and  large  orchard  by  apron-string-hold,  felled 
almost  all  his  fruit-trees,  because  he  expected  the  death  of  his  sick 
wife,  Ellis  Mod.  Hmb.  (1750)  VI.  ii.  118.  (5)  Cor.  Tha  apurn- 
traade  oal  petch'd  to  scraim,  7".  7"ozt)s<r  (1873)  78. 

[2.  Apron  of  a  goose,  in  popular  language,  the  fat 
skin  which  covers  the  belly,  Bailey  (1755).  4.  The 
aprons  (of  lead)  round  the  chimney-stalks,  Loudon,  §  935 
(N.E.D.).  5.  You  have  made  good  work,  you  and  your 
apron-men,  Shaks.  Cor.  iv.  vi.  96;  We  answered  the 
apron-man  (the  wine-drawer),  Rowley  Search  for  Money, 
1609  (Nares,  s.  v.  Aperner). — The  dial,  form  apern  was 
common  in  the  i6th  and  17th  cents.  Apernes  of  mayle. 
Stow  Survey,  XIL  103 ;  Scmiciiiclitim . . .  Tablier,  a  womans 
aperne.  an  artificers  or  handicraftsmans  aperne,  Noinen- 
clalor  (Nares). 

APROPO,  V.    Som.    To  match,  resemble. 

w.Som.'  Dhik'ee  dhae-ur  aa-breepoa'z  muyn  nuzaak-lee  [that  one 
resembles,  or  matches,  mine  exactly].  I  heard  this  spoken  of  a 
canary.     By  no  means  uncommon. 

[Fr.  apropos,  fitly,  just  pat  (Cotgr.).] 

APS,  sb.  War.  Glo.  Hrt.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Wil. 
Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  apse  Sur.'  Sus.'  limp.' 
w.Som.' nw.Dev.';  eps  Ken.'  [aps,  seps, aps.]  Theaspen- 
tree,  Popiibis  trennda.     See  Asp. 

War.  Aps,  or  Apse,  the  oldest  form  of  asp  or  aspen.  Gto.'  Hrt. 
Ellis  Mod.  Hiisb.  (1750)  VII.  i.  lor.  Ken.  May  7,  1787.  For 
32  feet  Epps  Timber  at  10''  per  foot  jCi  65.  8rf.,  Phickley  Overseers' 
Ace.  (P.M.)  ;  Eps,  an  asp  tree  (K.)  ;  Ken.' ;  Ken.2  Sur.'  A  field  in 
Titsey  parish  is  called  the  Apses  field.  Hmp.'  Made  out  of  apse 
[made  of  aspen  wood].  WiL' Always  so  called  by  woodmen.  w.Som.' 
The  wind  've  a  blowed  down  a  girt  limb  o'  thick  apse  tree.    nw.Dev.' 

Hence  Apsen,  made  of  aps  or  aspen  wood;  comp. 
Apsen-tree,  the  aspen. 

Sus.  They  must  be  taken  without  the  patient's  knowledge .  .  .  and 
put  into  a  hole  in  an  apsen  tree,  Egerton  Flks.  and  IVays  (1884)  112. 
Som.  Jennings  Dial.  w.Exg.  (1869).  Cor.'  Beveling  [shivering] 
like  an  apsen-tree. 

[OE.  aps,  the  aspen-tree  (in  Leechdoms  and  ALlfric 

APS,  see  Haps. 

APSE,  sb.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  aps.  [aps.] 
An  abscess,  tumour. 

w.Som.'  Her  've  a  got  a  apse  'pon  her  neck.  Dev.  N.  &  Q. 
(1857)  2nd  S.  iii.  240.  s.Dev.  Yo\  Kin^shrid^e  (1874').  Cor.  Apse 
is  with  us  an  evident  corruption  of  abscess,  N.  &  Q.  (1O57)  and 
S.  iii.  240. 

[A  corruption  oi  abscess.'\ 

APSE,  int.  Chs.  Also  written  arpse  Clis.'^;  yaps, 
yahpse,  yeps  s.Chs.'  [yaps,  yeps.]  An  exclamation  of 
surprise  or  reproof,  as  in  phr.  apse  upon  tliee  ! 

Clis.'  Apse  upon  thee  !  or  Arpse  upon  thee  !  If  a  man  took  up  a 
piece  of  iron  which  he  unexpectedly  found  was  too  hot  to  hold  he 
would,  very  likely,  in  dropping  it,  make  use  of  the  exclamation  ; 
Ctis.^  Apse,  or  Arpse  upon  thee  I  An  exclamation  often  used  in 
scolding  a  child  for  some  peccadillo  ;  like  '  Out  upon  thee  !'  s.Chs.' 
Yaps  upon  yo ! 

AP'T,  adj.    Irel.    [apt.]    Of  persons  :   certain,  sure. 

Ir.  They'll  be  apt  to  keep  her  in  it  all's  one.  Barlow  hisconnel 
(1893)  8;  Ay,  he's  a  terrible  big  man,  isn't  he?  Apt  to  knock  the 
head  off  himself  he'd  be,  if  he  was  offering  to  come  in  at  our  door, 
ib.  86.  n.Ir.  If  you  go  out  to-day  you'll  be  apt  to  take  cold.  If  you 
cut  the  loaf  that  way  you'll  be  apt  to  cut  yourself  (W.H.P.). 

Hence  Aptly,  certainly,  without  fail. 

Ant.  Will  you  be  drawing  turf  for  me  to-morrow? — I  aptly  will 

APTISH,  fl<^'.    Yks.    [a-ptij.] 

1.  Skilful,  useful,  accurate. 


2.  Intelligent,  quick-witted. 

Yks.  I  have  heard  an  old  country  schoolmaster  speak  of  a  lad 
as  an  aptish  pupil,  but  I  do  not  fancy  the  word  is  generally  known 
(R.  S.).     n.Yks.'  He's  eptish  at  his  book-lear ;  n.Yks.* 

\_Apt,  prompt,  ready  to  learn  -1-  -ish^ 

APTYCOCK.  Dor.  Cor.  Also  written  aptcock. 
[aeptikok,  ae'pt-kok.]     A  clever  little  fellow. 

Dor.  I  have  heard '  aptcock '  ;T.C.P.).  Cor.'  Well  done,  my  little 
apticock  ;  Cor.* 

{Apt,  intelligent,  quick-witted -f- -foc^,  the  well-known 
suff.  in  surnames,  as  in  Alcock,  Badcock ;  prob.  fr.  the 
use  of '  cock '  as  a  familiar  term  of  appreciation  for  a  man 
who  fights  with  pluck  and  spirit.] 




A-PURPOSE,rt(/z/.  Nhb.Wm.Lan.Oxf.Brks.  [aparpas, 
apapas.]     On  purpose,  deliberately,  with  intention.] 

Nhb.'  He's  deund  aporpose  to  myek  liissel  leuk  clivvor.  Wm.' 
Lan.  O  purpus  fur  to  let  foke  get  o  seete  on  um,  Okherod  Ftlley 
fro  Rachde  (1851)  i;  'An  accident  done  a-purpose,'  chimed  in 
Mrs.  Clowes.  Banks  Mancli.  Man  (1876)  xiv.  Oxf.'  He  done  it 
a-purpose,  MS.  add.     Brks.*  A  drovv'd  [threw]  1  down  a-purposc. 

[A-,  on  +  purpose.'] 

APURT,  adj.  and  adv.     Som.  Dev.     [ap5t.] 

1.  adj.     Sulky,  sullen,  disagreeable. 

n.Dev.  B'ant  hur  well,  Nan  ?  Is  our  Nell  apurt,  RocKyi'"i  an'  Nil! 
(1867)  St.  55  ;  Grose  (1790) :  Apurt,  with  a  glouting  look,  A/o<///j/v 
Mag.  (1808)  H.  421.  Dev.i  Bet.  I  can't  go,  zure. —  Rab,  Wuli, 
verywull. — Bet.  You  bea-purtnow,  pt.  1.9  ;  '  Ot,' quotha  to  dame, 
'  glumping  eet  ?   zo  it  sim  you  are  a  purt  with  your  meat,'  pt.  ii.  13. 

2.  adv.     In  a  sulky  manner ;  disagreeably. 

w.Som.i  Her  tookt  her  zel  off  proper  apurt,  and  no  mistake. 

[A-  iti-ep)  +puri  (to  sulk),  q.v.] 

APURTED,  ad).     Dev.     Sullen. 

Dev.  Thcj'  only  thought  it  was  my  '  appurted  witherful  develtry,' 
as  they  called  it,  Madox-Brown  Dzmic  Blulli  (1876)  bk.  iv.  i. 

[A-  (pief.  ^)  +puyted,  pp.  oi purt,  see  above.] 

AQUABOB,  sb.     Ken.     An  icicle. 

Ken.  Grose  (1790);  I  have  never  heard  this,  and  on  inquiry 
cannot  hear  of  it ;  it  looks  rather  like  a  fabrication  i^P.M .) ;  Ken.^ 

AQUART,  adv.  Yks.  Also  written  aquairt  n.Yks.'^ 
[akwert,  akwet.] 

1.  Across,  athwart. 

ne.Yks.i  Used  of  motion  across.  T'bceos  ran  a-quart  t'staggarth. 

2.  In  a  state  of  disagreement,  at  cross  purposes. 
n.Yks.'  What,  then,  Marget  an'  her  man  hae  getten  aquart  agen? 

— A}',  they's  had  another  differing-bout  ;  n.Yks.'^  There's  nought  to 
get  aquairt  about.     w.Yks.  (.^.B.) 

[A-,  on  +  quart,  vb.  (q.v.).] 

AQUAT,  adv.^  Dor.  Som.  Also  written  aquott. 
[akwot.]     In  a  squatting  position. 

w.Dor.  Roberts  Hist.  Lyme  Regis  (1834).  e.Som.  Aquat,  sit- 
ting flat,  like  a  bird  on  its  eggs,  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873).  w.Som.'  Steed 
o'  tendin'  the  things,  there  was  he  a-quat  down  in  by  the  vire  [s.v. 

[A-,  on  +  quat,  vb.  (q.v.).] 

AQUAT,  adv.'^  Dev.  Also  written  aquot  Dev.^ 
[akwot,  akwa't.]     Full  to  satiety. 

Dev.  'Chave  eat  so  much  'cham  quit  a-quot  [I  have  eat  so  much 
that  I  am  cloyed],  Ray(i69i).  n.Dev.  I  mind  an  alkitole  o't  Avore 
a  month  had  gut  a-quot,  RocK  Jim  an'  Ntll  (^1867)  st.  61  ;  Aquott, 
weary  of  eating,  Grose  (i79o\  Dev.^  Willee 'a  zome  moar  tu  ayte, 
missis? — No  thankee,  vathcr,  I  be  aquat  now;  purty  nigh  vit  tu  bust. 

[A-  (pref?)-vquat,  adj.  (q.v.).] 

AQUEESH,  ACQUEESH,  see  Atweesh. 

AR,  see  Air,  adj.,  Arr. 

AR-.  see  Ear-. 

ARAIN,  ih.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Also  written 
arran  Dur.'  n.Yks.  ne.Yks.'  w.Yks.'';  aran 
n.Cy.  w.Yks.^;  arrin  Der.°  nw.Der.';  arrand,  arand, 
arrant  w.Yks.  ;  arrian  w.Yks.'^  [arand,  a'rant,  a'ran, 

1.  A  spider,  a  cobweb. 

n.Cy.  Grose  (1790).  Yks.  At  public  worship  the  composure 
of  a  lady  near  him  is  much  disturbed  by  an  arrant,  Hamilton 
Nttgae  Lit.  (1B41)  316;  Arran,  the  long  legged  outdoor  spider 
(S.P.U.).  n.Yks.  Sweep'th  Arrans  down  ;  till  all  be  clean,  neer 
lin.  Els  he'l  leauk  all  Agye,  when  he  comes  in,  Meriton  Praise  Ale 
(1684)  1.  437.  w.Yks.  Arran  is  used  in  this  parish  for  spiders  of 
every  size,  Watson  Hist.  Hlfx.  (1775")  531  ;  You  never  heard  of 
Bruce,  perhaps? — And  th' arrand?  Bronte  Sl^irley{\%<^<).\^^,  w.Yks.' 
Thou  hed  as  nice  a  lang  waist  as  onny  body,  as  slim  an  as  smaw, 
eigh,  as  an  arran,  ii.  297  ;  An  arran  or  an  Espin  leaf  wad  a  flaid  him 
out  of  his  wits,  ib.  ii.  306  ;  w.Yks.234^  ne.Lan.'  Der.'  'J'he  word 
arion  was  common  in  living  memory,  but  has  not  been  heard  so 
much  of  late  years  ;  Der.^,  nw.Der.'  Not.  Arain,  used  only  for 
the  larger  kind  of  spiders,  Ray  (1691).  [According  to  correspon- 
dents the  word  is  now  obs.  in  Notts.] 

2.  Comp.  Arain-web,  Aran-web,  a  cobweb. 

N.Cy.',  Dur.',  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.' Arran-web,  rarely  used.  w.Yks. 
It's  better  to  be  a  bit  blustcrin  an  rough  an  have  summat  to  show 
for  it    nor  to   caar    in  a  comer  wol  th'  arrand-wcbs  stick  to  yu, 

Hartley  Clock  Aim.  (1896)  9  ;  She  had  hair  colour  o'  gowd,  an' 
fine  and  silky  as  an  arran-web,  Dixon  Craven  Dales  (1881)  189; 
w.Yks.3  The  infection  of  some  fevers  would  stop  in  an  arrinwcb 
for  seven  years  ;  w.Yks.* 

[Arain,  large  spider,  Coles  (1677) ;  Oure  jeris  as  the 
arane  sail  thynke  .  .  .  The  erayn  makes  vayn  webbes, 
Hampole  Ps.  l.xxxix.  10;  Oure  jeris  schulen  bithenke  as 
an  yreyn,  Wyclif  ib. ;  Aranye  or  erayne,  arauea. 
Prompt.     OFr.  araigne  [iraigiie),  Lat.  arauea,  a  spider.] 

ARB-,  see  Herb-. 

ARBITRARY,  adj  Hrf.  Ken.  Sur.  Also  written 
arbitry  Hrf.  Ken.'     [a'bitri.] 

1.  Independent,  impatient  of  restraint. 
Hrf.  (W.W.S.)     Sur.' 

2.  Hard  ;  grcedj',  grasping. 

AREOUR-TREE,  see  Harber. 
ARBY-ROOT,  same  as  Abbyroot,  q.v. 
ARC.  see  Ark,  sb.^ 

ARCG,  sec  Argue. 

ARCH.  sA.'    Sc.  (Jam.)     An  aim.     See  Arch,  v.  2. 

Abd.,  Rxb. 

ARCH,  sb.^    Cor.  Tech.    A  piece  of  ground  left  un- 
worked  near  a  shaft. 
Cor.  Mining  Gl.  (1852). 
ARCH,  V.     Sc.  Som.  Cor.     [eTtJ,  atj.] 

1.  To  make  or  cause  to  be  convex. 

w.Som.'  Thick  there  road  must  be  a-arched  a  good  bit  more  eet, 
vore  the  watcr'Il  urn  off  vitty  like. 

2.  To  take  aim,  to  throw  or  let  fly  any  missile  weapon 
with  a  design  to  hit  a  particular  object. 

Sc.  Shoot  again, — and  O  see  to  airch  a  wee  better  this  time, 
Brownie  of  Bodsbcck,  I.  155  (Jam.).  Abd.  Airch,  to  throw,  is  still  in 
use.  It  is  [so  called]  from  the  curve  described  by  a  missile  ^G.W.). 
Rxb.  (Jam.) 

Hence  Arched,  ppl.  adj.  curved,  convex,  see  1 ; 
Archer,  sb.  (Jam.),  one  who  throws,  see  2  ;  Arching,  adj. 
convex,  see  1. 

Cor.  The  roads  in  a  mine,  when  built  with  stones  or  bricks,  are 
generally  arched  level  drifts.  Mining  Gl.  (1852).  Tech.  The  roads 
in  a  mine,  when  built  with  stones  or  bricks,  are  sometimes  called 
arched  level  or  arched  ways,  Weale  Diet.  Terms  (1873;.  Abd. 
Archer,  a  marksman.  w.Som.'  He  idn  archin  enough  by  ever  so 

[OFr.  archer  (mod.  arquer),  to  arch,  to  curve  in  the  form 
of  a  bow  {arc) ;  a  deriv.  oi  arc] 

ARCH,  see  Argh. 

ARCHANGEL,  sb.     [akenjal.] 

1.  A  name  applied  to  several  species  of  Dead  Nettle 
and  allied  plants  : — (i)  Laiitiuin  album  (Lei.  Glo.  Dev.); 
(2)  Lamiuin  galeobdolon  (Som.) ;  (3)  var.  species  of 
Lamium  (Glo.). 

Glo.'  Dev.  The  harmless  nettle  is  here  [Dartmoor]  called  arch- 
angels. Bray  Tamar  and  Tavy  {tt<\.  1879  1.  274  ;  Dev.*  w.Som.' 
Archangel,  the  3'ellow  nettle,  often  called  weazel  snout.  [Our 
English  archangels  and  a  few  others  are  yellow,  Comh.  Mag.  (Jan. 
1882) ] 

2.  Red  Archangel,  Lamium  purpureuDi  (Nrf )  ;  Yellow 
Archangel,  Lamium  galiobd()lu)i  (Lei.). 

[Archangel,  the  name  of  a  plant,  called  also  Dead 
Nettle,  Johnson  ;  Archangel  (dead  nettle),  Lamium.  Coles 
(1679)  ;  Ortie  blanche,  the  herb  Archangel,  Blind  Nettle, 
Dead  Nettle.  Ortie  puaiite,a  kind  of  Archangel  that  smells 
most  filthily,  Cotgr.  ;  Lamium  allium,  White  Archangel!. 
Lamium  luteuiii,  Yellow  Archangcll.  Lamium  rubruiit, 
Red  Archangell,  Gerarde  (cd.  1633)  702;  Dcti'e  ncttylle, 
Arcluiugelus,  Prompt. ;  Arcluvigelica,  the  blynd  nctel, 
Wright  Voc.  565.  15.] 

ARCHES,  sb.  pi.  Tech.  The  first  '  bungs  of  saggers,' 
or  piles  of  clay  boxes  containing  ware  put  into  the 

Tech.  In  the  pottery  trade  arches  are  the  bungs  which  stand 
nearest  to  the  fire  and  between  the  fire-holes  or  mouths,  Lab. 
Gl.  (1B94). 

ARCH-HOLE.  sb.     Cum. 

Cum.'  Arch-whol,  a  vent-hole  in  the  wall  of  a  barn. 

ARCHIE,  see  Urchin. 

K  2 




ARCHILOWE. 5*.  Sc.  Also  written -logh.  The  return 
which  a  guest,  who  has  been  previously  treated,  makes 
to  the  tavern  company. 

Sc  I  propose  that  this  good  gentleman  . . .  shall  send  for  a  tass  o' 
brandy,  and  I'll  pay  for  another  by  way  of  archilowe,  Scott  Rob 
Jioy  ^i&if:  xxviii.  Lth..  s.Sc.  When  [the  guest]  calls  for  the  bottle 
he  is  said  to  give  them  his  archilagh  (.Jam.). 

[It  is  prob.  that  this  word  contains  Du.  gelag,  share, 
scot,  score  at  a  tavern.  Cp.  Gelach,  a  shot  or  a  score, 

ARD,  adj.  n.Cy.  [erd.]  Of  land  :  dry,  arid,  parched, 
used  of  soil  on  high-lying  land. 

N.Cy.i  Aird.     Cum.  Gl.  ^1851)  ;  Cum.i* 

ARDAR,  sb.     Obs.     Cor.    A  plough. 


[ACeltic  Cornish  word, prob.«>M,  plough, 
cogn.  w.  Gael,  ar,  plough,  and  Goth,  arjan.  to  plough.] 

ARDENT,  adj.  used  as  sb.     Sc.     [eTdsnt.]     Whisky. 

Bnff.i  Will  j'e  tack  a  glass  o'  wine  ? — Na  ;  a'U  tack  a  drop  o'  the 

[Cp.  phr.  ardent  spirits,  in  which  ardent  refers  to  their 
fierj-  taste.] 

ARDER,  sb.  usually  pi.  The  n.  counties,  e.  and  s.Cy. 
(Ray)  Sus.  (K.)  Also  written  ader  Dur.  n.Yks. ;  aither 
N.Cy.i  n.Yks.12  e.Yks.  ;  ather  N.Cy.'  Nhb.'  n.Yks.^ 
[e'6ar,  a'tSar.] 

1.  A  ploughing,  esp.  the  fallowing  of  vacant  land. 

n.Cy.  Arders,  fallowings  or  plowings  of  ground,  Ray  (1691^. 
n.Yks.*  I  believe  the  meaning  to  be  restricted  to  the  ploughing  or 
furrowing.  e.Yks.  The  first  or  second  aither  ;  the  same  as  '  airth  ' 
of  some  places,  and  '  earth  '  of  others,  Marshall  if  k^.  Ecoii.  ^1788). 
Sus.  :K.).  s.  &  e.Cy.  Ray  11691'.  (Obs.  Not  known  bj-  an}-  of  our 
correspondents  in  these  parts  of  the  country.)  [Worlidge  Sys/. 
Agric.  \i68i).] 

2.  Fallow  or  ploughed  land. 

Cum.  Arden  [sic\  fallow  quarter,  Gl.  (iSji).  m.Yks.i  Aither, 
furrowed  ground.  e.Yks.  When  we  come  to  sowe  olde  ardure, 
Best  Rur.  Ecoit.  (1641    132. 

3.  Lands  divided  according  to  the  crops  they  bear  in  the 
customarj'  rotation ;  hence,  the  order  or  rotation  of  crops 
in  husbandry. 

n.Cy.  Aither,  a  course  of  cropping,  or  portion  of  the  rotation, 
Morton  Cycl.  Agric.  ^i863'i  ;  N.Cy.*  In  husbandry  the  arders  are 
the  divisions  of  tillage  land  set  apart  for  regular  courses  of  crops 
in  successive  years.  Nhb.*  Before  the  commons  enclosures,  the 
tillage  land  was  divided  into  '  fields.'  Each  field  consisted  of  a 
great  number  of  scattered  strips  or '  3'ard  lands.'  The  '  East  field,' 
'  West  field,'  'North  field.'  iic,  represented  groups  of  diflerent 
freeholds — each  owner  having  yard  lands  in  all  the  *  Athers,'  or 
'  fields.'  The  object  of  this  was  to  arrange  for  a  rotation  of  crops. 
Thus,  the  East  field  being  fallow,  the  West  field  would  be  under 
oats,  the  North  field  under  wheat,  and  so  on  in  annual  rotation. 
Obs.  Dur.  What  is  here  called  four  aders,  viz.  wheat,  clover,  oats, 
and  fallow, /?(•/'.  Agric.  Sitrv.  ^1793-1813!.  n.Yks.^  Arders,  partsof 
a  field.  '  A  field  in  aithers.'  These  words  signify  portions  set 
apart  for  different  growths,  as  'an  aither  of  wheat,'  'an  aither  of 

4.  Thickness  of  soil  to  work  among. 
n.Yks.  Soil  laid  on  a  field  macks  mair  ader  fLW.). 

[1.  Arders,  the  fallowings  or  ploughings  of  ground, 
Kersey  ;  Arders,  fallowings  or  ploughings.  Coles  ( 1677) ; 
Who  can  expect  to  reap  much  from  a  single  ardour, 
or  once  ploughing?  Robinson  Treat.  Faith  (1688)  117 
(N.E.D.).     Prob.  ON.  arilr,  plough.] 

ARDSREW,  sb.  Nhb.  Also  written  erdsrew. 
[erd-sriu.]  The  common  shrew-mouse.  See  Harvest- 


ARDUR,  sb.     Obs.    Cor.     A  ploughman. 

Cor. I 

[A  Celtic  Cornish  word;  cp.  W.  arddwr,  'arator, 
agricola  '  iDavies).     See  Arder.] 

ARE,  see  Ear,  v. 

AREADY,  adj.     Som.     [aredi.]     Ready. 

w.Som.i  I  was  most  aready  to  drop  gin  I  come  tap  the  hill  [s.v.  A]. 

[Thenne  was  ich  a-redy  To  lye  and  to  loury,  P.  Plowman 
fc.)  VII.  97  ;  I  am  aredy  ...  to  reste  with  50W  euere,  ib.  (b.) 
IV.  192.    A-  (pref.^)  + ready,  cp.  yredie,  Horn.  (c.  1250)  239.] 

AREAR,  adv.^     Ken.     [3ria(r).]     Reared  up,  upright. 

Ken.  To  stand  arear  ^K.)  ;  Arear,  Arere  :  much  used  in  certain 
districts,  not  all  over  the  county  (A.M.) ;  Ken.' 

[A-,  on  +  rear,  vb.] 

AREAR,  adv.^    Obs.     Der.     Backward,  behind. 


[But  when  his  force  gan  faile  his  pace  gan  wex  areare, 
Spenser  F.  Q.  hi.  vii.  24  ;  Thanne  gan  he  go  .  . .  Som 
tyine  asyde  and  som  tyme  a-rere,  P.  Plowman(c.)  vii.  405. 
OFr.  anre  (mod.  arriere).] 

AREAR,  int.     Cor.     Also  written  areah  Cor.^ 

1.  An  exclamation  of  surprise.     See  Arrah. 

Cor.  Arrear  then  Bessy  ly  aloane  the  backy,  Cornwall:  A 
Western  Eclogue,  in  Gent.  Mag.  (1762'!  287  ;  Arrere,  Grose  (1790) 
MS.  add.  (C.)  ;  '  Arreah  !  thon,'  replied  Mrs.  Brown  ;  '  that's  the 
way  the  maggot  do  jump,  es  et  ? '  Forfar  Wizard  (,1871)  8; 
Cor.2  Arear  !  Oh,  strange  !   wonderful ! 

2.  Comp.  Axrea-faa. 


AREAWT,  see  Arout. 

AREND,  V.     Sc.     [grand.]     To  rear. 

Flf.  [The  horse]  arendit,  he  stendit.  He  flang  an'  he  fara'd,  MS. 
Poems  (Jam.)  ;  I  asked  '  a  Fifer'  if  he  knew  what  an  arend  horse 
was.  '  A  rearer,' he  replied,  '  because  he  is  in  danger  of  falling  back 
o'er  end  '  iCW.). 

ARESS,  see  Hairif. 

AREST,  V.     Yks.     [are'st.]     To  grant  rest. 

n.Yks.  God  a-rest  you,  merry  gmtlemcn,  Tweddell  Clevcl. 
RhytJies  ^  18751  6. 

[A-  (pre/}°)  +  rest,  vb.] 

ARF,  see  Argh. 

ARFAL,  see  Arval. 

ARFISH,  adj.     Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.     [eTfiJ.] 
L  Timid,  fearful,  apprehensive. 

N.Cy.*  I'm  rather  arfish  about  that,  Nhb.*  Yen's  rether  airfish 
aboot  eet.  Dur.*  n.Yks.2  I  felt  arfish  i'  t'dark.  ne.Yks.'  Ah 
felt  a  bit  arfish.  e.Yks.  Marshall  Rur.  Econ.  (17881.  w.Yks. 
Harfish,  timid,  as  horses  on  bog-land,  Hamilton  Nugae  Lit.  (1841) 
356  ;  Mither,  I'se  arfish,  Lucas  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  230. 
2.  Unwilling,  reluctant. 

Nhb.*     e.Yks.*  He's  nobbut  very  arfish  to  begin. 

[Arf+-ish.     See  Argh,  rtrt)',] 

ARG,  adj.    Sh.L     [arg.]     Eager,  fierce. 

Sh.I.  Arg  is  used  regularly  in  Isle  of  Foula  in  the  sense  of  keen, 
very  anxious  (equiv.  to  '  aber '  in  the  North  Isles)  (J.J,).   S.  &Ork.* 

[ban.  arg,  wicked,  bad ;  cp.  G.  arg.'] 

ARG,  see  Argue. 

ARGAN,  see  Organ. 

ARGE,  see  Argue. 

ARGERIE,  sb.     Sh.L     [a'rgari.]     A  crowd,  multitude. 

Sh.I.  *  Argerie  '  I  take  to  be  the  right  form  and  not  *  angorie '  ; 
I  have  heard  the  former  (although  ver}-  rarely,  but  not  the 
latter.  Argerie  is  rather  a  derogative  word  ^mob,  rabble)  (J.J.). 
S.  &  Crk.* 

ARGH,  adj.  and  adv.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.  Lin.  Also 
in  Sus.  Also  written  (a)arf  N.Cy,'=  n.Yks.*^  ne.Yks.' 
m. Yks.*  w.Yks.  Lin.* ;  arfie  n.  and  e.Yks.  w.Yks,*;  airf 
Nhb.*;  erf  Sc. ;  earfe  Nhb.*  Dur.;  awf  e.Yks.* ;  arth 
Nhb.*;  airth  N.Cy.'  Nhb.'  n.Yks.*;  airgh,  ergh,  erch, 
arch,  airch  Sc. ;  au2h  Bnft.*;  arrow  Abd.  ;  yar  Sus. 
[af,  erf,  erf>,  erx,  ara.] 

1.  adj.  Timorous,  apprehensive,  afraid. 

Sc  In  kittle  times  when  foes  are  yarring  We're  no  thought 
ergh,  Beattie  To  Mr.  A.  Ross,  in  Hetenore  (1768I  3,  ed.  1812  ; 
And  fearfu'  will  it  be  to  me,  I'm  erch,  or  a' be  o'er,  Jamieson  Pop. 
Ballads  (1806)  Donul  and  Evir.  Bnff.*  Abd.  I  have  an  eargh 
kind  of  feeling  on  hearing  the  owls  i.G.W.^.  N.Cy.'  He  was  airth 
to  do  it  ;  N.Cy.2,  Nhb.*,  Dur.  (K.)  n,Yks.  I'se  varra  arfe,  Shee'l 
put,  and  rive  my  ood  Prunella  Scarfe,  Meriton  Praise  Ale  (1684) 
1.  II  ;  n.Yks.'  ;  n.Yks. 2  I  was  airth  o"  gannin.  ne.Yks.'  Rooads  is 
seea  slaap  ah's  arf  o' travellin'.  ni.Yks.*  w.Yks.  '  Ise  arf  to  do 
it,'  generally  implies  difficulty,  Lucas  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  ; 
w.Yks.*  Lin.*  I'm  arf  you've  hurted  the  bunny.  It's  nobbud  the 
soldiers  come  to  defend  the  '  old  women,'  who  are  arf.     Sus.'  * 

2.  Hesitating,  reluctant,  '  swithering.' 

Buff.'  Abd.  An'  rogues  o'  Jews,  they  are  nae  arrow,  Wi'  tricks 
fu'  sly,  Anderson  Poems  (1813  116  1  Jam.)  ;  Ye're  ergh  to  file 
your  fingers  [unwilling  to  work]  (G.W.).       Fif.,  Lth.  Erf  to  do 




anything  (Jasi.\  Mib.'  A  condition  of  mind  in  which  it  is  neces- 
sary to  proceed  wHth  great  caution.  n-Yks.'  e.Tks.' Arf,  unwilling; 
indisposed  ;  disinclined.     m-Yks.',  w.Yks.' 

3.  Scanty,  insufficient.    Cf.  4. 

Lth.  Ye  hae  na  made  the  line  of  that  side  o'  the  road  straight ; 
it  juts  out  there,  and  here  it  is  ergh  (Jam.).  Slk.  Airgh,  hollow  ; 
used  when  anything  is  wanting  to  makeup  the  level  ib.,.    Rxb.  M>.) 

4.  adv.  Insufficiently,  not  fully  or  enough  ;  nearly, 
approaching  to. 

Lth.  I  canna  eat  that  meat ;  it's  ergh  boiled.  That  meat's  airch 
dune.     Rxb.  What  time  is  it! — It's  erfe  twal  o'clock  JJau.). 

[L  Arghe,  ptisillanimis,  Calh.  Angl. ;  Ar\ve  or  ferefuUe, 
tintidus,  pavidus,  Prompt.;  If  Elinus  be  argh  and  oumes 
for  ferde,  Dest.  Troy,  2540;  His  hert  arwe  as  an  hare, 
R.  Glouc.  457.  2.  A  !  lorde,  I  trj-mble  )>er  I  stande,  So 
am  I  arow  to  do  (>at  dede,  York  Plays,  176.  OE.  earh 
(earg),  cowardly ;  cp.  ON.  argr,  G.  and  Dm.  arg.] 

ARGH.  V.  Sc.  Also  written  arch,  ergh.  erf.  [eTX,  erf.] 
To  be  timid,  fearful,  to  feel  reluctant  from  timidity,  to 

Sc.  I  airghit  at  keuillyng  withe  him  in  that  thrawart  haughty 
mood,  Wint.  Ev.  Tales,  II.  41  (Jam.  ;  Argh,  to  dread,  quake  or 
tremble  with  fear  {ib.  Suppl.  .  Lnk.  Dear  Jenny,  I  wad  speak 
t'ye,  wad  ye  let ;  An'  yet  I  ergh,  ye're  ay  sae  scomfu'  set,  Ramsay 
Gentle  Shtp.  (1725    71,  ed.  1783. 

[Yet  when  I  had  done  all  I  intended,  I  did  ergh  to  let 
it  go  abroad  at  this  time  for  sundry  reasons,  B.aillie  Lett, 
i^ns)  I-  367  U'^*'-)  ;  penne  ar3ed  Abraham,  and  all  his 
mod  chaunged,  AUii.  P.  (b.)  713.  OE.  eargian  (ergian),  to 
be  timid.] 

ARGHNESS,  sb.     Sc.  Yks. 

1.  Timidity,  superstitious  fear. 

Abd.  An  erghness  creeps  over  me  in  going  through  a  churchyard 
by  night    G.W.). 

2.  Reluctance,  unwillingness. 

Sc.  We  must  regret  their  archness  to  improve  such  an  oppor- 
tunity, WoDRow  Hist.  Ch.  Scotland  1721 )  I.  xxxii.  n.Yks.  They 
bad  some  arfness  about  starting  wark    I.W.). 

[Arghnes,  ^MSi//<j>(i»;iVas,  Cath.Angl.;  Arjnesse  alse  me 
thynkth  ys  hard,  Fore  hit  maketh  a  man  a  coward,  MS. 
in  Hall.     Argh.  adj.  +  -«<'ss.] 

ARGIE-BARGIE,  sb.    Sc.  (Jam.) 

Rnf..  Ayr..  Lnk.  .\rgie-bargie,  a  contention,  quarrel. 

ARGIE-BARGIE,  v.  Sc.  Also  written  arguy-bargny. 
To  argue,  bandy  words,  dispute. 

Frf.  I'se  nae  time  to  arg\--bargj-  wi'  ye.  Da\-it,  Barrie  Lidit 
(1885  35,  ed.  1893.  Fif.  Jam.1  Gall.  It  was  no  time  to  argie- 
bargie  about  words  and  sa^nngs.  Crockett  Raiders  ^1894)  xv. 

Hence  Arguy-barguying,  vbl.  sb. 

Sc.  There  was  eternal  arguy-barguyin'  about  this  plea,  Roy 
Horseman  U695,  xxxix. 

ARGISOME,  adj.  Lin.  Nhp.  Bck.  [a'gisam.]  Con- 
tentious, inclined  to  argue  or  dispute. 

n.Lin.  A  argisum  bairn  maks  a  awk'ud  man  (M.P.)  ;  nXia-i  It's 
the  argisumist  bairn  I  iver  did  see.     Nhp.*     n.Bck.  (A.C 

[Argue,  \h.  +  -so»ie.     For  suff.  cp.  handsome,  winsome.] 

ARGLE,  sb.     Lin.    [agl.]     An  argument,  a  dispute. 

sw.Lin.  My  wife  and  she  had  a  bit  of  an  argle  about  it  ^R.E.C.). 

[See  Argle,  v.] 

ARGLE,  V.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Wor.  Also  written  argal 
se.Wor.' ;  argel  Lin.     [a'gl.] 

L  To  argue,  dispute,  contend,  esp.  in  making  a  bargain  ; 
to  argle  out,  to  have  the  last  word  with  one's  opponent  in 
an  argument 

Lin.  They  argell'd  for  awhile,  at  last  He  thirteen  for  a  shilling 
got,  Brown  Lit.  Laur.  (1890)  74.  n.Lio.  Thaay  stood  an'  argled 
a  peace.  Peacock  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  90  ;  n.Lin.*  Come 
maister,  it's  no  use  to  argle.  se.Wor.'  Er  argald  me  out,  as  jxur 
new  shawl  was  blue,  un  it's  green  now,  yunt  it? 
2.  Hence  Argling,  vbl.  sb. 

Der.  2,  nw.Der.'  n-Lin.  1  thowt  she'd  a'  bitten  me  wi'  real  down 
force  o'  arglein'.  Peacock  J.  Markenfield  ',1874)  I.  135;  nXin.' 
What's  the    good  o'  arglein'  about  what  folks  is  worth.       War. 


[I  will  never  stand  argling  the  matter  any  more,  Hay 
any  Work  (1589),  ed.  1844,  n  (N. E.D.J.  A  perversion  ol 
argue,  vb.,  fr.  the  influence  of  freq.  vbs.  in  -le.] 

ARGLE-BARGLE,  sb.  Lin.  An  argument  CC 


ARGLE-BARGLE,   v.    Sc.   Lin.     A  frequentative  of 

argie-bargie,  q.v. 

Per.  Ye  maist  needs  set  him  up  tae  arglebargle  «n'  a  stranger 
minister  at  the  Free  Kirk,  Ias  Maclaren  Brier  Bush  1895  214. 
Ayr.  It's  of  no  use  to  argolbargol  wi'  me,  Galt  Sir  Andrew  1833) 
xii.  Lnk.  But  'tis  a  daihn  to  debate.  And  aurgle-bargin  with  our  fate, 
Ramsey (1727)  1.335,  ed.  1800  Jam.).  Lth.  Jam.)  Edb.Meandthe 
minister  were  just  argle-bargling  some  few  words  on  the  doctrine  of 
the  camel  and  the  eye  of  the  needle,  MoiR  Mansit  Wauch  (i8a8) 
45.     nXin.' 

Hence  (i)  Argle-bargler,  sb.  a  caviller,  contentious 
person;  (2)  Argle-barging,  -bargUng, 

(i)  Ayr.  As  the  arglebarglers  in  the  House  of  Parliament  have 
threatened,  Galt  Legatees  1820  iv.  2  After  no  little  argol- 
bargling  with  the  heritors,  >i. -4 ««. /ViniA  1821  vii.  eXth.  Let's 
hae  nae  mair  argle-bargin'.  Hunter  J.  Inwici  1895"!  39.  £db. 
James  and  me,  after  an  hour  and  a  halfs  argle-bargling  pro  and  con, 
MoiR  Mansie  IVauch  ^1828  xi. 

[A  reduplicated  rhvming  form  oi argle.  vb.] 

ARGOLBARGOLOUS,  adj.  Sc  Quarrelsome,  con- 
tentious about  trifles  (Jam.). 

Ayr.  No  doubt  his  argol-bargolous  disposition  was  an  inherit 
accumulated  with  his  other  conquest  ot  wealth  from  the  mannerless 
Yankies   Galt  Pmvost  ^1822    194. 

ARGOSEEN,  sb.  .'  Obs.  Sc.  (Jam.)  Unknown  to  any 
of  our  correspondents.     The  lamprey. 

Ayr.  Argoseen,  the  lamprey,  according  to  the  old  people. 

ARGOSIE,  s6.     Obs.    Sh.1.     Anger. 

S.&  Ork.i 

ARGUE,  sb.     Sc.   Stf.   Der.  Shr.    [aTgi,  agi]     Also 
written  argy  Stf*  nw.Der.*  Shr.'* 
L  Argument,  assertion  :  dispute,  contention,  quarrel. 

n-Sc  He  is  said  to  keep  his  ain  argie.  who.  whatever  be  said  to 
the  contrary,  still  repeats  what  he  has  formerly  asserted.  Cf  '  to 
keep  one's  ain  threap  'Jam.  .  Stf.*  We'd  a  ret  good  argy  about  th' 
state  of  church  last  net  nw.Der.'  Shr.' Argue,  m.  We' ad'n  a  fine 
argj'  "bout  it,  'im  an'  me  ;  Shr.*  Getting  into  an  argy. 

{Argue,  vb.,  used  as  sb.] 

ARGUE,  i:  In  gen.  dial.  use.  Also  written  argy  Xhb.' 
Cum.'3  Wm.'  Chs.'  n.Lin.'  War.*  Shr.'  Brks."  Sur. 
nw.Dev.'  Cor.*;  argie  Sc.  Lan. ;  argay  N.I.'  :  arg  Nhp.* 
War.*  Hrf.»*  Glo.'  Oxf.'  Sus.'  Hmp.  Wil.'  Dor.  w.Som.' 
Cor.'*;  arge  Glo.;  arcg  Cor.  (^Grose,  C.)  ;  erger,  erg 
Pern.     [aTgi,  e  rgi,  a-gi,  ag.] 

1.  To  contend  in  words,  often  with  a  strong  sense  of 
contradiction  involved  ;  hence,  to  dispute,  wrangle ;  to 
arg  out,  to  get  the  last  word  in  an  argument ;  cf.  down- 

Rnf.,  Ayr..  Lnk.  Ye'll  argie  ither  fra  mom  ti'  nicht ;  ye're  never 
done  wi't  'Jam.  Suppl.^.  Ni'  You  would  argay  the  black  crow 
white.  Nhb.'  Cum.^  I  know  hoo  you  mak  o'  fwok  argies.  132, 
Wm.'  e.Yks.  .\h  sudn't  begin  to  arguy  wiv  him.  Wray  iXestleloH 
(1876)  69.  n-Lan.'  Tourist:  'It's  a  fine  morning.'— Rustic  :' Why, 
dud  I  say  it  wosn't !  dus'  ta  want  to  argie ! '  Chs.'  He  argid  till  he 
wur  black  i'  th'  face.  n.Lin.'  Nhp.*  Them  two  be  ollas  argin. 
War.*  Don't  argy  so.  You'd  arg  anybody  out  o'  their  wits. 
se.Wor.'  Shr.'  It  dunna  si'nify  talkin' ;  I  'ale  to  'ear  folks  argy 
throm  momin'  till  night  about  nuthin'.  Hrf.'  *  He  would  arg  me 
that  it  was  so.  s.Pem.  Laws  Little  Eng.  (i888^  420  ;  From  momin' 
to  night  he's  ergin'  av  her,  Brown  Hai'erfordwe^l  11882!  56.  Glo. 
Well,  then  they  arged  for  iver  so  long,  Bl'CKMAs  Darte's  Sojourn 
(1890"!  ii ;  Glo.'  Oxf  I  teld'n  'twas,  but  a  ai^'d  1  out  "t«-asn't 
(An  argument  is  seldom  more  than  a  succession  of  statements  and 
flat  contradictions;  as,  '  I  knows  'tis';  •  I  knows  chent')  Brks.' 
Snr.  Well  I  can't  argj-  it.  not  being  a  scholard,  Jennings  Field 
Paths  ^,I884^  137;  Sur.'  Sns.'  These  chapelfolks  always  u-ants 
to  arg.  Hmp.  They'd  harg  me  out  o'  my  Christian  name  J.R.W.). 
Wil.'  Dwoan't  'ee  arg  at  I  like  that!  I  tell  'ee  I  zeed  'un  !  wJ)or. 
Roberts  Hist.  Lyme  Reg.  ^  18341.  w.Som.'  He  wanted  vor  t'arg 
how  I  'adn  agot  no  right  vor  to  go  there,  but  I  wadn  gwain  vor  to 
be  a  downarg  by  he.  n.Dev.  Lord.  dame,  doant  agg  an'  argy 
zo.  Rock  Jim  an  Aell  (1867  st  6;  nwj>ev.'  Cor.'  He's  all'ays 
ready  to  argee  ;  Cor.* 

2.  To  be  of  weight  or  account  in  an  argument ;  hence, 
i  to  signify. 

1        Com.  See  how  blue  the  sky  is.  —That  doesn't  argy.     It  might  be 




better  with  never  a  blenk  of  blue,  Caine  Hagar{ieQi)  I.  45  ;  Cum.i 
It  doesn't  argy.  n.Dev.  Ott  dith  et  argy,  Dame,  to  roil.  Rock  Jim 
an   Nell  (1867)  st.  82. 

3.  To  show-testiness,  be  ill-tempered,  or  contentious  ;  to 
be  self-willed. 

Sus.  To  arg,  to  want  one's  own  way.  Don't  arg,  don't  be  cross 

4.  To  grumble. 
Som.    G.A.W.) 

Hence  Arging,  vbl.  sb.  and  ppl.  adj.  arguing. 

Der.=,  War.2 

[1.  I'll  arg,  as  I  did  now,  for  credance  againe,  Heywood 
Spider  fir'  Flie  (Nares)  ;  Quath  Actyf  \o  al  angryliche 
and  argueynge  as  hit  were,  What  is  pouerte  pacient  ? 
P.  Plowman  (c.)  xvii.  115.] 

ARGUFICATION,  sb.     Nhp.  Shr.  Hrf.     [agifike'Jsn.] 

1.  Dispute. 

2.  Significance,  import. 

Nhp. 1  There's  no  argufication  in  that.    Hrf.i  Of  no  argufication. 

3.  Investigation.     ?  Obs. 

Shr.2     [Not  l^nown  to  our  correspondents.] 

[Deriv.  from  argufy,  q.v.,  with  suff.  -ation,  after  the 
analogy  oi  signification  from  signify?^ 

ARGUFY,  V.  In  gen.  dial.  use.  Also  written  argify 
Wm.i  w.Yks.2  Chs.'  Stf.*  Lin.  War.^  se.Wor.>  Glo.'  Bdf. 
Nrf.  Ken.  Sun'  Sus.'  Dor.  w.Som."  Dev.'  nw.Dev.' ; 
arguify  Sus.° ;  argeefy  Con' ;  arguefy  Ess.  Som.  See 
below.     [aTgifai,  a'gifai,  a'gifoi.] 

1.  To  argue,  dispute;  to  wrangle. 

Gall.  But  we  talked  to  him  an'  argufied  wi'  him,  Crockett  Popish 
Parson  (1896).  Ir.  You  might  as  well  be  argufyin'  wid  a  scutty- 
wren.  Barlow  Lisconnel  (1895)  151.  Wm.',  n.Yks.'  w.Yks.' 
Wheniwer  I've  argified  wi'  em,  ii.  319  ;  w.Yks. ^  Lan.  Hoo's  a 
rare  un  fur  gab  when  hoo  taks  th'  notion,  an'  I'm  noan  so  mich 
i'  th'  humour  t'argufy  mysen  to-day,  Burnett  Loivrie's  (1877)  ii. 
Chs.'  What,  tha  wants  for  t'argify,  dost  ta  ?  Stf.2  Oi  wunnar 
argifoi  wi  ya,  mester,  bar  oim  sartin  oim  reit.  Not ',  n.Lin.i,  Lei.' 
Nhp.'  Don't  argufy  with  me  any  longer.  War.  (J.R.W.) ;  War.23 
Shr.'  It's  no  use  yo'  to  argufy,  for  yo'n  never  mak  me  believe  to  the 
contrairy.  Glo.  I  be'unt  the  man  to  argify  with  'e  about  a  body, 
GissiNG  Both  of  this  Parish  (1889)  I.  19.  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Ken. 
My  poor  old  aed's  dat  addle  I  can'  argify,  not  no  sheap !  Ef  erra  won 
6v  my  little  uns  want  to  argify  [dispute  my  authority]  I  jest  gin 
'im  a  tidy  spat,  an'  dat  shets  'im  up  an'  done  wid  it!  (A.M.)  Sus.2 
s.Hmp.  Well,  we  needn't  argufy  it,  Verney  L.  Lisle  (1870)  viii. 
w.Dor.  Rot«ERTs //ts^.  Lyme  Reg.  (i834\  Som.  Jennings Ois.  Dial. 
w.Eng.  (1825).  w.Sora.'  Tuur'ubl  fuulur  t-aargifuy,  ee  oa'n 
niivur  gee  ee-n  [terrible  fellow  for  arguing,  he  will  never  give  in]. 
More  frequentative  than  '  arg.'  Dev.  'Tidden  no  use  tii  argify  no 
longer.^I  tellee  'tez,  then,  an'  there's  an  end  o't!  Hewett  Peas.  Sp. 
(1892  I  ;    Dev.',  nw.Dev.',  Cor.'     [Amer.  Bartlett.] 

2.  To  prove,  be  of  weight  as  an  argument ;  hence,  to 

Wm.'  e.Yks.l  That  ahgifyes  nowt.  w.Yks.',  neXan.',  Not.' 
n.Lin.  It  duzn't  argify  what  foaks  says.  I  mean  to  ware  my  awn 
addlin's  just  as  I  like  (M.P.);  n.Lin.'  It  duzn't  argyfy  what  his 
faayther  was  es  long  es  he's  a  punct'al  man.  Lei.'  That  doon't 
argifoy  nothink.  Nhp.'  What  does  that  argufy?  War.  (J.R.W.), 
War.3,  se.Wor.'  Shr.2  Whod  argufies  a  haggling  a  thisn.  Hrf.2 
It  does  not  argufy.  What  thee  says  don't  argufy.  Glo.' ;  Glo.'' It 
don't  argufy.  Brks.'  What  a  chap  like  that  ther  zes  dwoant  argivy 
nothun'.  Bdf.  It  argifies  nothing  [it  is  a  matter  of  no  consequence], 
B\icyir.i.OK  Anal.  Eug.  Lan.  {i&og\  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  e.An.' What 
does  that  argufy  ?  Ess.  Month.  Mag.  (1814")  I.  498.  Sur.'  It  don't 
argify  much  which  way  you  do  it.  Sus.'  I  do'ant  know  as  it  argi- 
fies much  whether  I  goos  to-day  or  whether  I  goos  to-morrow  ; 
Sus.2,  Hmp.'  CoUoq.  What  argufies  sniv'ling  and  piping  your  eye? 
DiBDiN  Poor  Jack  (c.  1800)  2,  ed.  1864.     [Amer.  Bartlett.] 

Hence  (i)  Argufying,  i;W.  sb.  disputing,  arguing;  (2) 
Argufyment,  sb.  an  argument,  dispute. 

(I)  Ir.  .She  admonished  her  friends  to  come  in  wid  themselves  and 
nevermind  argufying,  Barlow  Idylls  (1892')  loi.  n.Yks.'  He's 
ower  fond  o'  argufying;  n.Yks.^  'Nrf.  It's  no  use  argifying  with 
a  vvumman.  Spilling  Molly  Miggs  (1873')  13.  [Amer.  I  listen  to  a 
preacher,  and  try  to  be  better  for  his  argufying,  Bartlett.]  (2)  Ir. 
Folks  risin'  argyfyments  about  blathers  and  nonsinse.  Barlow 
Idylls  (1892)  197  ;  I  believe  they'd  raise  an  argufyment  about  the 
stars  in  the  sky,  ib.  180. 

[1.  I  have  no  learning,  no,  not  I,  Nor  do  pretend  to 
argufy.  Combe  Dr.  Synta.x,  II.  v ;  For  my  peart,  measter, 
I  can  neither  see  nor  hear,  much  less  argufy,  when  I'm 
in  such  a  quandery,  Smollett  Sir  L.  Greaves,  viii. 
Argue,  vb. -f-/v',  prob.  fn  assoc.  with  signify^ 

ARGY,  sb.  Shn  Mtg.  [a-gi.]  An  embankment  to 
protect  low-lying  waterside  meadows  from  floods. 

Shr.'  A  place  near  Kinnersley— a  raised  bank  with  a  plantation 
of  poplars  and  other  trees,  having  a  small  brook,  the  '  strine,'  on 
one  side,  and  a  ditch  on  the  other — is  called  by  the  people  of  that 
neighbourhood  'the  argy';  Shr.^  Argy,  an  embankment  betwixt 
Melverly  and  Llanymynech,  which  was  constructed  as  a  pro- 
tection against  the  overflowings  of  the  Severn.  ...  It  is  five  feet 
across  the  top,  and  varies  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  in  height  above 
the  average  level  of  the  meadows  on  the  waterside.  Mtg.  The 
argy  extends  along  the  Severn  from  Pool  Quay  to  Melverly,  and 
unless  it  gives  way,  the  adjoining  meadows  are  preserved  by  it 
from  beingswamped  when  the  Severn  is  in  flood  (J.S.L.). 

[W.  argae,  a  stoppage,  a  dam.] 

ARIGHT,  adv.     Sc.  n.Yks.     [sri'xt,  arit.]     Rightly. 

Sc.  His  hame  Pegasus,  held  wi'  straw-raip  reins,  Aye  jogged 
aricht  an'  kept  his  name  frae  stains,  Allan  Lilts  (1874)  142.  Gall. 
He  was  aware  that  all  men  did  not  act  aright  on  every  occasion, 
Crockett  Stickit  Min.  (1893)  12.  n.Yks.  An  ondersteead  areet, 
Castillo  Poems  (1878)  52. 

{A-,  on-l-  right,  sb.] 

ARIGHT,  V.  Lan.  [arl't.]  Of  a  boat :  to  right,  to 
cause  to  recover  its  proper  position. 

Lan.  Heard  at  Liverpool  l,F.H.). 

[A  vbl.  use  oi  aright,  adv.] 

ARISE,  adv.     Nhp.     [arai's.]     Crosswise. 

Nhp.'  A  square  piece  of  wood  cut  diagonally  would  be  said  to  be 
*  cut  a-rise.' 

[This  is  the  same  word  as  arris,  q.v. ;  for  the  advb.  use 
cp.  arris-wise,  so  as  to  present  a  sharp  edge,  diagonally, 
ridge-wise  (N.E.D.).] 

ARISH,  see  Arris,  Arrish. 

ARK,  si.'  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf. 
Den  Lin.  Also  in  Hrt.  Also  written  airk  Cum.';  aire 
Nhb.'     [erk,  ark,  ak.] 

1.  A  receptacle,  usually  a  large  wooden  chest,  made  to 
contain  flour,  corn,  fruit,  clothes,  &c. 

Sc.  My  auldest  brither  Sandy  was  a"  but  smoored  in  the  meal  ark 
hiding  frae  thae  limmers.  Chambers  Po/>.  i?/rv»;tfs(  1870)  72;  Good- 
wife  gae  to  your  butcer  ark,  And  weigh  us  here  ten  mark,  ib. 
168  ;  What  are  we  to  eat  ourselves  .  .  .  when  we  hae  sent  awa 
the  haill  meal  in  the  ark  and  the  girnel  ?  Scott  Old Moiiality  {1816) 
xix.  Lnk.  He  had  an  old  meal  ark  before  him  as  a  table,  Fraser 
IVhaiips  (1895' viii.  N.Cy.'  ^  Nhb.'  A  meal  ark  is  still  the  name  given 
to  a  meal-chest  in  country  places.  Arks  were  made  of  oak,  and  con- 
tained the  family  dresses.  The  front  was  often  ornamented  with 
carved  borders  and  joined  with  wooden  pins.  Cum.*  A  meal  ark. 
Wm.  [Black  arks]  are  often  used  as  repositories  for  haver  cakes, 
Dcnhayn  Tracts  (ed.  1895)  II.  96  ;  We  liae  baith  meal  en  maut  ith 
ark,  Wheeler  i5;'fl/.  (1790')  40;  A  think  he'd  hcd  his  heead  i'tmeeal 
ark,  Clarke  5/>«c.£>/a/.  (1868}  16,  ed.  1877;  Wm.'  Yks.  The  black 
ark  was  a  ponderous  piece  of  oaken  furniture  about  six  feet  in 
length  and  three  in  depth  ;  the  inside  was  usually  divided  into 
two  parts  [formerly  used  to  hold  clothes,  now  flour,  &c.].  If  you 
go  to  the  black-ark,  bring  me  out  x  mark.  Ten  mark,  x  pound, 
throw  it  down  upon  the  ground,  Hagmena  Song  in  Denham  Tracts 
(ed.  1895)  II.  96.  n.Yks.2  Meeal-ark,  or  meeal-kist,  the  flour  bin. 
Formerly  seen  as  a  fixture  in  large  old  farm-houses,  built  of  stone 
slabs  on  the  ground-floor.  ne.Yks.'  Obs.  e.Yks.  Ark,  a  sort 
of  moveable  granary,  Marshall  Piir.  Econ.  (1788}.  m.Yks.i 
w.Yks.  Grose  11790)  MS.  add.  (P.);  A  meal-ark,  clothes-ark 
fJ.T.)  ;  w.Yks.'  Meol,  at  I  fetch'd  out  o't  ark,  ii.  300  ;  w.Yks.^^* 
Lan.'  Apple  arks,  Hir.soN  Goiion  Hist.  Recorder  ^I852)  12; 
She  had  secreted  a  small  quantity  of  tea  in  her  meal  ark,  ib.  14. 
Go  an  treyd  t'meal  into  th'  ark.  ne.Lan.'  Chs.'  The  chest  in 
which  oats  are  kept  in  a  stable  is  always  called  a  '  curn-ark  ' ;  Chs.^ 
Ark,  formerly  called  a  standard  ;  a  flour  ark.  These  arks  are 
often  elaborately  carved,  and  sometimes  contain  secret  drawers, 
s. Chs.' A  compartment  in  a  granary.  Often  called  '  curn-ark.'  Sd.' 
A  large  oblong  box  or  chest,  divided  into  compartments,  generally 
two,  for  keeping  corn,  meal,  &c.  Goo  an  fatch  me  a  hantle  u  corn 
out  uth'  ark.  Der.  Just  get  off  o'  that  ark.  .  .  .  She  lifted  up  the 
great  carved  lid,  Vernev  Stone  Edge  '^1868)  ii;   Der.';   Der.' Ark, 




a  chest ;  hence  the  name  of  Arkwriglit.  nw.Der.'  n.Lln.  Obs.  or 
obsol.  (E.P.) ;  n.Hn.'  Apple-ark,  Ark.    Hrt.  Ellis  Cy.  Hsu/.  (1750). 

[Ark,  a  country  word  for  a  large  chest  to  put  fruit  or 
corn  in.  Kersey  ;  An  ark,  a  large  chest  to  put  iViiit  or  corn 
in,  WoRLiDGE  Sys/.  Affiic.  {1681) ;  Coffre,  a  cotter,  chest, 
hutch,  ark,  Cotgr.  ;  Quen  this  corn  to  the  kniht  was  said 
He  did  it  in  an  arc  to  hald,  Melr.  Hoin.  (c.  1325)  141. 
OE.  earc,  Lat.  nrca.] 

ARK,  5A.2  Rut.  Hrf  Ess.  Also  written  arc  Hrf" 
Ess.  [ak.]  Clouds  in  lines  converging  to  two  points  on 
opposite  parts  of  the  sky.     See  Noah's  ark. 

Rut'  They  say  when  you  see  the  hark  it  mostly  tokens  rain. 
Hrf.  Bound  Prov.  (1876);  Hrf.' A  mare's-tail  cloud;  Hrf.=  Seen 
in  the  morning  and  evening  only  on  rare  occasions.  Found  only 
in  Upton  Bishop  among  very  old  people.  Ess.  The  ark  uorn'tout, 
no  clouds  appear'd,  Clark  y.  Noakes  (1839)  11  ;  Gl.  (1851);  Ess.' 

ARK,  sb.^  Sc.  The  masonry  in  which  the  water- 
wheel  of  a  mill  moves. 

Abtl.  This  name  is  in  common  use  (W.M.).  Per.  At  the  foot  of 
the  ark,  where  the  water  leaves  the  wheel,  we  used  to  be  certain 
of  trouts  when  guddling  1 G.  W.V 

ARL,  sh.  Won  Shr.  Hrf.  Rdn.  GIo.  Also  written 
orl  s.Wor.>  Shr.''  Hrf.=  Rdn.  Glo.' ;  aul  Hrf.' ;  harrul  Glo.' 
[al,  61.] 

1.  'Ihe  aider,  Aliuis ghitiitosa. 

w.Wor.',  s.Wor.'  Shr.^  Orl,  exclusively  confined  to  Hrf.  side. 
Hrf.'  When  the  bud  of  the  aul  is  as  big  as  the  trout's  eye  Then  that 
fish  is  in  season  in  the  river  Wye  ;  Hrf.^  Rdn.  Morgan  IVds 
(1881).  Glo.'  The  berries  of  [the  arl  or  orle]  are  used  medicinally 
for  boils  and  gatherings.  A  quart  of  berries  is  stewed  in  two  or 
three  quarts  of  water  and  simmered  down  to  three  pints.  A  little 
more  liquorice  is  added  to  give  an  agreeable  flavour.  The  dose  is 
a  wineglassful  in  the  morning. 

2.  Coiiip.  Arl-timber,  the  wood  of  the  alder,  also  attrib.; 
-tree.  -wood. 

Hrf.  Tlie  gardener  says  the  wood  is  called  arl-timber  (S.S.B.V 
Glo.  Orle-timber,  coppice  wood,  border  wood  (H  T.E.) ;  The  maid 
servant  from  the  Cotswolds  says  that  certain  trees  are  known  as  orl- 
timber  trees,  and  when  cut  down  are  known  as  orl-timber.  She 
says  the  alder  is  not  called  orl-tree.  but  orl-timber  tree  (.S.S.B.). 
Hrf.  Arl-tree  (iA.\    Glo.  Orl-wood,  the  timber  of  the  alder  (16.). 

ARLE,  V.  Sc.  n.Irel.  Nhb.  Yks.  Also  written  earle 
Yks. ;  yearl  Nhb.' ;  airle  N.I.'     [erl,  yerl,  al.] 

1.  To  bind  by  paj'ment  of  money,  to  give  earnest-money 
as  '  clincher'  to  a  bargain,  to  engage  for  service,  secure. 

Sc.  Arle,  to  put  a  piece  of  money  into  the  hand  of  a  seller,  at 
entering  upon  a  bargain,  as  a  security  that  he  shall  not  sell  to 
another,  while  he  retains  the  money  (Jam.).  Per.  Are  you  feed, 
lassie?— Yes,  I  was  erled  an  hour  ago  (G.W.).  N.I.'  Nhb.  Aw 
move  that  when  wor  Vicar  dees,  the  place  for  him  be  arid.  Oliver 
ioffl/ 5»^5.  (1824)9  ;  Nhb.' What  did  the  misses  arle  ye  wi  ?— She 
ga'  me  two  shillin'.  Yks.  To  arle  or  earle  a  bargain,  to  close  it. 
Grose  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.) 

Hence  Arling,  nbl.  sb. 

Per.  The  custom  of  arling  is  common  here  (G.W.). 

2.  To  earn. 

3.  Ironically  :  to  beat  severely,  cf.  arles,  3. 


[She  arled  him  for  her  groom,  bridegroom,  She  arlcd 
him  for  her  groom,  Broom,  Green  Broom  (Nhb.').  Deriv. 
of  ar/es,  sb.  (q.v.).] 

ARLES,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  Lan.  and 
Lin.  Also  written  airles  N.I.'  ;  arls  w.  Yks.*  ;  alls  N.Cy.' ; 
erles  Nhb.'  Lin.;  erls  Yks  ;  earls  Irel.  vv.Yks.*  Lan. 
n.Lin.';  earles  N.I.'  N.Cy.'^  Dur.  Cum.  Yks.  n.Yks.^ 
w.Yks.'  Lan.;  erl,  earle  \Vm. ;  yearles  N.Cy.'  Lan.; 
yearls  Cum. ;  yerls  Cum.  Wm.  ;  arless  w.Yks.  [erlz, 
eTslz,  yerlz,  alz.] 

1.  Money  paid  on  striking  a  bargain  in  pledge  of  future 
fulfilment,  esp.  that  given  to  a  servant  when  hired;  earnest- 
money  ;  alsoyfjo'. 

Sc.  A  piece  of  money  put  into  the  hands  of  a  seller  ...  as  a  pledge 
[thathe]  shall  not  strikea  bargain  with  another,  while  he  retains  Ihe 
arles  in  ifiishand  iJam.1;  Aries  ran  high,  but  makings  were  nacthing, 
man,  Hogg  Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  I.  loa  ;  He  had  refused  the  devil's  arles 
(for  such  was  the  offer  of  meat  and  drink).  Scott  Rtdg.  (1824)  xi. 
Inv.fH.E.F.)     Rnf.  Jack  was  selling  I'ate  some  tallow..  . . '  Done  !  ' 

quo'  Pate,  and  syne  his  erls  Nail'd  the  Dryster's  waukedloof  [palm], 
Wilson  IVally  and  Mrg  (1792)  7,  Newc.  ed.  Ayr.  An'  name  the 
arles  an'  the  fee  In  legal  mode  an'  form.  Burns  (1786)  132 ;  Their 
demeanour  towards  me  was  as  tokens  and  arles  of  being  continued 
in  respect  and  authority,  GALT/'>iovoi/(i822)  xxviii.  Lnk.  He  turn'd 
his  rosy  cheek  about,  and  then,  ere  1  could  trow,  The  widdifu'  o* 
wickedness  took  arles  o'  my  mou,  Motherwell  Sitg.  (1827)  242. 
e.Lth.  It's  no  ower  late  for  him  to  tak  back  his  arles  to  the  tither 
side.  Hunter  J.  /nwick  {1895)  194.  Gall.  Here's  a  silver  merk, 
for  the  King's  arles,  and  here's  Sergeant  Armstrong's  file  wi' 
twal  unce  o'  the  best  lead  bullets,  Crockett  7?aiV/fr5  (1894)  xliv. 
Ir.  Where's  my  footin',  masther?  Where's  my  arles!  Carleton 
Fardorougha  (1848)  i.  Ant.  In  hiring  a  ser\ant,  for  buying  a  cow, 
load  of  hay,  &c.,  you  give  a  .shilling  or  half-a-crown  as  'earls,'  to 
make  the  bargain  sure,  Ballyiiieiia  Obs.  (189a).  N.I.',  N.Cy.'* 
Nhb.'  In  hiring  servants,  any  bargain  made  between  master 
and  servant  was  accounted  void,  before  entry  into  servitude, 
if  arles  had  not  been  offered  and  accepted.  Nhb.  &  Dur.  Aries, 
earnest  money,  formerly  given  to  men  and  boys  when  hired 
at  the  bindings,  Greenwell  Coal.  Tr.  Gl.  (1849).  Cnm.&Wm. 
Servants  return  the  arles,  when,  after  being  hired,  they  cliange  their 
mind.  What!  she's  sent  t'yerls  back  !  (M.P.)  Wm.  In  Appleby 
within  recent  years  the  hirings  were  opened  by  the  charter  being 
read  at  the  Cross,  after  which  bargains  clinched  with  the  'yerls' 
were  binding  on  man  and  master  (B.K.>.  Yks.  Give  me  earles 
[or  God's-penny](K.).  n.Yks.' Aries,  or  Festing-penny.  ne.Yks.* 
Aries,  money,  [ranging]  from  as.  to  S-i!.  w.Yks.  Hutton  Tour 
to  Caves  (1781);  w.Yks.'  Butcher  Roberts  put  eearlcs  into  my 
hand,  an  bad  me  ten  pund  neen  for  him,  ii.  289 ;  w.Yks.- 
Erles,  money  given  to  a  clergjmian  when  first  engaged  ;  w.Yks.*, 
Lan.',  ne.Lan.',  Lin.  (K.)  n.Lin.' Aries  (obsol.).  [This  money  is 
returned  by  the  seller  of  farm  produce  to  the  buyer  on  payment] 
as  luck  or  '  to'n-agean '  (s.v.  To'n  agean^.  Thomas  Sheppaid, 
John  O.xley,  and  David  Hill  took  12  acres  a  roods  of  wheat  at 
85.  6d.  per.  acre,  and  2S.  6d.  for  earls.  Noithorpe  Fatttt  Ace.  1789. 

2.  A  gift  to  servants  from  a  visitor ;  a  '  vail,"  a  '  tip.' 
Yks.  (K.) 

3.  Phr.  lo  give  any  one  his  arks,  to  give  any  one  his 
deserts,  freq.  applied  to  a  beating. 

Inv.  To  gie  ane  his  arles  (H.E.F.).  Bnff.'  A'U  gee  ye  yir  arles, 
my  boy,  gehn  ye  dinna  baud  yir  tung. 

4.  Camp.  Aries-penny,  Arral-shilling. 

Ayr.  Vour  proffer  o'  luve's  an  airle-penny.  My  Tocher's  the 
bargain  ye  wad  buy,  Burns  My  Tocher's  the  Jeiiel  \  1794).  Lnk.  And 
this  is  but  an  arle  penny  To  what  I  afterward  design  j-e,  Ramsey 
Poems  (1721)  II.  561,  ed.  1800  (Jam.).  N.Cy.'*,  Wm.  (B.K.) 
n.Yks.'  Aries-penny,  God's  penny,  Festing-penny.  w.Yks.',  Der.', 
nw.Der.'  w.Yks.  Arral-shilling  is  common  where  statute  hirings  are 
held  (B.K.). 

[1.  ArgenUim  Dei  .  .  .  Money  given  in  earnest  of  a 
bargain  :  in  Lincolnshire  called  Erles  or  Aries,  Blount 
Law  Diet.  (1691)  ;  pis  ure  lauerd  jiue?  ham  as  on  erles  of 
jie  eche  mede  [lat  schal  cume  [lerafter,  Ha/i  M.  (c.  1220)  7. 
4.  Aries  penny,  earnest-money  given  to  servants,  or  in 
striking  any  bargain,  Bailey  (1755);  Aries  penny, 
earnest-money  given  to  servants  when  they  are  first  hired, 
Bailey  (1721);  Glossograpliia  (i-jo-j).] 

ARLICH,  adj.  Sc.  (Jam.)  Also  written  arlitch.  Sore, 
fretted,  painful. 


[Arr  (a.  scar),  q.v. -f -?/(//  (Eng.  -ty).] 

ARLIES,  )•;//.     Chs.     [a  liz.] 

s.Chs.  If  one  boy  werechasinganother,andthelattercried 'arlies,' 
he  would  expect  to  be  allowed  a  little  breatliing  space  before  the 
chase  was  resumed  (T.  D. ) ;  s.Chs.' 

ARLING,  si!».    Nhb.     Earnest-money.    Cf.  arles,  s6. 1. 

Nhb.  He'  ye  getten  yor  arlin  ?  Hoo  much  lies  she  gi'en  ye  for 
arlin!  (R.O.H.) ;  Nhb.'  The  arlin  is  sometimes  called  'the  bond- 
money'  (s.v.  Arle). 

[A  vbl.  sb.  fr.  arle,  vb.] 

ARLY-BONE,  56.    Brks.    The  hip-bone  of  a  pig. 

m3rks.  The  '  arly  bwun  '  is  known  in  all  farm-houses.  It  is 
taken  off  the  ham  before  the  latter  goes  to  be  cured,  and  is 
roasted  soon  after  the  pig-killing  (B.L.).  s.Brks.  Here  the  name 
'  early  bone  '  is  in  common  use  1  M.  I.B.).      Brks.' 

ARM,  s6.'    Chs.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.  Wor.  e.An.  Wil.  Dor. 
Som.  Dev.     [am.] 
1.  The   axle,  the  iron  upon  which   the   wheel   of  any 
vehicle  turns. 




Chs.'  Formerly  the  arms  were  simply  a  continuation  of  the 
wooden  axle  ;  now  they  are  invariably  made  of  iron  and  are  let 
into  each  end  of  the  thick  wooden  axle.  n.Lin.',  Nhp.^,  War. 
(J.R.W.),  se.Wor.i  guf.  A  wooden  axle-tree  with  iron  arms. 
An  axle-tree  of  iron,  arms  and  all  (F.H.).  Wil.  Morton  Cyclo. 
Ai;iic.  (1863  ■).  Dor.  Off  came  the  wheels,  and  down  <"ell  the  carts  ; 
and  they  found  there  was  no  linch-pins  in  the  arms,  Hardy  IVess. 
T<iles{i888)  II.  186.  w.Som.t  Dhu  weel  km  oaf,  un  dh-aa-rm  oaun 
wuz  u-broa-kt  rait  oa'f  [the  wheel  came  off,  and  its  axle  was 
broken  right  off].     nw.Dev.l 

2.  The  spoke  or  radius  of  any  large  wheel ;  the  beam  of 
a  windmill  to  which  the  sail  is  fixed. 

w.Som.i  [The  arm  of]  a  water-wheel,  or  the  fly-wheel  of  a  steam- 
engine.  The  entire  motive  power  of  a  windmill — i.e.  each  of  the 
four  great  beams,  with  all  the  apparatus  fixed  to  it— is  called  the 

3.  A  trowel. 


4.  Comb,  (i)  Armhy  nnii.  (2)  arm  and  crook,  (3)  arm-in- 
crook,  (4)  ami-in-lmk,  (a  arm-in-arm,  freq.  applied  to 
the  wallijng  together  of  couples  in  the  courting  stage ; 
(b)  on  familiar  terms,  cf  '  hand-and-glove' ;  (5)  bend  of  the 
arm,  the  elbow  ;  (6)  hand-in-arm,  arm-in-arm  ;  (7)  to  bend 
the  arm,  to  drink,  cf.  '  to  lift  the  elbow  '  ;  (8)  to  make  a  long 
arm,  to  reach  ;  (9)  to  wish  your  arm  from  your  elbow,  see 

(i)  Lin.  Lots  o'  lads  and  lasses,  all  aSrm  by  aerm.  Brown  Lit. 
Laiir.  (1890)9.  (2)  Dor.  Tidden  no  good  vor  a  maidto  walkarm-an'- 
crook  wi'thelikes  o'he.  Hake  Vtll.  Street {i8c)5)  iir.  Som. 'Tessaid 
theydowalkarman'crookup'pon  hill  a'most  every  day  o'  their  lives, 
Raymond  iow  (iwrf  Quiet  Lije  iiSg^)  208.  Dev.^  (31  Dor.  Then 
they  went  arm-in-crook,  like  courting  complete,  Hardy  Madding 
Clr)wd{l8■].^)  xxxiii.  (4)0115.' (a)  He's  goin  arm-i'-link  wi' ahr  Polly. 
(b)  He's  arm-i'-link  wi'  him.  (5)  w.Yks.  '  Bend  o'  t'arm  '  is  common 
for  elbow-joint,  Leeds  Mere.  Siippt.  (May  2,  1891)  ;  Bend  of  the 
arm,  common  in  Ossett  (M.F.).  i6)  w.Yks.^  Hand  i'  airm.  (7) 
Slang.  He  was  busy  arm  bending  in  the  public-house  when  the 
tattoo  sounded  (A.S.P.).  (8)  w.Yks.^  To  mak' a  long  airm.  (9 
n.Yks.2  They'll  shak  ye  by  t'hand  an  wish  your  airm  off  by  t'elbow 
[will  give  you  the  hand,  but  with  no  good  will  at  heart,  as  hollow 
friends  do]. 

5.  Camp.  (1)  Arm-bend  ;  (2)  -lede,  the  direction  of  the  out- 
stretched arm  ;  (3)  -load  ;  (4)  -poke,  the  arm-pit ;  (5)  -rax, 
see  Armiwist;  (6)  -set,  the  setting  of  the  coat-sleeve,  the 
arm-pit  ;  (7)  -shot  ;  (8)  -skep;  (9)  -skew,  see  Arm-twist ; 
(10)  -strength,  the  muscularity  of  the  arm  ;  (11)  -stretch; 
(12)  -twist;  (13)  -wrist,  the  wrist. 

n.Yks.2  I  i^  Airm-bend,  the  elbow-joint.  (2)  This  mun  be  3'our 
way  by  airmlede  [by  the  road  to  which  lam  pointing].  (3)  Airm- 
looad,  Airmleead,  an  armful.  (4)  Suf.  Under  the  left  arm-poke 
place  a  swaler's  hart  and  a  liver  under  the  rite.  Garland  (1818)  9. 
n.Yks.^  (5)  Airmrax.  (6)  It  nips  at  t'airm-set.  (7)  Airmshot. 
arm's  length.  m.Yks.'  n.Yks.^  1 8)  Airmskep,  a  coarse  twig 
basket  without  a  bow,  carried  under  the  arm.  (9)  Airmskew, 
a  sprain  of  the  arm.  (10)  Foorced  by  airm  strength,  (ri)  Airm- 
stritch,  the  effort  of  the  arms,  as  at  a  rowing  match.  (12) 
Airmtwist,  a  sprain  of  the  arm.  (13)  w.Som.>  He  tookt  hold  o' 
my  arm-wrist.  Dev.  Whot's  the  matter  wi'  tha  babby  ? — I  can't 
ezackally  say,  but  'e  zims  tfl  be  a-scrammed  in's  arm-wrist. 
Luketh's  ef 'e'd  a-broked  'n,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892).     Cor.' 

[2.  Les  rayeres  d'un  moidin  a  eatt,  the  arms,  or  starts 
of  a  wheel  of  a  water-mill,  Cotgr.]^    Sh.I.     The  end,  as  of  a  line. 

S.&  Ork.i 

ARM,  V.  Irel.  Som.  Dev.  [am.]  To  conduct  by 
walking  arm-in-arm  with  ;  to  walk  arm-in-arm. 

n.Ir.  Arm  is  frequently  used  facetiously,  '  I'll  arm  you,'  i.e.  give 
you  a  lift, set  you  on  your  way,  though  the  necessity  for  help  may  be 
imaginary  and  assumed  iM.B.-S.)  ;  N.I.'  Ant.  There  they  go  arm- 
ing along  (J.S.).  w.Som.'  Zo  your  Jim's  gwain  to  have  th'  old 
Ropy's  maid  arter  all.— No,  he  idn.  —  Oh,  idn  er  ?  well.  I  zeed-n 
a-armin  o'  her  about,  once,  my  own  zul,  last  Zunday  night  as  ever 
was.     nw.Dev.l 

[To  arm  her  to  her  lawyer's  chambers,  Wycherley 
Plain  Dealer  (\6y^)  (N.E.D.).] 

ARM,  see  Haiilm. 

ARM-HOLE,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Not.  Lei.  War.  Won 
Oxf     The  arm-pit. 

Yks.  In^g-™.  use  'J.W.).     Chs.',  s.Clis."     Stf.=  Moi  col  dunna  fit 

very  well  under  th'  armhole.  Not.',  Lei.',  War.^,  Wor.  (J.W.P.), 
Oxf.i  MS.  add. 

[Arm-hole,  the  hollow  under  the  arm,  Bailey  (1755) ; 
The  arm-pit  or  arm-hole,  ala,  a.xilla,  Robertson  (1693) ; 
Armehole,  aiscella,  Palsgr.  ;  Gemini  (hath)  thyn  arm- 
holes,  Chaucer  Astrot.  1.  xxi.] 

ARMING-CHAIR,  sb.     Cum.     An  arm-chair. 

Cum.  When  he'd  gotten  hissel  clapptdoon  iv  a  grand  armin-chair, 
Sargisson  Joe  Scoap  (1881)  i88.  Wm.  &  Cum.'  This  armin  chair 
I'll  meake  my  scet,  294. 

ARMSTRONG,  sb.  Sus.  A  name  for  the  plant 
usually  called  knot-grass  Polygonum  aviciilare. 

[So  called  1  from  the  difficulty  of  pulling  it  up. 

ARMSTRONG,  adv.    e.An.    Arm-in-arm. 


ARMTLE,  5^-.     Chs.  Stf     [amtl.]     An  armful. 

s  Chs.'  I  brought  dain  a  hooalarmtle  o'  ballets  to  bootfs.  v.  Deck^. 
s.Stf.  Oi  went  a-lTzin  [i.e.  gleaning]  dhis  mornin  an  got  a  armtl 
(A.  P.). 

[For  the  suff.  -tie  cp.  apperntle.] 

ARN,  sb.     Sc.     The  alder-tree. 

Sc.i  Jam.  ),  Bnff.  iW.  M.)  Abd.  The  name  '  arn  '  is  better  known 
perhaps  than  the  alder  (G.  W.  1  ;  There  was  a  place  called  Ferniord, 
from  fearna-ord,  the  height  of  the  alders  or  arns,  these  trees 
being  still  remembered  by  old  people  as  growmg  at  the  place, 
^ACDON ALT)  Ptaee  Names  in  Straf/ittogie  iiSgi  ]  192.     Edb.  (J.M.^ 

[The  aller  or  arne  ...  is  also  found  in  marshy  places, 
Newte  Tour  (1791)  (N.E.D.).  Prob.  repr.  UE.  a'lren,  adj., 
fr.  alor,  alder.] 

ARN,  see  Awn,  Urn. 

ARNACK,  see  Neck. 

ARNARY,  see  Ordinary. 

ARNBERRIES,  sb.  pi.     Yks.     Obsol.     Raspberries. 

ARNOT,  sb.^  Sc.  Also  written  arnit,  arnet.  A 

Abd.  Arnot  is  well  known  here  iW. M.i  ;  Or  on  the  Inches  rant 
and  sport  on  ilka  verdant  spot.  Or  fish  for  bandies,  arnits.  eels  in 
ilka  wee  bit  pot,  Cadenhead  Ftiglits  of  Fancy  (1853)  Onr  Atdd 

ARNOT,  sb?-  Sc.  [e'rnat.]  In  phr.  lea  arnot,  a  stone 
lying  in  the  field  (Jam.). 

Abd.  '  Be  ye  gweed  deevil,  be  ye  ill  deevil,'  cried  Flccman  with 
much  indignant  energy,  '  I'se  \xy  you  wi'  a  lea  arnot,'  and  com- 
menced to  pelt  the  'archangel  ruined,'  Jamie  Fteeman,  51,  ed. 

ARNS,  sb.     Obs.     n.Cy.     Earnest-money. 


[The  Hooli  Goost  of  biheest,  which  is  the  ernes  of  oure 
eritage,  Wyclif  (1388)  Eph.  i.  14.  Cp.  Wcl.  ernes  ('  arrha '), 
borrowed  fr.  E.] 

ARNUT,  see  Earth-nut. 

ARON,  sb.  Plant-name  applied  to  (i)  Arum  macu- 
latmn  (Sc.)  ;  (2)  Richardia  aethiopica,  or  Arum  lily  (Wei.) 

Rxb.  Aron,  the  plant  called  Wake-robin,  or  Cuckoo's  pint  Jam.). 

[(i)  Aron,  Wake-Robin,  Cuckoe-pint,  Coles  (1677);  The 
roots  of  aron,  and  mixt  with  wheat-bran.  Burton  Anal.  Mel. 
(1621)  462,  ed.  1836;  Aron,  the  herb  Aron,  Cuckoe-pint 
.  .  .  Pied  de  veau.  Calves-foot,  Ramp,  Aaron,  Cuckoe-pint, 
Cotgr.  (2)  Take  Aron  roote,  Gabelhouer's  Bk.  Physic 
(1599)  183  (N.E.D.).  Gr.  apov,  cp.  Lat.  arum,  the  herb 
Wake-Robin,  Coles  (1679).] 

AROUND,  adv.  and  prep.    Wm.  Stf  Suf  Gny.  Slang. 

1.  adv.  About,  here  and  there  in  no  fixed  direction, 

Wm.'  A  seed  em  gangen  aroond.  Stf.  Just  walking  around 
a  bit  (A. P.).  Suf.  He  does  nothing  but  hang  around,  doing 
nothing  (F.H.).  Slang.  On  the  day  this  'ere  job  come  off  Chris 
comes  around  to  me,  Dy.  News  (Jan.  4,  18951  3,  col.  7.  [Amer. 
That's  a  'cute  little  copy  of  Keats  to  carry  around  ^M.D.H.)  ;  Sam 
is  around  in  New  York,  Bartlett.] 

2.  prep.     Round. 

Gny.  It  goes  around  the  room  (G.H.G.). 

3.  In  phr.  around  about,  round  about. 

Suf.  1  am  not  going  by  that  around  about  way,  but  across  the 
fields  (F.H.). 




AROUT,  adv.  and  prep.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  War.  Also  in 
Hrt.  Also  written  areawt  Lan.';  areat  Chs.'  [ari't, 
areat,  areirt.] 

1.  adiK     Without,  outside,  out-of-doors. 

Lan.  I'r  no  sooner  areawt  boh  a  threave  o'  rabblemcnt  wur 
watchin  on  mch  at  t'dur,  Tim  BonniN  Vietv  Dial.  1 1746  58  ;  Grose 
Supfil.  (1790  MS.  add.  |,P.^  ;  When  aw  should  foind  thee  areawt 
awd  kiss  thee,  Staton  Sue;.  Sol.  118591  viii.  i  ;  Alone  to  day 
Areawt  i'  th'  broad,  green  fields  aw'vc  come,  Ramsboitom  Phases 
0/ Distress  i  1864  .  59  ;  Thou'rc  noan  fit  to  be  areawt  sich  a  day  as 
this,  Wauoh  C/iimn.  Comer  (18741  142,  ed.  1879  ;  Lan.'  Clis.' 
Was  he  i'  th'  haise?— Now,  he  were  areat ;  Chs.',  War.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  prep.    Without. 

s.Stf.  I  to'd  him  we  could  du  arout  him  any  time,  Pinnock  Blk. 
Cv.  Ann.  ( i895\  Hrt.  If  yer  can't  do  arout  picklicking  you'll  'a 
'ter  do  arout  grub  altogether.  Somind  that,  Miss  I  A'.  S*  (J.  (1870) 
4th  S.  vi.  328. 

[This  is  a  pron.  of  iwV/ioi// through  the  stages  w /'-, »-,  ar-.] 

AROVE,  adj.     Ohs.     Yks.     Up  and  stirring. 

w.Yks.'  Our  lad's  quite  bobberous,  an  aw  a  roav,  ii.  305, 

ARPENT,  see  Orpine. 

ARPIT,  adj.     Shr.     ObxnI.    Quick,  ready,  precocious. 

Shr."-  'Er  wuz  sich  a  mighty  arpit  little  wench,  I  never  thought 
'er'd  live  ;  it's  sildom  as  they  dun,  w'en  a  bin  so  cute  ;  Slir.^ 
Arpit  at  his  larning,  saying  as  how  he's  so  heavy  o'  hearing. 

ARR,   sb.     Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Also  written  aar,  aur,  aurr,  awr  (Jam.)  ;  err  Cum.'  ;  arrh 
Chs.°^;  ar  e.Yks.     [er,  ar.] 
L  A  scar  or  mark  left  by  a  wound. 

Sc.  While  the  cut  or  wound  is  healing  the  mark  is  called  a  scar; 
when  it  is  completely  healed  the  mark  is  called  an  aur  (Jam.  Siippl.). 
N.I.i  Ant.  Ballynunn  Ohs.  1 18921.  N.Cy.' ^  Nhb.'  He  hcs  an  arr 
on  his  finger.  Ciun.  The  healen  plaister  eas'd  the  painful  sair — The 
arr  indeed  remains—  but  naething  main,  Relph  Afisc.  Poems  ( 1747 
Harvest,  \.  26;  Grose '1790);  G/.  (1851^;  Cum. '2  Wm.  It's  a  sad 
arr  (M.P.)  ;  Wm.',  n.Yks.'  n.Yks.2  I'll  gie  thee  an  arr  thou'll 
carry  t'thee  grave  ;  n.Yks.^  ne.Yks.'  He's  gitten  an  arr  ov  his 
back.  e.Yks.  Nichc^i.son  Flk-Sp.  (18891  50;  Marshall  Pur. 
Econ.  1 1788)  ;  e.Yks.'  Ofcvcry-day  use  in  n.  Holderness,  MS.  add. 
(T.H.)  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.  Hutton  7o"r  <oi  Cotw  '  1781 )  ;  Willan 
List  Wds.  (181 1)  ;  Lucas  Sliid.  Nidderdalc  (c.  1882  :  231  ;  w.Yks.'s, 
Lan.',  ne.Lan.',  e.Lan.',  Clis.'^a    j^Ar,  Holioway.] 

2.  A  spot  or  freckle  ;  also  used  attrib. 

w.Yks.  ScATCHERD  Hist.  Morley  (,1830)  168.  [Term  of  abuse, 
as]  arr  toad,  Yks.  N.  &  Q.  (i888)  IL  13  ;  w.Yks.5  An  arr  toad 
[freckled  toad]. 

3.  A  guilty  recollection,  leaving  an  impression  on  the 

n.Yks.'  It's  nobbut  a  black  arr,  thae  deeings  o'thahn  [thine]  wi' 
t'aud  man  [the  way  you  dealt  with  the  old  man  must  have  left  a  black 
mark  on  your  conscience] ;  n.Yks.^  An  arr  on  the  conscience,  A 
black  arr,  a  stain  on  the  character, 

4.  A  grudge,  ill-feeling. 
Or.I.,  Ayr.    Jam.  Sii/>/>/.) 

Hence  Atrei,  ppi.  adj.  marked  with  scars  ;  csp.  of  the 
marks  left  by  small-pox.     See  Pock-arred. 

Sc.  I  Jam.^  N.I.'  n.Yks.'  Arr'd,  branded  or  imprinted.  Lan.' 
He  wur  arr'd  o'  ower  ^vit'  smo-pocs. 

[Arr,  a  scar,  Bailey  (1770) ;  Cica/nx,  a  nerre,  Wright 
Voc.  680;  Cicatrix,  ar  or  wond,  MS.  15th  cent,  in  Hall.  ; 
Thai  ere  brokyn  myn  erres  (  =  corruptac  sunt  cicatrices 
meae),  Hampole  Ps.  xx.xvii.  5.     ON.  Orr,  Dan.  or.] 

ARR,  v}    Yks.  Chs.     To  scar,  scratch ;  to  beat. 

n.Yks.''  I'll  arr  your  back  for  you.  ne.Yks.'  In  rare  use.  w.Yks. 
Take  care  not  to  arr  the  steel  fender,  Hamilton  Niigae  Lit.  (1841) 
357.     Clis.'  Cum  ait  o'  that  hedge  wilt'a,  or  tha'lt  arr  thee. 

[Though  my  face  .  .  .  was  not  at  all  pitted  or  (as  they 
there  [i.e.  in  Lan.]  call  it)  arrcd,  but  in  time  as  cleare  and 
smooth  as  ever  it  was,  Life  of  A.  Marlindale  (1685)  19.  See 
Arr,  ,s-/;.] 

ARR,  I'.*  Sc.  Lan.  Der.  Also  written  yarr  Sc.  e.Lan.' 
[er,  yer,  a/r),  ya(r).]     Of  dogs:   to  snarl,  growl,  a\so  fig. 

Sc.  In  kittle  times  when  foes  arc  yarring,  Beattie  To  Mr.  A, 
Ross  in  Hehnore  1768  132.  ed.  1812.  Lan.  Yerin  'em  hanch  and 
arre  at  us  bi  way  o  thanks,  Clegg  Pieces  Roch.  Dial.  >i895)  »  Lan.' 
Co'  that  dog  in,  dost  no'  see  how  it  keeps  arrin'  at  yon  felly. 
e.Lan.',  nw.Der.' 

[A  dog  is  .  .  .  fell  and   quarrelsome,   given   to   arre, 

VOL.  I. 

Holland  Plutarch's  Mor.  (1603)  726  (N.E.D.).— A  word 
imitating  the  sound  of  a  snarl.] 
ARR,  V.'    Nhp.    [a(r).]    To  egg  on,  incite  to  quarrel. 


[Thcieggidenhim  inalyen  goddis.and  in  abomynaciouns 
to  wraththc  arrcden,  \Vyclif  (1382)  Detil.  xxxii.  16.  Cp. 
MDu.  erren,  to  provoke  to  anger  (Verdam).] 

ARR,  see  Har. 

ARRAH,  int.  Irel.  Cor.  Also  written  araa  Cor.' ; 
yarrah  Irel.  [ara,  ya'ra.]  An  exclamation  of  surprise; 
freq.  used  in  accosting  a  person,  or  in  calling  attention. 
See  Arear. 

Ir.  Miss  Betty,  arrah.  Miss  Betty,  Lever  H.  Lor.  (1839^  iii ; 
Arrah,  an'  the  devil  a  taste  I'll  be  drowned  for  your  divarsion.  ib. 
Ch.  O^Ma/lev  '  1841  .  viii  ;  Yarrah,  didn't  1  spake  that  speech  before, 
Carleton  Traits  18431  I.  315.  w.Ir.  Arrah!  what  brings  you 
here  at  all?  Lover  Leg.  18481  I.  50.  Qco.  Arrah!  run  for 
the  priest,  Barkington  S/fr/r/ici (1827-32  I.  ii.  s.Ir.  Arrah  !  what 
souls,  sir?  Croker  Leg.  1862  20a.  Wxf.  Arrah,  Puckawn,  me 
boy,  Kennedy  Eveni>igs  Duffrey  1869  57.  Tip. 'Arraii,  sweet 
myself!  *  said  a  youth  after  making  a  good  hit  at  cricket,  as  he 
thought,  unheard    G.M.H.).     Cor.' 

ARRALS,  sb.  Cum.  Wm^  Yks.  Lan.  Also  written 
arles  Wm.  w.Yks.  [a'rslz,  alz.]  Pimples  ;  a  rash  or 
eruption  on  the  skin  ;  csp.  applied  to  ringworm. 

n.Cy.  Grose  (1790.  Cum.  Holloway.  Wm.  He  has  the  arles 
on  his  hand,  copperas  will  poison  it.  The  complaint  is  frequently 
met  with  in  the  North,  and  is  probably  due  to  the  work  offending 
cattle  I  B.K.I;  Wm.'  Used  in  Ambleside  for  nettle-rash,  and  in 
Appleby  lor  any  kind  of  ringworm,  perhaps  especially  that  which 
appears  in  young  cattle.  w.Yks.  B.K.  1  ;  Willan  List  ll'ds.  (1811); 
HuTTON  Tour  to  (-'aves  ( 1781  .     ne.Lan.' 

ARRALS,  see  Aries. 

ARRANAKE,  sb.  Sc.  The  red-throated  Diver,  Cofym- 
bi(s  sep/riitrioiia/is. 

Dmb.  .Svvainson  Birds  (1885)  214. 

ARRAND,  see  Arain. 

ARRANT,  adj    Dur.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.     [a'rant.] 

1.  Downright,  usually  in  a  bad  sense. 

Dur.'  Arrantest.  Wm.  Thae  wer  arrant  lagets  and  tastrils, 
Clarke  Spec.  Dial.  (1865  15.  n.Yks.  She  \vor  t'arrantest  scahd, 
Broad  Yks.  (1885)  21.  w.Yks.  Her  sister  gat  wed  to  an  arrant 
neer  due-weel.  Preston  in  Yksman.  (1881  122.  Lan.  Arron  owd 
lant.  Tim  Bobbin  Tittn.  and  Mearv  1740  16;  Lan.*  He'sanarran' 
tliief,  and  as  big  a  rogue.     e.Lan.',  nw.Der.' 

2.  Coiiip.     Arrand-poison,  -smittle,  exceedingly  poison- 
ous, or  infectious. 

w.Yks.3  It  is  foolish  to  let  the  children  go  there,  for  it  is  arrand- 
smittle.     Common  in  w.Yks. 

Hence  Arrantly,  entirely,  thoroughly. 

Lan.'  Pre  arronly  moydert,  Tim  Bobbin  U'ks.  '^1750')  58. 

[The  moon's  an  arrant  thief,  Shaks.  Tiiiioii,  iv.  iii.  440; 
We  are  arrant  knaves,  all,  ib.  Haiiibt.  iii.  i.  131  ;  A  errant 
traytoure,  Fabyan,  v.  Ixxx.  58  (N.E.D. I.  The  orig.  mg.  of 
the  word  was  wandering,  vagabond.  Fr.  errant  (cp.  jiiif 
errant),  prp.  oi  errrr,  see  Hatzfeld.] 

ARRA"WIGGLE,  see  Erriwiggle. 

ARREARAGE,  sZi.    Sc.  Lin.     Arrears  of  paj'ment. 

Sc.  Ah  !  these  arrearages!  .  .  .  that  are  alw.iys  promised,  and 
always  go  for  nothing  !  Scorr  Leg.  Montr,  i  1830  vi.  n.Lin.'  I Ic's 
gotten  fowcrycars  arrearages  o'  his  highwaay  raate  on,  an'  I  can't 
get  noil  sattlcment. 

[Arrierage,  an  arrearage,  . .  .  that  which  was  unpaid,  or 
behind,  Cotgr.  ;  An  arrerage,  erreragia,  Calh.  Angl.\ 

ARREDGE,  see  Arris. 

ARRIMAN,  sb.  Shr.  [aTiman.]  The  newt,  Triton 


ARRIS,  sb.  Sc.  n.Irel.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  Chs. 
Der.  Lin. ;  also  in  War.  and  limp,  and  in  tech.  use.  Also, 
with  various  forms,  arras,  arress  Sc. ;  arish  Dur. ;  orris 
Chs.'  s.Chs.'  nw.Der.';  horris  nw.Der.';  arrage  Nhb.'; 
arridge  Cum.'  Wm.'  n.Yks.'^  ne.Yks.'  e.Yks.  w.Yks.'" 
ne.Lan.' n.Lin.' ;  arredge  Wm.  w.Yks. ;  harridge  e.Yks.' 
w.Yks.  ;  adidge  Yks. ;  awrige  (Jam.),  [a-ris, a-rij,  aridg, 




The  angular  edge  of  a  block  of  stone,  wood,  &c. ;  hence, 
the  edge  of  anything.  » 

Sc.  The  rebbets  [jambs]  of  that  window  would  hae  look't  better 
gin  the  mason  had  ta'en  off  the  arras  (.Jam-)-  '"■  ^^^  ^-Sc-  The  tips 
of  the  little  ridges  laid  by  the  plough  are  called  the  awrige  of  the 
field  tb.).  It.  The  arris  of  a  dyke,  or  of  a  furrow  (J.W.  ff.). 
N.I.'  Arris,  the  sharp  edge  of  a  freshly-planed  piece  of  wood,  or 
of  cement,  or  stone-work.  Nhb.^  Arrage,  a  sharp  point  or  corner, 
Mining  Gl.  (1852).  Dur.  Atkinson  Clcvcl.  Gl.  Cum.  T'toon 
geaat  was  oa  peaavt  wih  wood  peaavin  steaans  ...  an  t'arridges 
was  haggt  off,  Sargisson  Joe  Scoap  ( 1881)  93  ;  Cum.l  Arridge,  an 
angular  edge,  arris  in  architecture.  Wm.  Guide  to  the  Lakes  (,1780) 
288  ;  Wm.i  Et  left  an  arridge  reet  alang.  n.Yks.  Arridge,  the  cut 
edge  of  cloth  in  distinction  from  the  selvedge  or  woven  edge  (J. T.)  ; 
n.Yks.i  Arridge,  the  edge  or  selvedge  of  a  piece  of  cloth  or  cotton  ; 
n.Yks.2  Arridges,  the  edges  or  ridges  of  stone  or  furniture. 
ne.Yks.i,  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.  A  '  sharp  arridge  '  on  a  horse-shoe  is 
the  projection  in  front  to  enable  the  horse  to  keep  on  his  feet 
when  drawing,  Banks  IVkfld.  Wds.  (,18651  ;  '  Tak  th'  arredge  off 
this  stone  ;  you  need  not  polish  it  quite  smooth  ;  only  tak  th' 
arredge  off  it.'  A  knife,  not  smooth-edged,  is  said  to  have  an 
arredge,  Hlfx.  Wds.  ;  w.Yks.l  This  staan  tacks  a  fine  arridge  ; 
w.Yks.2  Harris,  a  swage  or  bevel  at  the  back  of  a  razor-blade. 
It  also  means  roughness.  ne.Lan.^  Chs.*  A  joiner  who  planes 
off  the  angles  of  a  square  pole  to  make  it  octagon  is  said  to 
'  take  off  the  orris.'  s  Chs.^  When  a  furrow  is  made  too  flat,  it 
is  said  *  there's  noo  orris  on  it.'  nw.Der.^  Th'  orris  is  welly  worn 
off.  n.Lin.i,  War.  (J.R.W.)  Hmp.i  I'd  better  take  the  arris  off 
ut  [i.e.  a  piece  of  stone,  »&c.].  Tech.  Arris,  in  joinery  and  masonry, 
the  line  of  concourse,  edge,  or  meeting  of  two  surfaces,  Weale 
Diit.  Terms  (1873). 

[Fr.  areste  (mod.  arete),  cp.  Cotgr.  :  Aresle,  the  small 
bone  of  a  fish  ;  also,  the  eyle,  awne,  or  beard  of  an  ear  of 
corn  ;  also,  the  edge  or  outstanding  ridge  of  a  stone,  or 
stone-wall. — The  forms  arridge,  arredge,  &c.,  may  be  due 
to  a  popular  association  with  ridge,  edge.] 

ARRIS,  V.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  War.  [a-ridg,  Chs.  a-ris.] 
To  take  or  plane  oft"  the  arris,  to  make  flat. 

e.Yks.',  w.Yks. 2,  ne.Lan.i  Chs.'  'John,  orris  them  jeists.' 
War.    J.R.W.) 

ARRISH,  sb.  e.Yks.  Also  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W. 
Dor.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  aish  Hmp.';  arish 
Dev.  Cor.' ;  ash  Sun'  I.W.* ;  airish  Dev.  ;  errish  Som. 
Dev.  Cor.'^;  ersh(e  Ken.'^  Sus.  Hnip.'  Dev.;  hayrish 
Cor.' ;  herrish  Som.  See  also  Eddish,  [sj,  3TiJ,  Sur.  a/, 
e.Yks.  ari/  (a'varij?).] 
1.  A  stubble  field  ;  stubble  of  any  kind  after  the  crop  has 
been  cut. 

e.Yks.  He's  tentin'  pigs  i'  averish.  Near  Beverley  they  would 
say  '  Ah've  a  bit  o'  arrish  Ah  sail  ton  them  few  geese  inti '  (R.S.)  ; 
e.Yks.'  Haverish.  Ken.'^  s.Sur.  Farmers  would  leave  one 
shock  of  corn  in  the  harvest  field  ;  as  long  as  it  stood  no  outsiders 
might  enter,  but  on  its  removal  the  field  was  called  *  ersh '  and 
any  one  might  lease,  the  corn  gathered  being  called  '  leasing  grist ' 
(T.T.C.  I  ;  Sur.'  Ash  is  not  so  commonly  used  as  '  graften.'  Sus. 
Ersh,  stubble  ;  applied  also  to  the  after-mowings  of  grass,  Grose 
{i-]')0)  MS.  add.  P.);  Sus.' A  wheat  earsh  ;  a  barley  earsh.  Hmp. 
Wheat  or  oat  aish,  Grose  (1790);  Earsh,  Holloway  ;  Hmp.' 
I.W.' ;  I.W. 2  Bwoy,  drave  the  cows  out  into  the  wheat  ash.  Dor. 
Errish,  A'.  &  Q.  ^1883,  6th  S.  vii.  366  ;  Now  obs.  (H.J.M.)  Som. 
W.  &  J.  Gl,  ;  [Pheasants]  wander  . . .  especially  towards  barley  and 
barley  stubble,  called  barley  harrish  in  Red  Deer  land,  Jefferies 
Red  Deer  (18841  x.  w.Som.'  Bee'un,  woet,  tloa'vur  uur'eesh 
[bean ,  oat,  clover  stubble].  Not  applied  to  any  grass  except  clover, 
and  then  only  when  the  clover  has  been  mown  for  seed,  so  as  to 
leave  a  real  stubble.  Purty  arteruoon  farmer,  sure  'nough — why,  he 
'ant  a  ploughed  his  arrishes  not  eet.  Auctioneers  and  other 
genteel  people  usually  write  this  '  eddish.'  Dev.  Amongst  the 
harrishes  in  September,  O'Neill  Told  in  Dimpscs  (18931  151  ; 
The  geese  .  .  .  found  their  own  way  in  the  golden  earidgcs,  ib.  Idylls 
(1892  97  ;  To  bid  the  skylark  o'er  the  arrish  roam,  Capern  Pochw 
(18561  72;  They've  agived  tha  chillern  holiday  tii-day,  tii  go 
leasing  upen  Squire  Poland's  arrishes,  Hewett  Peas.  Sp.  (1892) 
96  ;  The  fezens  be  out  in  tha  errishes  feeding  ;  there'll  be  rare 
gade  sport  vur  squire  in  October,  ib.  76.  n.Dev.  We've  .  .  .  torned 
pegs  ta  arish.  Rock /i«i  an' A'f//  1867  3.  Dev.',  nw. Dev.'  Cor. 
An  old  rhyme  in  reference  to  the  clergy  of  the  past  generation 
begins  :  '  Here  comes  the  passon  of  Philleigh  Parish,  He's  got 
his  rake  to  rake  his  arish,'  Dy.  Chron.  (June  18,  1895I  3,  col.  6; 
Farmers  are  very  busy  ploughing  the  arishes  by  this  time,  Mark 

Lane  E.\-press  (Feb.  2,  iSSoV  w.Cor.  When  I  took  en  aw  was  in 
barley  arish,  Thomas  Randigal  Rhymes  (1895)  6  ;  Cor.'  Turn  them 
into  the  arishes  ;  Cor.^ 

2.  Co;«/i.  ( I )  Arrish-field,  a  stubble  field  ;  (2) -goose,  one 
fed  in  stubble  fields  ;  (3)  -mow,  a  small  rick  of  corn  set 
up  in  a  field  from  which  the  crop  has  been  cut ;  (4)  -rake, 
(5)  -turnip,  see  below. 

(i)  Cor.  Ricks  of  corn  left  to  stand  in  the  '  arrish  fields,'  Flk-Lore 
Jrn.  (1886)  IV.  248;  Cor.'  (2")  Dev.  Arrish  geese  feed  into  plump 
condition  for  Michaelmas  by  picking  up,  from  between  the  stubble, 
the  corns  which  fell  from  the  ears  during  reaping  and  sheaving, 
TV.  &  Q.  (1851)  ist  S.  iii.  252.  Cor.'^  (3)  w.Som.'  In  a  showery 
harvest  the  plan  is  often  adopted  of  making  a  number  of  small 
stacks  on  the  spot,  so  that  the  imperfectly  dried  corn  may  not  be 
in  sufficient  bulk  to  cause  heating,  while  at  the  same  time  the  air 
may  circulate  and  improve  the  condition  of  the  grain.  Called 
also  wind-mow.  Dev.  Arrish-mows,  [or]  field  stacklets.  The 
arrangement  of  the  sheaves  of  corn  as  a  square  pyramid,  during 
a  wet  harvest,  Marshall  Ritr.  Econ.  (1796)  ;  One  of  the  most 
remarkable  singularities  of  harvest  in  the  West,  is  the  '  arish-mow,' 
MooRE //liA  Dev.  (,1829)  I.  299;  Dev.'  Cor.  Arrish-mows,  from 
their  different  shapes,  are  also  [called]  '  hummel-mows '  and 
'  ped-rack-mows,'  Flk-Lore  Jrn.  (1886)  IV.  248  ;  Arish-mow,  200 
sheaves  in  a  circular  rick,  Morton  Cycl.  Agric.  (1863)  ;  They  were 
building  up  the  '  arish  mows.'  where  the  difficulty  of  carting  away 
the  harvest  had  yet  to  be  faced  and  overcome,  Pearce  Esther 
Pentreath  { 1891)  bk.  11.  vi ;  Cor.'2  (4)  w.Som.'  Errish  rake,  a  very 
largeand  peculiarlyshaped  rake,  used  for  gathering  up  the  straycorn 
missed  by  the  binders  ;  now  nearly  supplanted  by  the  horse-rake. 
Dev.',  nw.Dev.'  (5)  w.Som.'  Errish-turnips,  a  late  crop  of  turnips 
sown  after  the  corn  has  been  taken.  After  an  early  harvest  good 
crops  of  roots  are  frequently  grown.  Aay  aa'n  u  zee'd  noa  jis 
wai't  uur  eesh  tuur'muts,  naut-s  yuur'z  [I  have  not  seen  any  such 
wheat  errish  turnips  not's  1  these)  years]    s.  v.  EsV 

Hence  Arrishers,  the  second  set  of  gleaners. 

Dor.  It  is  customary,  after  carrying  a  field  of  corn,  to  leave 
behind  a  sheaf,  to  intimate  that  the  families  of  those  who  reaped 
the  field  are  to  have  the  first  lease.  After  these  have  finished,  the 
sheaf  is  removed,  and  harissers  are  admitted,  A^.  &  Q.  (1850) 
1st  S.  ii.  376. 

[Ersh,  stubble.  Kersey  ;  Ersk,  stubble  after  corn  is  cut, 
B.MLEV  (1721).     OE.  crsc  (in  ersc-lieii),  a  stubble  field.] 

ARRIVANCE,  sb.     Shr.  Ken.     [arai'vans.] 

1.  Origin,  birthplace. 

Ken.  A  guardian  of  the  poor  informs  me  it  is  often  used  to  signify 
settlement  by  birth  {, P.M.)  ;  I  say,  mate,  which  parish  do  you  belong 
to  ? — I  can't  justly  say.  but  father's  arrivance  was  iVam  Shepherd's- 
w^ell  [.Sibbertswold],  Wright  ;  Ken.'  He  lives  in  Faversham  town 
now,  but  he's  a  low-hill  [bclow-hill]  man  by  arrivance. 

2.  Arrival,  arrival  of  company. 

Shr.  'There  has  been  an  arrivance,'  said  occasionally  when  a  baby 
is  born  or  company  comes  unexpectedly  (J.B.)  ;  Shr.'  I  spec' 
they'n  be  wantin'  yo',  Bettj',  to  'elp  'em  a  bit  at  the  owd  Maister's, 
I  sid  an  arrivance  theer  as  I  wuz  gwein  to  'unt  some  barm, 

ARROW,  see  Argh,  Yarrow. 

ARROWLEDE,  sb.     Yks.     [aralld.] 

n.Yks.^  Arrowlede,  the  path  of  the  shot  arrow. 

ARROW-ROOT,  sb.     Dor.     Arum  maculattim. 

Dor.  The  starch  prepared  from  its  tubers  is  known  in  I.  of  Port- 
land as  '  Portland  Arrow-root,'  from  its  resemblance  to  the  arrow- 
root of  commerce, 

ARROY,  sb.  Pem.  [aroi'.]  Disorder,  confusion  ;  also 
used  with  an  advb.  force. 

s. Pem.  One  pickt  upon  t'other,  an  things  went  oorserand  oorser — 
my  dear  man  !  there  was  an  arroy.  They  be  in  a  big  arroy  there 
[a  confusion  in  a  crowded  meeting].  These  'ere  bags  be  shifted 
since  I  put  am  'ere,  they  be  all  arroy  naw  I.W.M.M.). 

ARSCOCKLE.  see  Esscock  (Jam.). 

ARSE,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf. 
Der.  Lin.  War.  Wor.  e.An.  Hrt.  Ess.  Ken.  Hmp.  Som. 
Dev.  Also  written  ass  Ken.  Som. ;  erse  Sc.  ;  yess  Dev. 
[ers,  ars,  as.] 
1.  The  buttocks,  fundament  of  a  person,  rump  of  an 
animal  ;  hence,  the  bottom  or  hinder  part  of  anything,  as 
a  sheaf,  cart,  &c. 

Sc.  A  sack-arse,  the  bottom  of  a  sack  (Jam."!  ;  The  erse  of  the 
plough  or  the  plough-erse  {ib.  Suppl.).  n.Cy.  Have  one  of  these 
pears — they  are  all  ripe  ;  I  have  just  been  pinching  their  arses 
(.C.G.B.).     Nhb.  .Set  the  poke  down  on  its    Cairt-arse.    The 




Cat's  Arse,  the  name  of  a  small  bay  on  the  shore  of  the  river  Tync 
(R.O.H.).  Yks.  Ahse(W.H.).  ne.Yks.'  T'shafl"  arses  is  as  wet 
as  sump.  Stop,  mun  ;  t'cart  arse  has  tiimml'd  oot.  e.Yks.  To 
set  nine  of  the  sheaves  with  their  arses  downe  to  the  grounde, 
Best  liiir.  Econ.  (1641)  45;  The  arse  of  a  cart  or  a  plough, 
NicholsonF/*5/>.  (18891  50.  nw.Der.'  n.Lin.i  Billy  Ratton  puts 
o'must  as  many  heads  in  his  sheaf  arses  as  he  duz  c'  th'  top  end. 
War.^  Arse,  the  tail  of  a  cart  ;  also  applied  to  shocks  on  which 
*  caps  '  are  placed,  i.e.  covered  by  two  sheaves  with  the  straw  end 
upwards.  Wor.  Go  round  to  the  erse  of  the  mill  (E.S.)  ;  se.Wor.' 
Arse  of  a  waggon.  Hrt,  The  arse  or  tail  of  the  plough,  Ellis  Mod. 
Hiisb.  U750  II.  i.  44.  e.An.*  Arse,  part  of  a  tree,  opp.  to  the  Tod. 
Suf.  The  arse  of  a  tree  is  the  rough  root-end  after  the  roots  h.ive 
been  chopped  off  (F. H.).  Ess.  Cast  dust  in  his  [a  sheep's]  arse, 
thou  hast  finisht  thy  cure,  Tusser  Hiishatitine  11580';  m,  St.  4. 
Ken.  The  ass,  the  butt-end  of  a  sheaf  (_P.M.).  Hmp.  The  arse  of 
a  door  (H.C.M.B.')  ;  Hmp.'  The  bottom  of  a  post  ;  the  part  which 
is  fixed  in  the  ground.  The  upward  part  of  a  field  gate  to  which 
the  eyes  of  the  hinge  are  fixed.  w.Som.'  Puufn  uup  pun  dh-aas 
u  dhu  wageen.  The  ass  of  the  sull.  The  ass  of  the  waterwheel. 
The  ass  of  the  barn's  door. 

2.  Phr.  (i)  arse  over  head,  head  over  heels,  topsy-turvy  ; 

(2)  to  go  arse  Jirst,  to  have  bad  luck  ;  (3)  to  hang  an  arse, 
to  hang  back,  be  cowardly. 

(I  I  w.Som. 'A  timid  old  workman  said  of  a  rickety  scaffold  :  1  baint 
pwain  up  pon  thick  there  till-trap  vor  to  tread  pon  nothin,  and  vail 
down  ass  over  head.  What's  the  matter,  William  ?— Brokt  my 
arm,  sir.  Up  loadin  hay,  and  the  darned  old  mare,  that  ever  I 
should  zay  so,  muv'd  on.  and  down  I  vails  ass  over  head.  (2)  Wm. 
I've  always  gone  arcc  first.  A  confession  of  one  who  failed  in  life 
through  his  own  habits  <  B.  K.\  (3)  n.Lin.  To  hang  an  arse  ;  ^obsol., 
but  used  by  a  native  of  the  Isle  of  Axholme  who  died  in  or  about 
1826  (E.P.);  n.Lin.i 

3.  Comp.  (i)  Arse-band, the  crupper  ;  (2) -bawst  (-burst) ; 

(3)  -board;  14)  -bond;  (5)  -breed  (breadth),  the  breadth 
of  an  arse,  i.e.  of  contemptibly  small  extent ;  (6)  -end,  the 
bottom  or  tail-end  of  a  tree,  the  butt ;  a\so  fig.  ;  (7)  -end- 
up; (8)  -first;  (9)  -jump;  (10)  -loop;  (11)  -up;  (12)  -up- 

( I  i  n.Lin.'  (■z)  Stf.'  Ars-bawst,  a  fall  on  the  back.  (3')  Sc.  Arse- 
burd  of  a  cart,  the  board  which  goes  behind  and  shuts  it  in  (Jam.'). 
Cum.',  ne.Lan.',  Chs.',  s.Chs.',  Stf.'  2,  nw.Der.',  n.Lin.'  War.  Ars- 
boord  (J.R.W.V  (4^  s.Chs.'  Arse-bond,  a  strong  piece  of  oak 
forming  the  hinder  extremity  of  the  foundation  or  bed  of  a  cart. 
(5)  Cum.'  His  heall  land's  nobbet  a  arse-breed.  161  n.Yks.'  Pick 
thae  stooks  adoon,  and  let  t'arsends  o'  t'shaffs  lig  i'  t'sun  a  bit. 
Chs.'  The  arseend  of  a  'tater'  is  the  end  by  which  it  is  attached 
to  the  stalk  or  thread.  s.Chs.',  War.  J.R.W.)  Suf.  A  house, 
barn,  hamlet,  &c.,  if  in  a  very  sequestered  spot,  is  said  to  be  at  the 
arse-end  of  the  world  i  F.  H.)  ;  A  labourer  never  speaks  of  the  '  butt ' 
of  a  tree,  but  always  of  the  *  arse-end.*  The  arse-end  of  a  cannon 
gave  no  more  offence  than  breech  does  now  C.G.B.").  (7  iNhb.  Arse- 
end-up,  upside  down.  (8i  Arse-first,  backside  foremost  iR.O.H.  . 
(9")  n.Lan.  It  was  the  custom  in  the  Furncss  district  in  han'cst 
time  to  place  on  the  breakfast  table  a  little  round  of  butter,  about 
a  quarter  of  a  pound  in  weight,  to  each  person.  It  was  a  diflicult 
matter  for  those  unused  to  this  luxury  to  take  it.  If  however 
any  man  or  boy  failed  to  eat  his  share  he  was  taken  by  the  arms 
and  legs,  and  the  lower  part  of  his  body  was  banged  against 
a  wall.  This  was  called  arse-jumping  (J. A.).  (101  Nhb.' Arse- 
loop,  a  seat  or  wide  loop  in  a  rope  or  chain  in  which  a  man  is 
slung  when  repairing  or  working  in  a  pit  shaft.  (lit  e.An.'  Ass- 
upping,  hand-hoeing,  to  turn  the  docks  and  thistles  end  upwards,  or 
to  cause  the  posterior  to  be  the  superior  part  of  the  body  whilst 
stooping  in  the  act  of  hoeing,  (121  Nhb.  Arse-upwai'ds,  upside 
down  (R.O.  H.V  Suf.  '  Arse-uppards '  is  a  usual  term  for  many 
things  lying  bottom  up  iC.G.  B.\ 

fAn  Arse,  podc.x,  anus,  Levins  Maiiip.;  Ars  or  arce, 
amis,  cuius,  pode.x.  Prompt.  Chaucer  has  the  form  ers, 
C.  T.  A.  3755.     OE.  cars;  cp.  G.  arsch.\ 

ARSE,  V.     Sc.  Lin. 

1.  To  kick  upon  the  seat. 

n.Lin.'  If  thoo  cums  here  agean  loongin'  aboot,  I'll  arse  thC  wi' 
my  foot. 

2.  To  move  backwards,  to  push  back  ;  of.  arsle,  1 ;  Jig. 

to  balk,  defeat. 

Abd.  Arse  back  yer  horse  a  little.  I  was  completely  arsed 
(G.W.i.     Gall.  Arset  (Jam.  Stippl.\ 

Hence  Arsing,  vbl.  sb.     Shuffling,  evading. 

Abd.  Nane  of  that  arsin'  noo   G.W.). 

3.  To  back  out  of  fulfilling  a  promise,  &c.,  to  shuflle;  cf. 
arsle,  2. 

Abd.  He  arsed  a  bit.  I  heard  he  meant  to  arse  oot  o'  his  promises 

ARSE-FOOT,  sb.  Obs.  Colloo.  (i)  The  great  crested 
Grebe,  Podiaps  cristatus :  (2)  the  little  Grebe,  Tac/ivbapies 
/luvialdis ;  so  called  from  the  backward  position  of  tfie  legs. 

SwAiNSON  Birds  1  1885)  215,  6. 

ARSELING(S,n(fc.  Sc.c.An.  [erslins,  a-slins.]  Back- 
wards, also  attrib. 

Abd.  Sik  a  dird  As  laid  him  arselins  on  his  back,  Forbes  Aiax 
(17421  9.  Per.  We  always  use  (not  arset,  but  arselins  G.W.). 
Cld.  (Jam.)  Rxb.  Arselins  coup,  the  act  of  falling  backwards  on  the 
hams  /6.).  e.An.'  Nrf.  Trans.  P/iH.  Soc.  {iBsS,  146.  Saf.Arseling 

[Arse  +  -liytg  {-s).  OE.  earsliitg:  Syn  hi  gecyrde  on 
earsling  {  =  avertaittur  rctrorsuni,)  Ps.  xxxiv.  5  (c.  1000). 
Cp.  I)u.  aarzcliiii;  (-,si,  G.  drscldiiis;  (-.s) ;  see  De  Vries.I 

ARSERD,  ARSEUD.  see  Arseward. 

ARSESMART,  sb.  Also  written  ass-smart.  A  plant- 
name  applied  to  (i)  Po/\goiiuiii  aiuplnbium  (Hrt.)  ;  12)  P. 
hydropipcr  (Cum.  Chs.  Lin.  War.  LW.  Wil.  Som.  Dev.); 
(3)  P.  pcrsicaria  (Lin.  Wil.);  (4)  Pyrclhrum  parlhenium, 
or  fever-few  (w.Yks.). 

(i .  Hrt.  Arsmart.  Ellis  Mod.  Hiisb.  (1750^  III.  i.  47.  (2)  Cnin.i 
Arse-smart,  the  pepperwort.  Chs.'  ;  Chs.^  Also  called  Knot-grass, 
Lake- weed.  n.Lin.',  War.  (J.R.W.  ,  I.W.',  Wil.'  w.Som.' 
Aa  smart,  water  pepper.  Dev.";  nw.Dev.'  Ves-smert.  (3  n.Lin.', 

[(2(  Curage  (Culrage),  the  herb  water-pepper, arse  smart, 
kilhidge  or  culerage,  Cotgr.  ;  Arse-smart,  or  water- 
pepper,  an  herb.  Kersey;  Arsmart,  Hydropipcr,  Gerarde, 
445.  (3)  Arsesmart,  Pcrsicaria,  Coles  (1679);  Dead  or 
spotted  arsmart,  Pcrsicaria  maculosa  Gerarde,  445.] 

ARSE- VERSE,  sb.  Obs.  or  obsol.  Sc.  Yks.  A  spell 
written  on  the  side  of  a  house  to  ward  oft'  fire. 

s.Sc.  Known  by  old  persons  some  years  ago  (G.W.M.).  Rxb. 
Arse'-verse',  most  probably  borrowed  from  England  1  Jam.\  w.Yks. 
Aase-verse,  a  spell  on  a  house  to  avert  fire  or  witchcraft,  Yts.  N. 
&Q.  (1888)  II.  13. 

[Arse-verse,  a  spell  written  on  an  house  to  prevent  it 
from  burning,  Bailey  (1721).  Arse,  fr.  Lat.  irrs-,  pp.  stem 
of  a rderc,  to  burn  ;  cp.  Fr.  arson,  arson,  wilful  burning.] 

ARSEWARD(S,  adv.  and  adj.  Cum.  Yks.  Der.  Lin. 
War.  Wor.  Also  in  Dev.  Also  written  arserd  w.Yks.*; 
ars'erd,  ars'erds  n.Lin.' ;  assud  War.*  se.Wor.' ;  arseud 
se.Wor.' ;  ass'ard  Dev.;  arset  Sc.  nw.Der.';  arsed, 
arsard  nw.Der.'  [a-sad,  a'sadz.] 
L  adv.  Backwards  ;  hind-belore. 

Cum.  Grose  11790  ;  Brekbackana — ewards  hurry,  Stagg  Misc. 
Poems  (1805^  Bridewaiii  ;  Ctmi.'  An  early  Methodist  preacher  in 
Workington  used  to  enlighten  his  hearers  with  '  Aa  wad  as  seiin 
expect  a  swine  to  gang  arsewurts  up  a  tree  and  whisslc  like  a 
throssle,  as  a  rich  man  git  to  heaven.'  n.Yks.'  ra.Yks.  A  cask 
or  other  package  in  the  forepart  of  a  cart,  required  to  be  moved 
to  the  afterpart.  would  be  said  to  be  moved  arseward,  as  that  latter 
part  is  termed  the  •  cart  arse.'  A  horse  is  said  to  come  arseward 
when  it  backs  (G.W.  W.).  w.Yks.'  His  skaddle  tit — ran  arser'd 
'geeant  mistow  nookin  [against  the  corner  of  the  cow-house],  ii. 
303.  Der.  The  landlord  put  him  out  arsuds  first  H.R.X  n.Lin.' 
Go  ars'erds,  cousin  Edward,  go  ars'erds.  Dev.  At  Okeh.impton 
Station  a  horse  was  rather  frightened  at  entering  a  horse-box  ;  a 
porter  who  was  assisting  said,  '  You  'ont  get'n  in,  I  tell  'ee,  vore 
j'ou've  a-turn  un  roun'  and  a-shut"n  in  ass'ard.'  Joe,  I  zim  you 
d'an'lc  things  all  ass'ard  like,  jis  the  very  same's  off  all  your  vingers 
was  thumbs.  Reports  Provitir.  ( 1889'). 

2.  adj.    Perverse,  obstinate  ;  unwilling. 

N.Cy.'  Nhb.  Sae  take  some  pity  on  your  love  And  do  not  still 
soarseward  Throve,  Stv^lKT A  Joco-Sen'oiisDiseourse'^it^  30.  Now 
probably  06s.  I  R.O.H.)  n.Yks.*  Der.  Don't  be  arseward  i^H.R.). 
nw.Der.',  se.Wor.' 

3.  Comp.  Arseward-backwards,  hind-before  ;  a.\so  attrib. 
War.*  He  went  out  assud-backuds.      That's  an  assud-backuds 

form  o'  diggin'  taters.     se.Wor.' 

[Rebours,  d  rebours,  arseward,  backward,  Cotgr.  ;  Bot 
if  5e  taken  as  5e  uscn  arsewordc  this  gospel,  Pol.  Poems 
(Rolls  Ser.)  II.  64.     Arse-\--ti'ard.] 

AR  SHORN,  see  Hare-shorn. 





ARSLE,  V.    Cum.  Yks.  Lan.    Also  in  e.An.     [a-sl.] 

1.  To  move  backwards. 

Cum.  lE.W.P.  e.An.2  He  [a  timid  boxer]  kept  arseling  back- 
wards, and  durst  not  meet  his  man.      Nrf.' 

2.  To  move  when  in  a  sitting  posture  ;  hence,  to  shufQe, 
fidget ;  a\so  fig. 

n.Yks.2  They  arsl'd  out  on"t  [they  backed  out].  n.Lan.l  e.An.^ 
Come,  arsle  up  there.      Nrf.'     Suf.  To  keep  arseling  about  1  F.H.\ 

[MDu.  erselen  {arselen),  Du.  aarzelen,  to  move  backward 
(De  Vries).] 

ARSLING-POLE,  sh.     e.An.     [aslin-pol.] 

Nrf.'  Arsehng-pole,  the  pole  bakers  use  to  spread  the  hot  embers 
to  all  parts  of  the  oven. 

[From  arsle,  vb.,  to  move  backwards,  used  in  trans, 

ARSY-VERSY,  adv.,  adj.  and  sb.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  War.  e.An.  Also  in  Som.  Dev.  Also 
■written  arsey-warsey  N.Cy.^  ;  arsy -farcy  w.Yks.^  e.An.' ; 
arse-versy  Lin.  Skinner  ;  and  freq.  arsy-varsy. 

1.  adv.  Upside-down,  head  over  heels  ;  fig.  in  confusion. 
n.Cy.  Grose    1790) ;  N.Cy.\  Nhb.  1  R.O.H.),  n.Yks.'^,  ne.Yks.', 

e.Yks.',  w.Yks.i  Lan.  Deawn  coom  I  arsy-varsy  intoth  wetur, 
lim'&o-B.s.iii  Titm.  and  Meaty  WHO)  zi.  Chs.'2,stf.i  Der.  Down 
came  Tit,  and  away  tumbled  she  arsy-varsy,  Ray  Prov.  (1678)  225, 
ed.  i860.  Der.'2,  nw.Der.',  n.Lin.',  LeI.i,  Waf.'2.  e.An.'  w.Som.' 
Hon  I  com'd  along,  there  was  th'  old  cart  a-turned  arsy-varsy  right 
into  the  ditch,  an'  the  poor  old  mare  right  'pen  her  back  way,  her 
legs  up'n  in  [up  on  end].     Dev.^  Ivvery  theng  es  arsyvarsy. 

2.  adj.  Fanciful,  preposterous  ;  contrary,  disobedient. 
•w.Yks.3  Of  a  woman  dressed  peculiarly,  '  Sho  dresses   in  an 

arsy-farcy  way.'  To  a  disobedient  child,  '  Tha  a't  varry  arsy- 

3.  sb.  Deceit,  flattery. 

n.Yks.  Old  wives  have  a  lot  of  arsy-farsy  a"bout  them,  saying  'at 
t'bairn  is  so  like  its  father    I.W.);  (,R.H.H.) 

[Stand  to  't,  quoth  she,  or  yield  to  mercy,  It  is  not 
fighting  arsie-versie  Shall  serve  thy  turn,  Butler  Hitdi- 
bras,  I.  iii.  827  ;  Cul  sur  poiiitc,  topsie-turvy,  arsie-varsie, 
upside  down,  Cotgr.  A  rhj'ming  comp.  from  arse+l^sA. 
versus,  pp.  of  vertere,  to  turn.] 

ART,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Also 
written  airt  Sc.  Nhb.'  Dur.'  Cum.  Yks. ;  airth,  aith 
Sc.  e.Yks. ;  ete  Wxf     [ert,  esrt.] 

1.  The  quarter  of  the  heavens,  point  of  the  compass ; 
asp.  of  the  direction  of  the  wind. 

Abd.  That  gate  I'll  hald.  gin  I  the  airths  can  keep,  Ross  HeJenore 
(1768:59, ed.  1812.  Fif.Thewind  isaffadryairt, Robertson  Proz'os/ 
(1894)  19.  Ayr.  Of  a'  the  airts  the  wind  can  blaw,  I  dearly  like  the 
west.  Burns  y^flH  (17881  ;  My  plaidie  to  the  angry  airt,  I'd  shelter 
thee,  ib.  Caiild  Blast.  Lnk.  [Trees  that]  stand  single  Beneath  ilk 
storm,  frae  every  airth,  maun  bow,  Ramsay  Gcnth  Shcp.  (.1725137, 
ed.  1783.  Slk.  Let  themblawa'at  ancefraea' the  airts,  Chr.  North 
JVocUs  Aitibros.  (^1856)  IIL  3.  GaU.  Frae  every  airt  the  wind  can 
steer,  Nicholson  Hist,  and  Trad.  Tales  I1843)  235.  N.I.'  What 
art  is  the  win  in  the  day  ?  Down.  The  wind's  in  a  thawy  art 
(C.H.W.).  Wxf.'  What  ete  does  the  wind  blow  from?  Nhb.' 
What  airt's  the  wind  in  thi  day!  Dur.'  Cum.T'wind's  cauld  this 
spring  whativer  art  it  blaws  fra  (E.W. P.  1  ;  T'wind's  iv  a  bad  art, 
I  doubt  we'll  hae  rain  ^M.P.).  Yks.  The  wind  is  in  a  cold  airt 
(K.).  n.Yks.2  The  wind's  frev  an  easterly  airt.  ne.Yks.'  T'wind's 
gotten  intiv  a  cau'd  airt.  e.Yks<  Marshall  Rur.  Econ.  (1788J. 

2.  A  direction,  way  ;  locality,  district. 

Sc.  bhe  so  speers  and  backspeers  me  . .  .  that  I  darena  look  the 
airt  a  single  woman's  on.  Whitehead  jOo// /)«!■(>  (1876J  130.  Ayr. 
If  that  he  want  the  yellow  dirt,  Ye'll  cast  your  head  anither  airt, 
Burns  Tibbie.  Lth.  He'll  never  look  the  airt  ye're  on,  Strathesk 
More  Bits  1885"!  249.  e.Lth.  Just  you  pit  the  maitter  fair  afore  them, 
an'  showthem  the  richt  airt,  Hunter  J.  Iniviik '  1895 1 22.  Dmf.  Fowk 
stoiter'd  frae  a'  airths  bedeen,  Mayne  Siller  Gun  (1808)  70.  N.I.' 
It's  a  bare  art  o'  the  country.  n.Cy.  Border  Gl.  {Coll.  L.L.B.)  ; 
N.Cy.'  Nhb.  Wooers  cam'  frae  ilka  airt,  Richardson  Borderer's 
Table-bk.  (,18461  VIII.  i6i  ;  Nhb.'  What  airt  ar'  ye  gan  thi  day? 
A  stranger  who  cannot  very  well  comprehend  the  countiy  people 
when  directing  him  what  airts  to  observe,  will  be  very  liable  to 
lose  his  road,  Oliver  Rambles  '1835  9.  Cum.  Frae  ivry  art  the 
young  fwolk  droove,  Stagg  Misc.  Poenis  '18051  119.  Wm.  Bet 
theear  wes  leets  frae  beeath  arts,  Spec.  Dial.  (.1885)  8.      n.Yks.' 

Did  ye  hear  t'guns  at  Hartlepool,  John  ? — Ay,  I  heerd  a  strange 
lummering  noise.  I  aimed  it  cam'  fra  that  airt  ;  n.Yks.^  They 
come  frev  a  bad  airt  [place  of  ill-repute]  ;  m.Yks.',  w.Yks.' 

[Angellis  sail  passe  in  the  four  airtis,  Lyndesay 
Moiiarche,  5600  (N.E.D.).  Gael,  aird,  a  point,  also  a 
quarter  of  the  compass.] 

ART,  V.  Sc.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Written  airt  Sc.  Nhb.' 
n.Yks.''  ;  ert  Sc. 

1.  Of  the  wind  :  to  blow  from  a  certain  quarter. 

Sc.  What  course  ships  or  boats  would  take  .  .  .  would  depend 
upon  the  mode  by  which  their  progress  was  actuated  .  .  .  and  as 
the  wind  was  airted,  State  J^i'aser  0/ Traserfield  i^iSo^j  192.  Bnff.' 
The  ween's  gain'  t'airt  frae  the  east. 

2.  To  incite,  egg  on. 

Lan.  He  arted  me  on  or  I  shouldn't  have  done  it  fS.W.). 

3.  To  point  out  the  way  to  any  place  ;  to  direct ;  to  turn 
in  a  certain  direction. 

Sc.  I  may  think  of  airting  them  your  way,  Scott  Redg.  (1824") 
xiii  ;  To  permit  me  to  keep  sight  of  my  ain  duty,  or  to  airt  you  to 
yours,  ib.  Midlotliian  i  1818  ixviii ;  He  erted  Cohn  down  the  brae, 
Davidson  Seasons  (1789')  51  ;  Lay  them  open,  an'  airt  them  east 
an'  west  Jam.  Siippl.  .  Bnff.'  See,  lads,  it  ye  airt  the  stooks  richt. 
Rnf.  Ah,  gentle  lady,  airt  my  way,  Tannahill  Poems  (18071  147. 
Ayr.  An'  her  kind  stars  hae  airted  till  her  A  good  chiel  wi'  a  pickle 
siller,  Burns  Lett,  to  J.  Tennant ;  But  j'on  green  graffnow,  Luckie 
Laing,  Wad  airt  me  to  my  treasure,  ib.  Lass  of  Ecclefechan.  e.Lth. 
What  a  skill  he  had  o'  liftin'  ye  aff  your  feet  an'  airtin'  ye  roun'  frae 
north  to  sooth  afore  ye  kent  whaur  ye  were.  Hunter  J.  hiwick 
(18951  118.     n.Yks.2  Sic  mak  o'  luck  was  nivver  airted  mah  geeat. 

4.  To  tend  towards,  aim  at. 

Sc.  He's  dune  weel,  an's  airtin  to  the  en'  o*  his  wark.  I  airtit 
hard  to  get  awa  wi'  the  laird  (Jam.  Siippl.).  n.Yks.2  What's  thoo 
airting  at  ? 

5.  To  find  out,  discover. 

Rxb.  I  airted  him  out  iJam.).     Nhb.'  I'll  airt  it  oot. 

ARTAN,  vbl.  sb.  Sc.  [eTtan.]  Direction ;  placing 
towards  a  certain  quarter  of  the  heavens. 

Bnff.  Hoot-toot,  ye  gummeril,  the  airtan  o'  the  stooks  is  a' 
vrang.     Set  them  aye  t'  tual  o'clock  (W.G.) ;  Bnff.' 

[Vbl.  sb.  of  art,  vb.] 

ART  AND  PART, ///r.  Sc.  Irel.  Dur.  (1)  As  obj.  of 
V. :  share,  portion.  (2)  To  be,  become,  art  or  part  in,  with, 
to  be  concerned  in,  be  accessory  to. 

(i)  N.I.'  I  had  neither  art  nor  part  in  the  affair.  Ant.  I  know 
neither  art  nor  part  of  it,  Grose  (1790  MS.  add.  :C.)  (2  Sc. 
Whan  thou  sawist  ane  reyffar,  than  thou  becamist  airt  an  part  wi' 
him,  Riddell  Ps.  (1857  1  1.  18.  Gall.  For  aught  I  know  they  may 
be  art  and  part  in  supplying  undutied  stuff  to  various  law-breakin.g, 
king-contemning  grocers,  Crockett  Raiders  (1894)  v.  Wxf.  I'll 
be  neither  art  nor  part  in  their  doings,  Kennedy  iJajiis  Bow  (1867) 
295.     Dur.' 

[(i)  The  old  man  which  is  Corrupt  .  .  .  who  had  art 
and  part  ...  in  all  our  Bishops'  persecutions,  Hacket 
Ahp.  Williams  (c.  1670)  II.  86  (N.E.D.).  (2)  Gif  evir  I  wes 
othir  art  or  part  of  Alarudis  slauchter,  Bellenden  Cron. 
Scot.  (1536)  XII.  viii  (Jam.).  The  jingling  phr.  art  and  part 
arose  fr.  such  an  expression  as  '  to  be  concerned  in  either 
by  art  or  part '  (by  contrivance  or  participation).] 

ARTFUL,  adj.     e.An.     [atful.]     Clever,  intelligent. 

e.An.'  Of  our  Lord  in  His  mother's  arms  :  '  How  artful  He  do 
look.'  Suf.  (F.H.)  Ess.  I  have  a  strong  impression  that  I  have 
heard  a  cottager  say  of  her  little  boy  :  '  Yes,  he's  an  artful  little 
fellow  for  his  age'  (A.S.P.). 

ARTH,  see  Argh. 

ARTICLE,  sb.  Yks.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  e.An. 
Sus.  Hmp.  Som.  [a'tikl.]  A  term  of  contempt  for  an 
inferior  or  worthless  person  or  thing. 

n.Yks.  He's  a  bare  article  (I.W.).  w.Yks.  He's  a  bonny  article 
[spoken  of  a  person  exhibiting  eccentricities  of  conduct  of  any  kind] 
iJ.R.).  nw.Der.'  n.Lin.'  He's  a  sore  article  to  be  a  parson; 
he's  nobud  fit  to  eat  pie  oot  o'  th'  road  an'  scar  bo'ds  fra  beriy- 
trees.  Lei.'  A's  a  noist  airticle,  a  is!  Nhp.'  A  pretty  article  he 
is  !  War.=3,  e.An.'  e.An.^  He  is  a  poor  article.  Sus.,  Hmp. 
Generally  used  with  the  adjunct '  poor.'  That  is  a  poor  article, 
Holloway.  w.Som.'  More  commonly  used  of  things.  Of  a  bad 
tool  a  man  would  say :  Dhiish  yuurz  u  pur'tee  haar'tikul  shoa'ur 
nuuf  [this  is  a  pretty  article  sure  enough]. 

[The    contemptuous   use    of  the   word   is   due   to  its 




common  use  in  trade  for  an  item  of  commodity,  as  in  the 
phr.  'What's  the  next  article  ?'  of  the  mod.  shopkeeper.] 
ARTIFICIAL,  adj.     Lei.  Som.     [atifijl.] 

1.  Used  as  ii.    Artificial  or  chemical  manure  of  any  kind. 
w.Som.^  Tidn  a  bit  same's  use  ta,  way  farniorin,  tliey  be  come 

now  vor  to  use  such  a  sight  o'  this  here  hartificial.  Darn'd  it"  I 
don't  think  the  ground's  a-pwoisoned  way  ut.  We  never  didn 
hear  nort  about  no  cattle  plaayg  nor  neet  no  voot-an-mouth  avore 
they  brought  over  such  a  lot  o'  this  here  hartificial  Goaan'ur 
[Guano]  or  hot  ee  caal  ut. 

2.  Artistic  ;  having  the  appearance  of  being  produced 
by  art. 

Lei.i  The  word  artificial  is  rather  eulogistic. 

[2.  Artificial,  elaboratiis,  ieclmiciis,  affabre  facUis,  Cov£.s 
(1679)  ;  Artificial,  artful,  done  according  to  the  rules  of 
art,  Bailey  (1770).] 

ARTISHREW,  see  Harvest-row. 

ARTIST,  V.     Sur.     [a'tist.]     To  paint. 

Sur.  1  never  could  artist  a  bit  mysen,  Bickley  Sur.  Hills  (1890) 
I.  xiii. 

Hence  Artisting,  Vbl.  sb. 

Sot.  1  dunno'  approve  o'  this  artistin'. . .  it's  only  another  naame 
for  idling  abouiit,  Bickley  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  I.  xiii. 

[From  lit.  E.  artist,  sb.  a  painter.] 

ARVAL,  sb.  Sc.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Obsol.  Also 
written  arfal  Kennett;  arvel  N.Cy.'  w.Yks.'*;  arvil(l 
n.Yks.2  w.Yks.  m.Yks.i ;  averiU  n.Yks.^  w.Yks. 

1.  A  funeral  repast,  usually  consisting  of  bread  or  cakes 
with  ale.     Also  applied  to  funeral  ceremonies  in  general. 

Rxb.  Arval,  arvil-supper,  the  name  given  to  the  supper  or  enter- 
tainment after  a  funeral  (Jam.).  n.Cy.  Grose  (17901;  N.Cy.i, 
Cum.i2  Wm.i  Is  ta  ter  be  arvel  at  t'funeral  ?  The  custom  is  still 
observed.  n.Yks.  Come  bring  my  jerkin,  Tibb  ;  lie  to'th  arvill, 
Meriton  Piaisc  Ale  1,1684)  1.  419  ;  n.Yks.'  The  company  assembled 
— and  the  bidding  is  usually  for  an  hour  preceding  midday— the 
hospitalities  of  the  day  proceed,  and  after  all  have  partaken  of  a 
solid  meal,  and  before  the  coffin  is  lifted  for  removal  to  the  church- 
yard, cake,  or  biscuits,  and  wine  are  handed  round  by  two  females 
whose  office  is  specially  designated  by  the  term  '  servers '  ;  n.Yks.* 
Heard  thirty  years  ago,  but  now  obs.  ne.Yks.'  Obs.  w.Yks.  Hutton 
Tour  to  Caves  (1781)  ;  Now  heard  only  in  remote  places  like  the 
Haworth  valley  (S.P.U.)  ;  T'avole  will  be  at  t'Ling  Bob  iC.F.)  ; 
w.Yks.'*  Lan.  After  the  rites  at  the  grave,  the  company  adjourned 
to  a  public-house,  where  they  were  presented  with  a  cake  and 
ale,  called  an  arval,  Harland  &  Wilkinson  Flk-Lore  (,1867)  270 ; 
Lan.',  ne.Lan.' 

2.  Money  given  to  hunters,  at  the  death  of  a  fox,  in 
order  to  buy  ale. 


3.  Comp.  Arval-bread,  -cake,  the  bread  or  cake  pre- 
sented to  guests  at  a  funeral ;  -dinner,  -supper,  the 
funeral  entertainment. 

n.Cy.  Grose  Sh/>/iA  (1790)  ;  N.Cy. 2  Cum.  The  Dale  Head  stores 
of  small  cake-loaves  or  arval-bread,  and  the  like,  had  been  generous, 
Linton  L/'s^/V /.o^YoK  (i867^xxix;  Cum.'  Wm.  Every  person  invited 
to  a  funeral  receives  a  small  loaf  at  the  door  of  the  deceased  ,  .  . 
the  people  call  it  arval-bread,  Gough  Manners  (1847)  23  ; 
Small  loaves  of  fine  wheatcn  bread  were  distributed  amongst  the 
persons  attending  a  funeral  ;  they  were  expected  to  eat  them  at 
home  in  religious  remembrance  of  their  deceased  neighbour  ( J. H.)  ; 
Wm.'  n.Yks.  He  called  them,  not  funeral  biscuits,  but  averil 
breead,  Atkinson  71/oor/.  Palish  {\8gi)  228;  n.Yks.'  Confectioners 
at  Whitby  still  prepare  a  species  of  thin,  light,  sweet  cake  for  such 
occasions  ;  n.Yks.^  Averill-brecad,  funeral  Ibaves,  spiced  with 
cinnamon,  nutmeg,  sugar,  and  raisins.  Lan.',  n.Lan.'  Wm.  Pre- 
senting each  relative  and  friend  of  the  deceased  with  an  arvel  cake, 
Deiiham  Tracts  (ed.  1895  i  II.  55  ;  Wm.',  m.Yks.'  n.Lan.  The  arvel 
cake  is  still  handed  round  on  funeral  occasions,  A^.  &  Q.  (1858)  2nd 
S.  vi.  468.  Wm.  Among  the  rich,  the  custom  of  distributing  ar\'el 
bread  gradually  yielded  to  a  sumptuous  arvel-dinner,  Lonsdale 
Mag.  (1822)  III.  377.  ne.Lan.'  Arval-dinners,  given  to  friends  who 
attend  a  funeral  from  a  distance ;  common  in  Cartmel.  n.Cy. 
Arvill-supper,  a  feast  made  at  funerals,  Grose  (1790,  ;  lK.)j  N.Cy.^ 
[Arval,  or  Arvil,  burial  or  funeral  solemnity,  hence 
afvil-brcad,  loaves  distributed  to  the  poor  at  funerals, 
Bailey  (1755).  Dan.  arve-Ol,  ON.  erfi  61,  a  wake,  funeral 
feast,  comp.  oi  erfi,  a  funeral  feast,  and  o/,  an  '  ale,'  a  ban- 
quet, feast  (see  Ale).  ON.  aji  is  cogn.  with  er/il, 

ARVIE,  sb.  Sh.I.  The  common  chickwecd,  Slellaiia 

Sh.  {K.l.),  S.  *  Ork.' 

[Dan.  arve,  chickweed  ;  cp.  OE.  earfe,  a  tare.] 

AR-WO-HAY.  inl.     Nhb. 

Nhb.'  Ar-wo-hay,  a  cartman's  term  to  his  horse  to  steady. 

ARY,  see  Harry. 

AS,  rel.  proH.  Var.  dial,  of  Eng.  Not  in  Sc.  Nhb. 
Cum.  n.  and  e.Yks.  (see  At)  w.Som.  Dev.  Occas.  in  Dur. 
Will.  w.Yks.,  where  the  usual  rcl.  is  at,  q.v.    [sz.\ 

1.  Used  as  rel.  proit.  in  all  genders,  sing,  and  pi. 

Dur.  You  mean  him  as  Miss  T.  is  going  to  marry  A.B.).  Wm. 
A  par  o'  shoes  as  he'd  been  niakkin.  Spec.  Dial.  vi88o  pt.  ii.  33  ; 
Wm.'  Novvt  as  I  knaa  on.  w.Yks.  Her  as  ah  once  bed  call'd  mi 
queen,  Binns  Yksnian.  Xnias.  No.  (1888)  23;  w.Yks.'  Wlica's 
sheep's  them,  as  I  sa  yusterneet  ?  Lan.  Every  lad  and  everj'  wench 
as  went,  Harland  Sc  Wilkinson  Flk-Lore  (1867)  270.  n.Lan. 
I  luk't  for  him  as  me  sowl  lovs,  Phizackerley  Sng.  Sol.  (i860) 
iii.  I.  e.I/an.' He  as  buysstufl'asis  wanted.  Chs.' He's  the  chap 
as  did  it;  s.Chs.'  Wen'shiz  uz  kun  mil'k  [wenches  as  can  milk], 
Inlrod.  70.  s.Stf.  The  mon  as  did  that  disappeared,  Pinnock  Blk. 
Cy.  Ann.  118951  ;  Stf.^  Der.  Them  two  sheep  as  is  in  the  croft, 
Verney  Slone  Edge  1 1868  -  ii.  n.Der.  Let  a  mon  stick  to  his  station 
as  is  his  station.  Hall  Halhersagc  ,1896)  vii.  Lin.  Proputty's 
ivrything  'ere.  .  .  fur  them  as  'as  it's  the  best,  Tennyson  A'.  Fanner, 
New  Style  (1870)  st.  11  ;  Lin.'  ;  n.Lin.'  Whose  cauves  was  them 
as  1  seed  i'  Messingham  toon  strcat  ?  Lei.  Itz  won  az  wuz  gev 
[given]  mi  (C.E.~|.  Nbp.'  War.  Ready  to  kiss  the  ground  as  the 
missis  trod  on,  Geo.  Eliot  Amos  Barton  (,18581  vii  ;  War.^  A  lad 
as  could  kill  a  robin  'd  doanythink  ;  War.*  w.Wor.  His  butty,  as, 
he  said,  had  fettled  his  osses,  S.  Beauchamp  Grantley  Grange  1874  1 
1.30.  Shr.'  I'm  sartin  it  wuz  'im  as  1  sid  comin'out  o'  tlie  'George'; 
Shr.^Those  as  liken.  Hrf.'  ;  Hrf.^  The  man  as  told  me.  Glo.'  In 
gen.  use.  Oxf.'  The  mummers  say,  '  Yer  comes  I  as  ant  bin  it  [vet], 
Wi'  my  gret  yed,  an'  little  wit  [Yuur  kuumz  uuy  uz  aa-nt  bin  it, 
Wi  muuy  gret  yed,  un  litd  wit].  Brks.'  It  was  he  as  tawld  I. 
Bdf.  Field's  cart  as  takes  Louisa's  things  to-morrer,  Ward  B. 
Costrelt  n8g5)  21.  e.An.',  Hnt.  i,T.P.F.)  Nrf. The  song o'. songs, 
as  is  Sorlomun's,  Gillett  Sng.  Sol.  i  i86o^  i.  1.  Ess.  Buie  that  as 
is  needful,  thy  house  to  repaire,  Tt;sSER  Husbandrie  1580 1  57.  st 
47.  Sur.  They  pore  crethurs  as  has  to  moil,  Bickley  Sur.  Hills 
(i8go)  I.  i  ;  Sur.'  Som.  Doant  put  a  muzzle  on  tha  ox  as  draishes 
out  the  corn,  'Agrikler'  Rhymes  (18721  75;  In  e.Som.  'as' 
is  used  for  the  relative,  but  in  w.  we  should  say  'dhu  niae-un  want 
[what]  diied  ut,'  Elworthy  Craxi.  (1877  1  41.  n.Wil.  Tcake  us  th' 
voxes,  th'  leetle  voxes.  as  spwiles  th'  vines.  Kite  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  i860) 
ii.  15;  Wil.'  Dor.  iH.J.M.)  Cor. ^  He's  the  man  as  did  it  j^in  common 
use).     [Amer.  Nobody  as  I  ever  heard  on,  Bartlett.] 

2.  As+ poss.  pron.  used  for  gen.  case  of  rel. 

s.Chs.'  That's  th'  chap  as  his  uncle  was  hanged.  Introd.  70. 
Sm.  A  gentleman  from  India,  as  j'ou  see  his  name  writ  up, 
Jennings  Field  Paths  (1884)  22  ;  Sur.'  That  shepherd  wc  had  as 
his  native  were  Lewes. 

3.  In  phr.  (i)  as  everts;  (2)  as  was  (in  gen.  colloq.  use), 
formerly,  ne'e ;  also  used  redundantly  ;  (3)  all  as  is,  the 
whole  matter,  the  whole. 

(i)  Dor.  Last  Monday  as  ever  wur  (H.J.M.).  Dev.3  I'll  come  an' 
zee 'e  the  next  Monday  as-ivvcr-is.  (2  s. Not.  Ahve  just  seed  Miss 
Wright.  Miss  Wright  as  was,  ah  should  say— Mrs.  Smith.  1  wor 
coming  across  Tomkins'  orchard  as  was  J.P.K.).  Lin.  Only  last 
Soonday  .IS  was,  Fenn  Cure  0/ Souls  11889  7,  (3^  Lei.'  Oi  II  tell 
yer  missus  on  yer,  an'  that's  all  as  is.  War.*  All  as  is,  is  this,  I  sid 
'im  tek  th'  opple  mj'sclf.  w.Wor.'  I'll  give  'ee  ahl-as-is.  Slir.' 
All  .IS  is  is  tliis  ...  so  now  yo'  knowen.     Wil.' 

[Nor  will  he  .  .  .  wish  his  mistress  were  that  kind  of 
fruit  As  maids  call  medlars,  Siiaks.  A'.  &=  J.  11. 1.3.^;  Those 
as  sleep  and  think  not  on  their  sins,  ib.  Merry  Ii  .  v.  v.  57.] 

AS,  adv.     In  var.  dial,  uses  in  n.  and  midl.  counties  ; 
also  Sc.  Irel.  e.An.  Ken.  Sus.  Som.    [az.] 
1.  Used  redundantly. 

e.Yks.' Ah  can't  think  as hoo  it's deeati,.fl/S.  add.  (T.H.)  w.Yks. 
We  stopt  wi'  Jane  Ann  as  nearly  an  hahr  {JE,.^.).  Lan.  I  hope 
as  that  ye'll  nut  be  vext,  Harland  &  Wilkinson  Flk-Lore  (.1867) 
60  ;  We  hannot  had  a  battle  i'  this  heawse  as  three  j-ear  an'  moor, 
Waugh  Owd  Bodle,  253.  Stf.*  My  feyther  died  as  twel'  months 
come  Monday.  nw.Der.'  Not.  It'll  be  Goose  Fair  a  fortnight  as 
yesterday  (L.C.M.V  n.Lin.'  He  hesn't  been  here  sin  a  munth  as 
last  Boltesworth  feiist.  sw.Lin.'  A  week  as  last  Monday.  Nhp.' 
I  expect  him  as  next  week.     War.=  I'm  gooin'  to  my  uncle's  as  next 




Sunday.  Shr.^  'E  toud  me  they  wun  gwein  theer  as  nex'  Saturday ; 
Shr.2  Glo.  We  expected  him  as  yesterday,  N.  &=  Q.  (1878,  5th  S. 
ix.  256.      s.Oxf.  Wot  might  you  be  thinkin'  o'  doin'  about  that  now  ? 

As  how?  [in  what  way?]  Rosemary  Chilteriis    1895    168.     Mid. 

Don't  you  remember  me,  as  how  I  was  squeezed  and  scrouged 
into  your  little  back  room,  Grose  Olio  (17961  105-6.  e.An.'  He 
will  come  as  to-morrow.  Ken.^  I  reckon  you'll  find  it's  as  how  it 
is.  Sus.  I  can  only  say  as  this,  I  done  the  best  I  could,  N.  Cr"  Q. 
(1878  5th  S.  xi.  288.  w.Som.i  He  promised  to  do  un  as  to-morrow. 
You  zee,  sir,  'tis  like  as  this  here. 

2.  In  phr.  (i)  as  how,  however;  (2)  as  to,  towards,  with 
regard  to  ;  (3)  as  lahat,  as  ivhcrc,  wliatever,  wherever. 

( I )  w.Yks.  He  couldn't  find  a  lass  to  suit  him,  as  hah  he  lukt  aht, 
Hartley  Clock  Aim.  (1887)  40.  Lan.  I  mun  do  this  house  up  th' 
first,  as  how,  Waugh  Sphinx  \  1870)  iii.  (2  i  Ir.  How  the  devil  can 
a  man  be  stout  as  to  a  man.  and  afraid  of  a  ghost  ?  Barrington 
Sketches  (1830)  I.  viii.  (3  i  w.Yks.  Decide  at  yo'll  be  happy  as  what 
happens.  Hartley  C/of*^/j«.i  188814;  He'z  abetter  breed  nerthee 
ony  daay,  az  where  he  comes  thro',  Eccles  Leeds  Oliii.  '.  1879)  23. 

[Before  /ww  it  is  sometimes  redundant,  but  this  is  in 
low  language,  Bailey  (1755).  s.v.  As;  Whanne  thei 
hadden  rowid  as  fyue  and  twenti  furlongis,  Wyclif  (1388) 
Jo/iii  vi.  19.] 

3.  How.     Obs.  ? 

Sc.  See  as  our  gudemither's  hands  and  lips  are  ganging  .  .  . 
she'll  speak  eneugh  the  night,  Scott  Antiqitary  fi8i6)  xxvi. 

AS,  couj.  Sc.  Irel.  and  in  gen.  use  in  Eng.,  but  rarely 
in  sense  2  in  those  districts  where  at  (q.v.)  is  used,    [az.] 

1.  After  comparative  :  than. 

Sc.  Very  common  in  s.  counties.  Better  weir  schuin  as  sheets, 
Murray  Dial.  ^18731  i6g  ;  I  rather  like  him  as  otherwise,  Scott 
St.  Rouaii  (1824)  xxvi  ;  I  wad  rather  see  them  a'  ower  again,  as 
sic  a  fearfu'  flitting  as  hers  !  ib.  Antiquary  (1816;  xl  ;  Nay,  more 
as  that,  they  cut  out  his  hair,  5co//f.  (1787)  119;  I  would  rather  go 
as  stay,  ib.  8.  N.I.'  I'd  rather  sell  as  buy.  Yks.  Better  rue  sell 
as  rue'  keep,  Prov.  in  Biighoiise  News  (July  23,  1887)  ;  Better  hev 
a  maase  i'  t'pot  as  nae  flesh,  ;6.  (Aug.  10.  1889  .  n.Yks.  (I.W.) 
w.Yks.  I'd  rather  break  steeans  by  t'rooad  as  dew  so,  Lucas  Stud. 
Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  231.  [U.S.A.  I  would  rather  see  him  as  you, 
Dial.  Notes  (1895    376.] 

2.  Introducing  subord.  clause  :  that. 

Yks.  I'll  see  as  he  wants  nowt,  Westall  Birch  Dene  (1889:  I. 
232.  w.Yks.  Tell  Jack  ah'm  bahn  to  Bradforth  to-morn,  so's  he 
can  go  wi'  mha,  Leeds  Mere.  Siippl.  (May  30,  1891)  ;  Ah've  heeard 
as  Fred  Greenud  an' Polly  Scott  wor  bahn  to  bewedsooin  (>E.B.\ 
Lan.  It's  nowt  o'  th'  soart  ;  dunnot  yo  threep  me  doun  as  it  is, 
Burnett //a!£>o>7/;s  1887  jxvi.  ne.Lan.' He  said  as  he  wod.  Stf.^ 
Is  it  true  as  your  Bill's  bin  put  i'th  'ob?  [prison].  -n.Der.  They 
do  say  as  his  carpenters,  havin'  built  th'  ark,  .  .  .  weren't  let  enter 
in,  Hall  Hathersage  (1896)  vii.  s.Not.  I  don't  know  as  I  can, 
Prior  Renie  ^1895^  36.  Lei.  If  you'll  bring  me  any  proof  as  I'm 
in  the  wrong,  Geo.  Eliot  S.  Marner  '  1861I  40  ;  Lei.'  Almost  a  uni- 
versal substitute  for  '  that.'  War.2  w.Wor.^  You  don't  think  as 
I've  took  that  spoon  ?  ( s.  v.  Hurt).  Slir.'  They  sen  as  the  cranna- 
berries  bin  despert  scase  this  time.  Glo.  I  war'n  as  th'  owld 
squire  must  a'  felt  quite  proud  o'  hisself.  Buckman  Darke's  Sojourn 
(i8go)  6  ;  GI0.2  He  took  his  woath  as  I  layed  a  drap.  s.Oxf.  I 
don't  know  as  I  can,  Rosemary  Chilterns  (18951  41.  Snr.  History 
do  tell  as  a  high  tide  came  up,  Jennings  Field  Paths  (18841  3. 
Hmp.'  I  don't  know  as  I  do.  Wil.  I  seed  in  the  paper  as  the  rate 
is  gone  down  a  penny,  Jefkeries  Gt.  Estate  18801  ix.  n.Wil. 
Come  back,  as  we  med  look  upon  'ee.  Kite  Sng.  Sol.  <c.  i860) 
vi.  13.  Dev.  I  couldn't  say  as  I  knowed  the  rights  of  it,  O'Neill 
Idylls  (18921  22. 

3.  As  how,  as  why,  before  subord.  clause  :  that. 

Cum.'  He  said  as  how  he  wad  nivver  gang  near  them.  w.Yks. 
Ah  doan't  knawashah  Ahs'll  goa  ageean  (^.B.  .  Lan.  We  have 
heard  say  as  how  he's  coming  home,  Fothergill  Probation  1879)  i, 
Stf.^  I  toud  'im  as  'ow  he'd  cum  too  late.  He  said  as  why  he 
couldna  come.  There  is  even  the  construction  '  He  said  as  how 
as  why  he  couldna  come.'  Not.  He  said  as  how  the  fox  ran  clean 
past  him  (L.C.M.)  ;  Not.^  h.Lin.'  He  said  as  how  he  was  a  loongin' 
theaf.  Lei.*  Nhp.'  He  said  as  how  he'd  come.  War.°^  Slir,' 
I  'eard  the  maister  tellin'  the  missis  as  'ow  *e  wuz  gwein  to 
Stretton  far  ;  Shr.^  Saying  as  how  he  is  an  oud  mon.  Brks.*  A 
telled  muh  as  zo  his  ship  was  sheared  las'  Tuesday.  Hnt.  iT, P.F.) 
Ess.  She  shoolly  mighter  sin  as  how  the  booy  warnt  right,  Downes 
Ballads  (1895)  23.     Hmp.  I  knows  as  how  he  did  it  (H.C.M.B,). 

4.  With  or  without  anteced.  as,  and  ellipsis  of  can  be  : 
expressing  superl.  degree. 

n.Yks.  As  salt  as  salt  (I.W.V  w.Yks.  As  heait  as  heait  [hot], 
Lucas  Stud.  Nidderdale  i  c.  1882  231  ;  Hard  as  hard,  very  hard. 
Hot  as  hot,  as  hot  as  possible,  Banks  Il'k/ld.  IVds  (1865I.  Chs- 
As  happy  as  happy,  CloughB.  Bresskittle  '  1879'!  16.  s.Stf.  Ashot  as 
hot.PiNNOCiciJ/*  C)'..<4«»!.li895).  Lei.iC.E.l;  Lei.' One  of  the  com- 
monest descriptive  formulas.  War.  He'll  come  back  as  ill  as  ill, 
Geo.  Eliot  Janet's  Repent.  (1858)  viii  ;  War.'  ;  s.War.'  As  lusty 
as  lusty  [in  excellent  health].  s.Wor.'  As  black  as  black,  and 
so  with  other  epithets.  Glo.  (A.B.)  s.Oxf.  Once  a  fortnight 
I  bakes  reglar,  an'  that  keeps  as  moist  as  moist,  Rosemary 
Chilterns  (18951  98.  Oxf.'  MS.  add.  Ess.  There's  no  mistaike, 
Hill,  he's  as  owd  as  owd,  Downes  Ballads  118951  34.  Som.  His 
hair,  'twas  as  black  as  black,  Leith  Lemon  Verbena  (18951  50. 
Colloq.  The  sea  was  wet  as  wet  could  be,  The  sand  was  dry  as 
dry,  Carroll  Through  Looking-glass    1872). 

[1.  Ther  can  nocht  be  ane  mair  vehement  perplexite  as 
quhen  ane  person,  &c.,  Coiiiplayiit  of  Sc.  (i^^g)  71.  Cp. 
G.  iiiehr  als.  2.  That  the  Fop  .  .  .  should  say  as  he  would 
rather  have  such-a-one  without  a  groat  than  me  with 
the  Indies,  Sped.  No.  508.] 

A-SAM,  adv.     Obs.     Cor.    Of  a  door :  ajar. 
Cor.2  I  he  door's  a-sam. 
[A-,  on  +  sail!  (half),  q.v.] 

ASCANT,  rtrfy.    n.Yks.    [sska'nt.]     Oblique. 

A-SCAT,   aav.     Dev.     [sskae't.]     Broken  like  an  egg. 
Dev.  Grose    1790")  ;    Monthly  Mag   .  1808    II.  422  ;    Holloivay. 
[A-,  on  +  sent;  see  Scat  (to  scatter).] 
A-SCRAM,    adv.       Dor.       [askram.]       Of    a    limb : 
shrunken,  withered. 

Dor.  She  reluctantly  showed  the  withered  skin.  'Ah  !  'tis  all 
a-scram  !  '  said  the  hangman,  examining  it.  Hardy  U'ess.  Tales 
^I888l  I.  117  ;  It  would  be  normal  to  say  '  His  arm  is  all  a-scram,' 
though  if  attrib.  '  He  has  a  scram  arm  '  I^O.P.C).  ' 

[A-  {pn'f.^°}+ scram,  q.v.] 

ASCRIBE,  adv.  Som.  Cor.  Written  ascrode  Cor.' 

Som.  Nif  he'd  ...  a  brumstick  vor'n  to  zit  ascride,  Jennings 
Obs.  Dial.  U'.Eng.  '  18251  118.     Cor.'  She  rode  ascrode. 
[A-,  on +  scride  (prob.  a  pron.  of  stride}.] 
ASEE,  sb.     Or.I.     The  angle  contained  between  the 
beam  and  handle  on  the  hinder  side  of  a  plough. 
S.  &  Ork.'     Or.I.  Also  called  Nick  Jam.). 
ASELF,  see  Atself. 

A-SEW,  adv.  I.W.  Dor.  Som.  Cor.  Also_  written 
assue  Som.;  azew  Cor.';  azue  Cor.'^  [azde.]  Of 
cows  :  dry,  no  longer  in  milk. 

I.W.  The  cows  were  assue,  Moncrieff  Dream  in  Gent.  Mag. 
(1863']  ;  I.W.'  The  wold  cow's  azew  ;  I.W.^  1  wants  moor  milk 
than  I  got,  ver  near  all  the  cows  be  gone  azew.  Dor.  In  common 
use  round  Dorchester  O.P.C);  I  don't  want  my  cows  going 
azew  at  this  time  of  year,  Hardy  Tess  (1891 ;  139  ;  Dor.'  Som. 
A  cow  is  said  to  have  'gone  a-zue,'  Pulman  Sketches  (1842 1  77  ; 
I'll  zell  your  little  sparked  cow  that's  gone  a-sue,  Raymond  Sam 
and  Sabina  ( 1894 ,  43  ;  W.  &  J.  G/.  ( 18731  ;  Jennings  Obs.  Dial. 
w.Eng.  (i825>.  w.Som.'  A  cow  before  calving,  when  her  milk  is 
dried  off,  is  said  to  be  azue,  or  to  have  gone  '  zue.'  Cor.'^ 
[A-  (pref.^°)  +  sns.'.  q.v.] 
ASGAL,  see  Asker. 

ASH,   sb.^     In  var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Eng.    Also 
written  ass,  ess  ;  see  below,     [as,  es,  aej.] 
1.  Collective  sing.,  usually  written  ass  or  ess  :  fine  ashes, 
usually  from  coal.     See  Axen. 

Sc.  What  wad  ye  collect  out  of  the  sute  and  the  ass  ?  Scott 
B  of  Lam.  (1819')  xi ;  While  I  sithurklen  in  the  ase,  Ramsay  Tea- 
Table  Misc.  '  1724'!  I.  no,  ed.  1871.  Fif.  It'll  no  dac  to  sit  crootlin' 
i'  the  ace  a'  yer  days,  Robertson  Prcroost  18941  72.  Ayr.  In 
loving  bleeze  they  sweetly  join.  Till  white  in  ase  they're  sobbin. 
Burns //«//oz«iffH  (1785!  St.  10.  N.I.' Aas.  N.Cy.',  Nhb.',  Dur.' 
Cum.  Grose  (,1790);  Gl.  11851);  Meeting  a  boy  with  a  good- 
looking  ass  drawing  a  cart  laden  with  coal,  he  called  out,  'Stop, 
you  boy.  Whose  ass  is  that  ?  ' — '  It's  nut  ass  at  o',  it's  smo'  cwol,' 
Dickinson  Citmbr  (1876)  298.  Wm.i  n.Yks.'  Clamed  wiv  ass, 
smeared  over  with  ashes  ;  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.'  Put  a  bit  o'  ass 
uppo  t'trod,  it's  sae  slaap.  e.Yks.  Marshall  Riir.  Econ.  I17881  ; 
e.Yks.'  w.Yks.  Swept  all  t'ass  oft'crust,  Vk-esto-s  Moorside  Musins 
in  Yksnian.  (1878,  59  ;  w.Yks.'  I  hev  nout  to  do,  but  riddil  ass, 
!'•  357  ;  w.Yks.2  Coke  ass  ;  w.Yks.^"  Lan.  Ewt  o'  th'  ass  un 
dirt  i'  th'  asshoyle,  Paul  BoBBiN5<'7»f/(i8i9i  41.     n.Lan.  Piat  as 




iz  nat  bad  till  [manure].  Lan.i  Come,  lass,  sweep  th'  ess  up, 
an'  let's  bi  lookin'  tidy  ;  neXan.',  e.Lan.^  Chs.  Skeer  the  esse, 
separate  the  dead  ashes  from  the  embers,  Ray  116911;  (K.); 
Chs.'  ^  Stf.  '  Esse  '  are  only  the  ashes  of  turfs  when  burned  for 
compost  (,K.).  s.Stf.  This  coal  mak's  a  nasty  white  ess,  Pinnock 
Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  Stf.'^  Oi  waz  getting'  es  up  Ms  mornin  loik 
an  barnt  mi  and  wi  sum  ot  sindorz  [I  was  getting  the  ess  up  this 
morning  like,  and  burnt  my  hand  with  some  hot  cinders].  Der.'^, 
nw.Der.',  War.  l^J.R.W.),  War.3,  w.Wor.i  Shr.i  Yore  garden 
seems  to  be  a  very  stiff  sile,  John  ;  if  I  wuz  yo'  I'd  sprade  some 
ess  an'  sut  on  ;  Shr.^,  Hrf.'^ 
2.  Coinp.  (i)  Ash-ball,  obs.,  see  below;  (2)  -board, 
a  wooden  box  or  tray  to  hold  ashes  ;  (3)  -brass,  money 
obtained  by  the  sale  of  ashes  ;  (4)  -cake,  a  cake  baked  on 
the  hearth;  (5)  -card,  a  fire-shovel  ;  (6)  -cat,  (7)  -chat, 
one  who  crouches  over  the  fire;  (8)  -cloth,  (9)  -coup, 
see  below;  (10)  -grate,  (11)  -grid,  a  grating  over  the 
'ash-hole';  (12)  -heap-cake,  (13)  -lurdin.  (14)  -man, 
(15)  -manure,  (16)  -mixen,  (17)  -muck,  (18)  -mull,  (19) 
-padder,  (20)  -peddlar,  (21)  -pit,  (22)  rook,  (23)  -water, 
see  below.  [See  further  s.v.  Ash-backet,  -hole,  -midden, 
-nook,  -riddle,  -trug.] 

(I ,  Shr.'  Balls  made  of  the  ashes  of  wood  or  fern  damped  with 
water  ;  afterwards  sun-dried  .  .  .  and  used  for  making  buck-lee. 
Put  a  couple  o'  them  ess-balls  i'  the  furnace  an'  fill  it  up  OOth 
waiter  for  the  lee.  Ess-balls  were  sold  in  Shrewsbury  market  in 
181  r,  and  prob.  much  later  on.  121  Cum.  Asbuird,  Gkose  (1790) 
MS.  add.  iD.A.^  ;  He'sbut  an  asbuird  nieaker,  Anderson  Ballads 
(1808)  IVully  Miller.  Wm.  &  Cum.'  Wi'  th"  ass  buurd  for  a  teable, 
201.  Wm.',  ne.Lan.'  !3"i  w.Yks.  Ony  wumman  differin  abaght 
dividin'  t'hass-brass  sal  pay  one  penny,  Tom  Treddlehoyle 
Bainisla  Ann.  (.1847^  29.  (4  ■  Dev.^  When  the  hearthstone  is  very 
hot  the  ashes  are  swept  off  and  the  asli-cake  laid  on  it.  A  sauce- 
pan cover  is  then  set  over,  and  the  ashes  carefully  replaced  on  the 
cover.  i5")n.Yks.^  Ass-card,  Ass  caird,  afire-shovel  for  cleaning  or 
carding  up  the  hearth-stone  (see  Card;  ;  n.Yks.^  e.Yks.  Marshall 
Rur.  Econ.  U788i  Stippl.  m-Yks."^  i6i  Lan.'  Ass-cat,  a  term  of 
contempt  applied  to  lazy  persons  who  hang  habitually  over  the  fire. 
Dev.  Why  you  be  a  reg'lar  ash-cat  sitting  over  the  fire,  Repoiis 
Provinc.  '  1887)  3  ;  An  axen-cat  is  one  that  paddles  or  draws 
lines  in  the  ashes  with  a  stick  or  poker,  Monllily  Mag.  18081  II. 
422.  (7)  Dev.^  Ashchat,  a  person  who  leans  over  the  fire,  with 
elbows  on  knees,  in  a  dreamy  attitude  8  Ken.  P''  for  an  Ash- 

cloth  for  the  Workhouse,  6s.  6(/.,  PZ/rr/'/t')'  Ovcrsfers'  Ace.  (1796) 
(P.M.),  Sus.*  Ash  cloth,  a  coarse  cloth  fastened  over  the  top  of  the 
wash-tub  and  covered  first  with  marsh-mallow  leaves  and  then  with 
a  layer  of  wood  ashes  [through  this  the  water  was  strained  by 
washerwomen  in  order  to  soften  it],  (9)  n.Yks.'  Ass-coup,  a  kind 
of  tub  or  pail  to  carry  ashes  in  (see  Coup  ;  n.Yks.^  ne.Yks.' 
In  rare  use.  1 10  Cum.  Ass-grate,  the  grated  cover  over  the  hollow 
beneath  a  kitchen  fireplace  where  the  ashes  drop  (M.P.  ;  Cum.i 
ne.Wor.  In  this  district  the  word  Ass  or  Ess  is  used  only  in  the 
comp.  Ess-grate,  the  coverto  the  '  purgatory  '  iJ.W.P.).  (n.  Chs.' 
Ess-grid.  Stf.',  War.  1  J.R.W.)  (12  n. Lin.' Ash-heap  cake,  a  cake 
baked  on  the  hearth  under  hot  wood  embers.  (131  s.Chs,'  Hoo's  a 
terrible  ess-lurdin,  auvays  comin'  croodlin'  i'  th'  fire  [cf.  Ass-cat], 
(14)  n.Yks. '^  Ass-man,  the  dustman,  scavenger.  (151  n.Yks.'  Ass- 
manner,  manure,  so  called,  of  which  the  chief  constituent  is  ashes, 
especially  peat  or  turf  ashes.  ne.Yks.'  In  common  use.  1, i6'i 
s.Chs.'  Ess-mixen,  the  mixen  or  heap  upon  which  the  ashes  are 
thrown.  1 17  1  n.Yks.  '  They'll  be  all  clamed  wiv  .  .  .  ass-muck,'  in 
other  words,  smeared  over  with  peat-ashes  and  such  other  refuse 
as  is  thrown  into  an  ordinary  moorland  ash-pit,  Atkinson  Moorl. 
Parish  (1891')  I20  ;  n.Yks.2  (18)  ib.  Ass  mull  or  Turf-mull  (q.  v.\ 
the  ashes  from  a  turf  fire.  (191  Dev.  Ash-padder,  or  Pedder,  also 
called  Axwaddle,  q. v.,  Grose  (i-jgo)  MS.  add.  (H.  1;  Dev.^  Ash- 
padder,  a  person  who  goes  from  cottage  to  cottage  collecting  wood- 
ashes,  which  are  bought  by  farmers  to  mix  at  sowing  time  with 
seeds.  (20)  Som.  Axpeddlar,  a  dealer  in  ashes,  W,  &  J .  Gl.  \  1 873 !. 
(21)  Sc.  Ane  o' the  prentices  fell  i'  the  ase-pit.  Chambers  Pup. 
Rlivmes  (1870)  83.  Chs.^  Ash-pit,  the  general  receptacle  of  the 
rubbish  and  dirt  of  a  house.  [In  gin.  use.]  (22'i  Chs.'  Ess-rook, 
a  dog  or  cat  that  likes  to  lie  in  the  ashes.  Shr.'  This  kitlin'  inna 
wuth  keepin', — it's  too  great  a  ess-rook,  (23.  Ken,  To  have  ,  .  . 
usefuU  utensils  to  wash  with,  to  make  bucking,  ash  water,  &c., 
Pluckley  Veslry  Bk.  (Feb.  1787);  Ash-water  is  hard  water  made 
soft  for  washing  clothes  by  pouring  it  through  an  ash-cloth  vq.  v.). 
The  process  is  still  in  use    P  M. ). 

[1.  The    litle  cloude  as  aske   he  sprengeth,  Wyclif 
(1382)  Ps.  cxlvii.  16  ;  Which  .  .  .  spredith  abrood  a  cloude 

as  aische,  ib.  (1388) ;  Kloude  as  aske  he  strewis.  Ham- 
pole  Ps.  cxlvii.  5.     OE,  asce,  '  cinis,'] 

ASH,  A-6,*  In  var,  dial,  uses  throughout  Sc,  Irel.  Eng. 
Also  written  esh  Nhb.'  n.Yks,*  w,Yks,*  n,Lin,' ;  eisch 
Lan,'     [aj,  ej.] 

1,  The  leaf  of  an  ash-tree ;  in  comb.  Even-ash,  Even- 
leaf  ash, 

N.I.'  Even  ash,  an  ash-leaf  with  an  even  number  of  leaflets,  used 
in  a  kind  of  divination.  The  young  girl  who  finds  one  repeats 
the  words — '  This  even  ash  1  hold  in  my  ban'.  The  first  I  meet  is 
my  true  man.'  She  then  asks  the  first  male  person  she  meets  on 
the  road  what  his  Christian  name  is,  and  this  will  be  the  name 
of  her  fiiture  husband.  Nhb.  Even-esh  is  a  lucky  find,  and  is  put 
into  the  bosom,  or  worn  in  the  hat,  or  elsewhere,  for  "luck 
(R.O.  H.);  Even -ash,  under  the  shoe,  will  get  you  a  sweetlieart.  It  is 
placed  in  the  left  shoe,  Denliam  TVac/sied.  1895  1.  282  ;  Nhb.'  It 
is  considered  as  lucky  to  find  an  even-esh  as  to  find  a  four-leaved 
clover.  w.Shr.  [Used  for  divination,  as  in  Irel.]  in  agreement  with 
the  well-known  rhyme — '  Even  ash  and  four-leaved  clover.  See 
your  true-love  ere  the  day's  over,'  Bukne  FlkLore  1883)  181. 
Wil.'  On  King  Charles'  day.  May  29,  children  carry  Shitsack, 
sprigs  of  young  oak,  in  the  morning,  and  Powder-monkey,  or 
Even-ash,  ash-leaves  with  an  equal  number  of  leaflets,  in  the 
afternoon  's.v.  Shitsack.  nw.Dev.'  A  haivm  laiv  ash  An*  a  vower 
laiv  clauver.  You'll  sure  to  zee  your  true  love  Avore  the  day's 
auver,  Introd.  20. 

2.  Comp.  (i)  Ash-candles,  (2)  -chats,  (3)  -holt,  see  below; 
(4)  -keys,  the  seed-vessels  of  the  ash  (see  Keys) ;  (5) 
-plant,  an  ash  sapling  or  stick  ;  (6)  -planting,  a  beating 
with  an  ash  stick;  (7)  -stang,  (8)  -stob.  (9)  -stole,  (10) 
-tillow,  see  below  ;  (11)  •top,a  variety  of  potato;  (i2)-weed, 
ALgopodiuut  podagraria,  or  goutweed. 

U)  Dor.  Ash-candles,  the  seed-pod  of  the  ash-tree,  Gl.  (1851'^  ; 
Dor.i  (2)  n.Cy.  Ash-chats,  or  keys,  Grose  (1790)  s.v.  Chat, 
q.v.  (3^  U.Lin.'  Esh-holl,  a  small  grove  of  ash  trees.  14I  Sc. 
I  have  seen  the  ash-keys  fall  in  a  frosty  morning  in  October, 
Scott  Bk.  Dwatf  {1Q16 .  vii.  Nhb.  Ash-keys  is  the  common  term 
for  the  seed  of  the  ash  (R.O.H.  ,  w.Yks,*  An  old  farmer  in  Full- 
wood  affirmed  that  there  were  no  ash-keys  in  the  year  in  which 
King  Charles  was  put  to  death.  Lan.'  Let's  ga  an'  gedder  some 
eisch-keys  an'  lake  at  conquerors  [i.e.  the  wings  of  the  seed  are 
interlocked  ;  each  child  then  pulls,  and  the  one  whose  '  keys '  break 
is  conquered],  e,Lan.',  Chs. '3,  Not.',  n.Lin.',  Lei.'  Nhp.'  The 
failure  of  a  crop  of  ash-keys  is  said  to  poitend  a  death  in  the  royal 
family.  War.^,  Sur.'  Dev."  Also  called  locks  and-keys,  shacklers. 
[The  fruit  like  unto  cods  ...  is  termed  in  English,  Ash-keyes,  and 
of  some,  Kite-keyes,  GERARDE'ed.  1633  1472]  (51  w.Yks.^An  ash 
stick  is  usually  called  an  esh-plant.  s.Chs.'  Tha  wants  a  good  ash- 
plant  abowt  thy  back.  Stf.*  If  the  dustna  let  them  cows  bc,  I'll 
lay  this  ash-plant  about  thf.  n.Lin.  Cuts  hissen  a  esh-plant  to 
notch  doon  all  the  fools  he  fin's  on.  Peacock  Tales  and  Rhymes 
(i886)  63;  n.Lin.'  There  is  a  widespread  opinion  that  if  a  man 
takes  a  newly  cut  esh  plant  not  thicker  than  his  thumb,  he  may 
lawfully  beat  his  wife  with  it.  War.^  An  ash-plant  is  an  article 
that  no  well  furnished  farm-house  and  few  schoolmasters  would  be 
without,  Dev,  On  the  leeward  side  of  a  stiff  bulwark  of  newly 
bill  hooked  aihplant,  Blackmore  Kit  (1890)  II.  i,  161  n.Lin.  I'll 
gie  ye  an  esh-plantin'  ye  weant  ferget.  Peacock  Taales  1889  89. 
I  7  n.Yks.2  Esh-stang,  an  ash-pole,  i  8  li.  Esh-stob,  an  ash-post. 
19  Wil.  Hares  .  .  .  slip  quietly  out  from  the  form  in  the  rough 
grass  under  the  ashstole  [stump],  Jefferies  Gamekeeper  (1878;  31. 
(lo'i  Hmp.  Ash  tillows  are  young  ash-trees  left  growing  when  a 
wood  is  cleared,  Marshall  Reviciv  i  1817  >  V.  (11  :  Ess.  Those  on 
the  right  are  ashtops.  Baring-Gould  Mehalah  f  18851  '54-  ('2) 
Shr.  Ash  weed,  perhaps  from  casual  resemblance  to  the  leaf  of  the 
Ash.     Wil.',  w.Som.' 

3.  With  adj.  used  attrib.  in  plant-names :  (i)  Blue  ash, 
Syriiiga  vulgaris,  lilac  (Glo.) ;  (2)  Chaney  ash,  Cvlisiis 
labiiyiiiiiit  (Chs.);  (3)  French  ash,  C.  labiinitim  (Uer.); 
(4)  Ground  ash,  JEgopodiiiiii  podagraria  (Chs.  Lin.  War.) ; 
Angelica  sylvcslris  (n.Cy.) ;  (5)  -Spanish  ash,  Sj'n'iiga  vul- 
garis (Glo.);  (6)  Sweet  ash,  /I iil/irisais  sylveslris  [Glo.) ; 
(7)  White,  Sj'riiti;a  vidgaris  (G\o.) ;  ALgopodium  poda- 
graria (Som.) ;  (8)  "Wild  as'h,  ^.podagraria  (Cum.). 

G!o.'  Spanish  ash,  the  lilac.  w.Som.'  White  ash,  the  plant 
goutweed.     Usual  name. 

[Esch  key,  frute,  clava,  Prompt. ;  Ash-weed,  Herba 
Gerardi,  Coles  (1679);  Ayshwa;de,  Ilcrbe  Gerard,  or 
Goutworte,  Minsheu  (1617). J 




ASH,  V.  Yks.  Lin.  Written  esh.  [e/.]  To  flog,  beat ; 
cf.  to  birch,  hazel. 

e.Yks.  So  called  from  the  esh  [ash]  plant  being  the  instrument 
used  by  the  castigator,  Nicholson  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  26;  e.Yks.' 
w.Yks.  M.B.)  n.Lin.i  If  we  catch  boys  gettin'  bod  nests  we 
esh  'em. 

ASH,  see  Arrish. 

ASHARD,  adv.  Glo.  WiL  [aja-d.]  Of  a  door  :  ajar. 
See  Ashore. 

Glo.i  n.Wil.  (oAso/.)  The  door's  ashard  (G.E.D.).  WU.i  Put 
the  door  ashard  when  you  goes  out. 

[A-  (/>>r/!°) +5/;o>r(/ (propped).] 

ASH-BACKET,  sb.  Sc.  Written  ass-,  ase-backet 
(Ja*.).  a  small  tub  or  square  wooden  trough  for  holding 

w.  &s.Sc.  Dimin.  ofassback,  a  back  or  tub  for  ashes  f  J  am.').  Abd. 
Aise-backet,  the  common  name  for  what  in  Per.  is  called  a  backie 
(G.W.>.  Gall.  The  aristocratic  avenues  of  the  park,  bordered  with 
frugal  lines  of  'ash  backets'  for  all  ornament,  Crockett  SlickU 
Milt.  1 1893  I  155. 

ASH-COLOURED  LOON,  sb.  The  great  crested  Glebe, 
Podiceps  cn's/a/ns.     Also  called  Ash-coloured  Swan. 

SwAINSON  Birds  I  1885     21  S. 

ASH-COLOURED  SAND-PIPER,  s6.  Irel.  The  Knot, 
Ttiiiga  caiuitiis. 

It.  So  ciUed  from  the  sober  tints  of  its  feathers  in  winter, 
SwAiNSON  Hirds  (18851  '95- 

ASHELT,  advb.  phr.  Obs.  Yks.  Lan.  Perhaps, 

w.Yks.  Watson //('s/.////Cv  (1775^531;  CvD\vomiiHotion(i866'); 
w.Yks.*  Lan.  Cou'd  ashelt  sell  bur  eh  this  tother  pleck,  Tim 
Bobbin  View  Dial.  1,1746)  29,  ed.  1806  ;  Davies  Races  (1856;  270; 

[As  +  helt  iWk&Xy),  q.v.] 

ASHEN,  sb.  Lan.  Chs.  Der.  Obsol.  Written  eshin. 
A  kind  of  pail,  used  for  carrying  milk. 

n.Cy.  I  K.  I  ;  Eskin  [5;c],  Grose  (17901;  N.Cy.^  w.Lan.  Bring 
th'  eshin  here  (H.M.^.  Chs.' Wooden  milkpails  are  still  in  occas. 
use.  Often  pronounced  Heshin,  and  [soiaetimes]  so  spelt  in 
auctioneers'  catalogues  ;  Chs.'  These  pails  are,  I  believe,  always 
made  of  ash  wood.     Der.'  Ubs. 

Hence  Eshintle,  an  '  ashen  '  or  '  eshin  '  full. 

Chs.  Get  a  eshintle  o'  th'  best  Jock  Barleycorn,  Clough  B. 
Bressh'//!e    iSig,  16;  Chs.'^ 

[See  Ashen,  adj.] 

ASHEN,  ad/.  Lei.  War.  Shr.  Glo.  e.An.  Ken.  Sus.  Wil. 
Dor.  Som.  Cor.     [a'Jan,  as'Jsn.] 

1.  Made  of  the  wood  of  the  ash  ;  belonging  to  the  ash. 
Sus.'     Wil.  Slow  Gl.  118921.     n.'Wil.   I  wants  a  aishen  stake 

(E.H  G.).  Dor.  The  moss,  a  beat  vrom  trees,  did  lie  Upon  the 
ground  in  ashen  droves,  Barnes  Poems  118691  87.  w.Som.'  Su 
geod  u  aa-rshn  tae-ubl-z  livur  yiie  zeed  [as  good  an  ash  table  as 
you  ever  saw].  Cor.  Charm  for  the  bite  of  an  adder — '  Bradgty, 
bradgty,  bradgty,  under  the  ashing  leaf,'  Quiller-Couch  Hist. 
Polf-eno  f  18711  148. 

2.  Comp.  (i)  Ashen-faggot,  a  faggot  of  ash-wood ;  (2) 
-keys,  the  fruit  of  the  ash  ;  (3)  -plant,  an  ash  sapling ; 
(4)  -tree,  the  ash. 

!, I  w.Som.'  AaTshn  faaknit,  the  large  faggot  which  is  alw.iys 
made  of  ash  to  burn  at  the  merry-making  on  Christmas  Eve  — both 
Old  and  New.  We  know  nothing  of  a  yule-log  in  the  West.  It 
is  from  the  carouse  over  the  ashen-faggot  that  farmers  with  their 
men  and  guests  go  out  to  wassail  the  apple-trees  on  old  Christmas 
Eve  (Jan.  5).  The  faggot  is  always  specially  made  with  a  number 
of  the  ordinary  halse  binds,  or  hazel  withes.  (2)  Ken.'  Ashen- 
keys,  so  called  from  their  resemblance  to  a  bunch  of  keys.  (siWar.^ 
Ashen-plant,  an  ash  sapling  cut  to  serve  as  a  light  walking-stick 
or  cane.  Shr.'  Whad  a  despert  srode  lad  that  Tum  Rowley  is, 
•e  wants  a  good  ashen-plant  about  'is  'ide  ;  Shr.'  Lay  a  good 
eschen  plant  across  his  shouthcrs.  (4^  Lei. '  Ashentree,  Ashentree, 
Pray  buy  these  warts  of  me.'  A  wart-charm.  A  pin  is  stuck  into 
the  tree,  and  afterwards  into  a  wart,  and  then  into  the  tree  again, 
where  it  remains  a  monument  of  the  wart  which  is  sure  to  perish, 
Northall  Gl.  (1896}.  War.2  Glo.',  e.An.',  Sufif.  (C.T.)  Dor. 

[By  ashen  roots  the  violets  blow,  Tennyson  In  Mem. 
cxv ;  At  once  he  said,  and  threw  His  ashen  spear, 
Dryden  (Johnson)  ;  Ashen  keys,  Fruclus  /ra.xiiieiis, 
Imgua  aviculae,  Coi.ES  (1679).     ^sh,  sb.2-^  -«/,  adj.  suff.] 

ASHER,  adj.  Yks.  [e'Jar.]  Made  of  ash  wood.  Also 
used  as  sb. 

n.Yks.  Ah  teeak  a  esher,  an'  gav  t'dog  a  good  threshing  (I. W.) ; 
n.Yks.'  An  asher  pail.      An  asher  broom. 
'  [Ash  (the  tree)4--fr,  of  doubtful  origin.] 

ASHET,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  [a-Jet.]  A  dish  on  which  a 
joint  is  served ;  also  used  for  a  pie-dish. 

Sc.  Scolic.  1 1787  9 ;  Grose  1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  ;  Gie  me  here 
John  Baptist's  head  in  an  aschet,  Henderson  St.  Malt.  1 1862, xiv.  8. 
S.  &  Ork.'^  MS.  add.  Ir.v.  (H.E.F.)  Bwk.  What  sort  of  a  plate, 
or  ashet,  or  server  it  was  placed  upon,  Henderson  Pop 
Rhymes  (,1856)  24.  Slk.  You're  a  dextrous  cretur,  wi'  your  ashets 
o'  wat  and  dry  toast,  Chr.  North  Nodes  Ambios.  (ed.  1856)  III. 
95.  Nhb.  Heard  on  the  n.  borders,  but  not  in  gen,  use,  and  prob. 
introduced  by  immigrants  from  Scotland  iR.OH.). 

[Fr.  assictte,  a  trencher-plate  (Cotgr.).] 

ASH-HOLE,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin. 
War.  Wor.  Shr.  Dor.  Also  written  ass-,  ais(s- Sc;  ass- 
hooal  nYks.2  ne.Yks.'  e.Yks.';  -hwole  Nhb.';  -boil 
w.Yks.^;  ess-  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  War.  Wor.  Shr.;  ess- 
hwole  Nhb.' ;  axen-  Dor.'     [a's-,  e's-ol,  -csl,  -oil.] 

L  A  hole  to  receive  ashes,  beneath  or  in  front  of  the 
grate.     Also  called  Purgatory,  q.v. 

Sc.  The  cat  [was]  in  the  ass-hole,  makin  at  the  brose,  Down  fell 
a  cinder  and  burnt  the  cat" s  nose,  Chambers  Pop.  Rhymes  (1870) 
27.  Per.  Ais-hole  G.W.i.  eLth.  The  wumman  that  tint  the  sax- 
pence,  an'  soopit  oot  her  hoose  but  an'  ben,  an'  rakit  oot  the  aiss- 
hole,  Hu.nter  /.  Iiizvick  (1895I  21.  Edb.  Throwing  the  razor  into 
the  ass-hole,  MoiR  MansieWauch\i828]^2.  Nhb.',  n.Yks.',  ne.Yks.', 
e.Yks.'  w.Yks.  He  threw  it  into  t'ass-hooal,  'Eavesdropper'  Vill. 
Life  (1869I  7;  w.Yks.';  w.Yks.^  Tell'd  her  a  hunderd  times  nivver 
to  put  t'poaker  i'  t'ass-hoil.  Lan.  Deawn  he  coom  o'  th'  harstone, 
on  his  heeod  i'  th'  esshole,  Tim  Bobbin  View  Dial.  (1746;  52,  ed. 
1819  ;  Thou'd  rayther  sit  i'  th*  hesshole,  brunnin'  thy  shins  i' 
th'  fire,  than  stick  to  thy  loom,  Brierley  Cast  upon  World  1,18861 
25  ;  Lan.'  m.Lan.'  '  Dusta  think  as  a  ass-hoyle  is  a  place  to  put  a 
jackass  in  ?' aw  axt  him.  He  dud  !  Chs.' Often  used  metaphorically 
for  the  fire  itself.  Ah  set  wi'  my  knees  i'  th'  ess-hole  aw  day  long  ; 
Chs.3  Go's  rootin  in  the  esse  hole,  aw  dee.  s.Chs.'  To  *root  i' 
the  ess-hole  '  is  a  common  expression  for  staj-ing  constantly  by  the 
fire.  s.Stf.  We  roasted  taj'turs  in  the  ess-hole,  Pinnock  Blk.  Cv, 
Ami.  11895).  Stf.2,  nw.Der.',  n.Lin.',  War.  J. R.W.I,  w.Wor.' 
Shr.'  Common  ;  Shr.^  Also  called  the  Purgatory.  Dor.' 
2.  An  outdoor  ash-heap  or  dust-hole. 

Sc.  A  round  excavation  in  the  ground  out  of  doors,  into  which 
the  ashes  are  carried  from  the  hearth  (Jam. '.  n.Yks.' ^  w.Yks. 
Leeds  Merc.  Sitppl.    May  30,  1891).     n.Lin.' 

ASHIEPATTLE,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Also  written  aessie- 
pattle  S.  &  Ork.' ;    asliiepelt  Irel.      [e'si-patl,  a'Ji-pelt.] 

A  dirty  child,  that  lounges  about  the  hearth;  also  applied 
to  animals.     Sometimes  used  adjectivally.     Cf.  ashcat. 

Sh.I.  Still  in  common  use  ;  applied  occasionally  as  a  term  of 
contempt  to  any  of  the  young  domestic  animals,  such  as  pigs, 
kittens.  Sec,  which  are  often  found  lying  at  the  fireside  in  a  country 
house  (K.I.).  S.  &  Ork.'  Sc.  (Jam.)  n.Ir.  Obsol.  (M.B.-S.) 
Ant.  Ashipelt,  Ballymeiia  Obs.  (1892V  Dub.,  Dr.  Common  here, 
but  seldom  heard  n.  of  the  Boyne  i,M.B.-S.). 

[Prob.  a  der.  oi  ash-pit.  See  Ash,  sb}  2.  Cp.  G.  aschen- 
pultel;  see  Grimm  Myth.  107  (Sanders).] 

ASH-MIDDEN,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks. 
Lan.  Chs.  Der.  Written  ess-  Chs.  Der. ;  ass-,  ais-  Sc. 
[a's-,  e's-midsn.]     An  ash-heap. 

Per.  (G.W.),  N.Cy.',  Nhb.',  Dur.'  Cum.  &  Wm.  Thou's  niver 
been  five  mile  frae  an  ass-midden  [a  comic  banter](M. P.).  n.Yks.'^, 
ne.Yks.',  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.  When  t'ship  lands  on  t'ass-midden 
[referringto  an  unlikely  contingency^,  Proi'.  in  Brighotise  News(]u\y 
23,  1887)  ;  Fotch  a  soop  up,  for  we're  all  three  as  dry  as  a  ass- 
midden.  Hartley  Ptiddiii  1 18761  46  ;  w.Yks.'  He  then  com  ower 
t'ass-midden  to  t'door,  ii.  293;  w.Yks.^*  Lan.  Aw'd  dee  upo'  th* 
fust  hess-middin  ut  aw  coom  to,  Brieri.ey  Layrock  (1864)  xi  ; 
n.Lan.  I  nivver  went  mair  'an  a  mile  frae  me  an  ass-midden, 
PiKETAH  Foitiess  Flk.  18701  34.  ne.Lan.'  Chs.'  He'll  never  get 
a  mile  from  a  ess-midden,  Prop.    nw.Der.' 

ASH-NOOK,  sb.  Yks.  Written  ass-  Yks.  [a-s-niuk.] 
1.  The  space  beneath  the  grate  where  the  ashes  fall. 

n.Yks.2  w.Yks.  A  bahncin  ratten  [rat]  jumpt  aht  at 
asnook,  BY^VATER  Sheffield  Dial.  (18391  8;  Bang  went  eggs,  col- 
lops,  an'  t'plate,  reight  intut  ass  nook,  Oewsbrt  Dim.  (1866)  14  ; 
w.Yks.2  3  5 




2.  The  chimney-corner,  '  ingle-nook.' 
w.Yks.  Com'  sit  in  t'assnook  wi'  me  (W.F.'l  ;     He  sat  hisscn 
daan  i'  th*  assnook,  an'  Maily  gate  liim  a  giil  o'  hooam  brew'd, 
Hartley  Clotk  Aim.  (,1887)  a  ;   Common  in  Wilsden,  Leeds  Merc. 
Sii/'/'l.  '  May  30,  1891). 

ASHORE,  adv.  Wor.  Hrf.  Glo.  Oxf.  _WiI.  Also 
ashare  Wor.  See  Ashard.  [3joa'(r),  3ja-(r).]  Of  a 
door  :    ajar,  half-open. 

Wor.  Leave  the  door  a  little  ashore  (H.K.)  ;  ne.Wor.  Ashare 
(J.W.P.).     Hrf.',  Glo.    A.B.\  Glo.',  Oxf.',  WU.' 

[A-,  on  + shore  (a  prop).] 

ASHOTAY,  see  Accroshay. 

ASH-RIDDLE,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  War.  Also  ass-  Yks.  ; 
ess-  Chs.  [as-,  es-ridl.J  A  sieve  or  '  riddle '  (q.v.)  for 
sifting  ashes. 

w.Yks.  Ga.iyan'  teach  thi  granny  to  sup  milk  aht  o' t'ass-riddle, 
Piov.  in  Brii^huiise  Neii'S  July  23,  1887^ ;  Yo  wor  ta  be  presented  wi 
a  hass-riddle,  Tom  Triddleiioyle  Dairiisla  Ann.  ^1847)  51.  Chs.', 
s.Chs.',  War.  \].R.'^.) 

Hence  Ash-riddling,  divination  from  riddling  ashes,  on 
St.  Mark's  Eve  (April  24). 

N.Cy.'  n.Yks.'  On  St.  Mark's  Eve  the  ashes  are  riddled  on  the 
hearth,  for  the  superstition  still  lingers,  that  if  any  of  the  inmates 
of  the  house  be  going  to  die  within  the  3"car,  the  print  of  iiis,  or 
her,  shoe  will  be  found  impressed  in  the  soft  ashes  icf.  Chaff- 
riddling)  ;  n.Yks. 2  What  has  survived  of  this  custom  seems  more 
common  in  our  country-places,  where  the  fire  burns  on  the  hearth. 
m.Yks.',  w.Yks.l 

ASH-TRUG,si.  Cum.  Written  ass- Ciim.i  [a's-trug.] 
A  wooden  scuttle-shaped  vessel  for  carrying  coal  or 

Cum.  Billy  cawd  it  'asstrug,'  '  Silfheo'  Billy  Brannan  (1885^  4  ; 
Grose  1790I  ;  Hollow.vy  ;  CI.  U^S''  !  Still  in  common  use 
(,W.K.);  Cum.' 

ASHYPET,  sb.     Sc.  Irel.     Also  written  assypet  Sc. 

1.  A  child  or  animal  that  lounges  about  the  hearth.  See 
Ashiepattle,  Assypod. 

Dub.,  Dr.  A  dirty  or  neglected  child  would  not  be  called  'ashipet' 
unless  also  lazy  and  useless.  Applied  also  to  dogs  and  cats,  which 
lie  lazily  by  the  fireside  i.M.B.-S.). 

2.  An  idle  or  slatternly  woman ;  a '  Cinderella,'  engaged 
in  dirty  kitchen  work.     Occas.  applied  to  a  man. 

Ayr.  Nobody  to  let  me  in,  but  an  ash}'pet  lassie  that  helps  her 
for  a  servant,  Sti-tiin//uat  (1822  259  (Jam.  ).  Lul.  Easter  Whitburn's 
assy  pets,  Chambers  Pop.  Rhymes  ^1870  246.  Dr.  A  lazy  man 
or  woman  is  called  '  ashipet'  ;M.I3.-S. ). 

ASIDE,  adv.  and  prep.  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf.  Dcr.  Lin.  War.  Shr.  Ken.  Sur.     [ssai'd.] 

A.  prep. 

1.  Of  place  or  position  :  near,  by  the  side  of. 

Frf.  The  watchers  winna  let  me  in  aside  them.  Barrie  Mittister 
(18911  iv.  Per.  Ye  'ill  just  get  up  aside  me,  Ian  Maclaren  Biier 
Push  '^18951  167.  Rnf.  M.nggie,  now  I'm  in  aside  ye,  Tannahill 
Poems  118071  153.  Gall.  Climb  up  there  aside  the  other  four, 
Crockett  Boi;  Mvrtle  U895,  214.  Nhb.  Ye  shanna  gan  aside  us. 
N.  Minstrel  11806-71  pt.  iv.  76;  Feed  thaw  lams  aside  the  ship- 
ports'  sheels,  Robson  Sng.  Sol.  (.1859"!  i.  8;  Nhb.'  Sit  doon 
aside  us,  hinney.  Cum.  O  that  down  asejde  her  my  head  I  coidd 
lay,  Anderson  BnlUuls  ^1808  Cocker  0'  Codbeck  ;  She  met  me  ya 
neeght  aside  Pards'aw  Lea  yatt,  Gilpin  Ballads.  3rd  S.  ed.  1874) 
72 ;  Cum.'  Parton  aside  Whitten  ;  Cum.^  Oald  Abcrram  lies 
a  fine  heap  or  two  leggan  aside  Kirgat.  9.  n.Yks.  Feed  tliah  kids 
aside  the  shepherds'  booths,  U'hilby  Sng.  Sol.  1 1860)  i.  8  ;  Just 
think  what  things  thou  promist  mah  Asahd  t'awd  willow  tree, 
TwEDDELL  Clevcl.  P/iyiiies  1 18^5^  30;  n.Yks.*  e.Yks.' Ah'll  sit 
aside  Tom.  Greenwicii's  aside  Lunnan,  MS.  add.  \T.H.)  Stf.'. 
nw.Der.'.  n.Lin.',  War.''    Ken.'  I  stood  aside  him  all  the  time.    Sur.' 

2.  InyTj^-.  sense:  beside  oneself,  distracted. 

ne.Lan.  And  he's  aside  hissel,  cose  yo've  cracked  up  his  playin. 
Mather  Idylls  1 1895    48. 

3.  Compared  with. 

Frf.  Adam  was  an  erring  man,  but  aside  Eve  he  was  respectable, 
Earuie  Minister  (1891  x.  Per.  Naething  tae  speak  of  aside  you, 
Kirsty,  Ian  Maclaren  A idd  Lang  Syne  \i8^5    127. 

B.  adv. 

1.  In  addition,  moreover,  besides,     ./^.s/f/co',  in  addition  to. 
■w.Yks.  You'll  be  wondrous  cunning  if  you  get  any  aside.  Burn- 
ley S/tf/c/zes  ( 1 875  1  131.     Lan.  She  knowedawthe  boible  through, 
VOL.  I. 

asid  o'  th'  hymn-book,  Burnett  /fauort/is  1887  vi.  Shr.'  Poor 
young  o6man,  'er's  got  the  pipus  [typhus]  faiver— the  fluency 
[influenza],  an'  'afc  a  dozen  plaints  aside.  Ken.' Very  common  at 

2.  Aside  of,  on  the  side  of,  beside. 

Cum.3  Aside  o'  t'wide  stair  heead,  98.       w.Yks.  Paster  thay 

kids    asaide   o'   t'shepherds'  tents,   Littledale  Craven  Sng.  Sol. 

1 1859  i.8  ;    Shoofotched  me  a  dander  aside  o"  t'earhoyle.  Hartley 

Clock  Aim.   1 1874  I  42  ;  Two  chaps  used  to  work  aside  o'  me,  ib. 

1879  '9  !  w.Yks.**  Cloise  aside  on't.  Lan.  I  wur  tan  aside  o'  ih' 
yed  wi'  a  sod.  liossendel  Peef-neet,  12  ;  Tliou  sid  aside  at  t'Park 
VNOod  yett,  Harland  &  Wilkinson  PIkLore  1867:  60;  Lan.' 
Eawr  Mally  stood  aside  on  me  while  th'  rushcart  were  gooin'  by  ; 
m.Lan.'  Ajcrryshop  aside  o'  wheer  aw  live  s.v.  Alicker\  s.Chs.^ 
.Sit  thee  dain  aside  o'  me.  Stf.  She  sat  doun  aside  of  the  daughter, 
Plk-Lore  Jnt.  1 1884  11.  41  ;  Stf.*  'E  fatchcd  im  a  bat  aside  o'  is  yed 
as  med  is  yid  sing. 
[A,  on  +side.] 

ASIDEN,  pnp.  and  adv.  Nhb.  Yks.  Nhp.  War.  Shr. 
Hrf.     Also,  by  aphacrcsis,  sidcn.     [asai'dan.J 

1.  prep.     Beside,  near. 

Nhb.'  She  wis  sittin'  asidcn  him.  e.Yks.'  Ah've  sitten  asiden 
him  monny  a  tahm  (only  used  in  a  past  sense;,  MS.  add.  1,1  H.) 

2.  adv.     On  one  side,  awry. 

Nhp.'  Often  used  without  the  prefix.  How  siden  3'our  bonnet  is. 
War.  (J. R.W.J  ;  War.*  That  post's  set  asiden  ;  War.^  That  gate 
has  been  hung  all  asiden.  Shr.'  Common.  Vo'  hanna  put  yore 
shawl  on  stiaight.  the  cornels  bin  all  asiden  ;  Shr.*  All  asiden 
like  Martha  Rl.oden's  two-penny  dish.  Hrf.'  [All  asiding,  as  hogs 
fighting.  Ray  Prov  (1678  1  49,  ed.  i860.] 

[Repr.  the  phr.  a  side  on,  on  the  side  of,  by  the 
side  of.] 

ASIDES ,  pnp.  plir.  and  adv.    Yks.  War.  Sur.    [asai-dz.] 

1.  prep.  phr.     Of  place  :  beside,  near. 

m.Yks.'  Aside  has  commonly  s  added.  w.Yks.^  Aside's  o' 
t'chuich.    Wheal's  tub  live  nah  like  ? — Haw,  aside's  o'  ar  Tom. 

2.  In  addition  to,  moreover,  beside. 

w.Yks.5  Whoa  went  asides  him !  Ther's  forty  aside's  that. 
War.^  I  arns  three  shillin'  a  wik  [week]  asides  my  vittles. 

3.  adv.     Moreover,  in  addition. 

Sur.  A  lot  more  as  I  knows  on  as  gave  a  goodish  bit  asides, 
Bickley  S»r.  Hills    1890    HI.  vi. 

[ME.  asides,  only  in  the  sense  of  'aside,  on  one  side,' 
see  WvcLiK  (1388)  Mark  vii.  33.  Uer.  of  aside  with  advl. 
sutr.  in  ->s-.] 

ASIDING,  see  Asiden. 

ASILTOOTH,  see  Axle-tooth. 

ASING.  see  Easing. 

ASK,  sb.^  Sc.  Ircl.  n.Cy.  to  Chs.  and  n.Lin.  Also 
written  esk  N.Cy.'  Cum.  w.Yks.  ne.Lan.';  aisk  n.Yks.* 
e.Yks.  m.Yks.'   [esk,  ask.]   A  newt ;  a  lizard.   See  Asker. 

Sc.  He  brought  home  horse  leeches,  asks,  young  rats,  S.MILE3 
Sc.  Natnr.  y  1879  i  ;  It  seems  to  be  a  general  idea  among  the  vulgar, 
that  whatwe  call  the  ask  is  the  asp  of  Scripture.  . .  This  has  probably 
contributed  to  the  received  opinion  of  the  newt  being  venomous 
Jam.1.  Gall.  The  yallow-wymed  ask.  Harper  C<i»rfs  1889  206. 
Crl.  (P.J.M.)  N.Cy.'  Ask,  Esk,  a  water-newt,  believed  by  many 
erroneouslj'  to  be  venomous.  Nhb.  The  pert  little  eskis  they  curlit 
their  tails,  Richardson  Borderers  Ta' lebk.  ^18461  VlI.  14a; 
Dry  asks  and  tyeds  she  churish'd,  RonsoN  Sngs.  o/Tyne  1849  148  ; 
Nhij.'  The  newt  is  usually  called  a  waiter  ask.  as  distinguished  from 
a  dry  ask.  Dur.'  Cum.  J.Ar);  Cum.'  Wm.  There's  an  ask  in 
the  pond  iB.  K.^;  Wm.'  More  frequently  cilled  a  wattcr  ask. 
n.Yks.' *3  ne.Yks.'  In  common  use.  e.Yks.  Marshall  Pur. 
£■(0)1.  ,1788.  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.  Lucas  S/»(/.  AiVA/m/iiA-  c.  1883) 
231  ;  WiLLAN  List  ll'ds.  i  181 1\  n.Lan  A  fand  a  watar-ask  i"  dhat 
dub.  ne.Lan.',  Chs.'*^  nLin.'I  was  once  tanged  wi'  an  ask 
among  the  brackens  e'  Brumby  Wood. 

[Tassol,  a  newt  or  ask,  Cotgr.  ;  Magrdsio,  an  eft,  an 
nute,  an  aske.  Florid  (1611).  OE.  dJe.xe,  lizard;  cp.  G. 
eidech.'se.  ] 

ASK,  sb.^  Sh.I.  Also  written  aisk  (Jam.  SiippL). 
Drizzle,  fog. 

Sh  I.  A  haze  or  unclear  state  of  the  atmosphere  generally 
preceding  weather  ;  we  speak  of  there  being  '  an  ask  up  da 
sky' when  it  has  clouiled  over  and  looks  unsettled  ,K.I.\  S.&Ork.' 
Sli.&Or.I.  Small  particles  of  dust,  or  snow    Jam.  Suffi^. 





ASK,  sb.^  Sc.  (Jam.)  The  stake  to  which  a  cow  is 
bound  by  a  rope  or  chain,  in  the  cow-house. 

Cai.     [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

[Prob.  a  spec,  use  of  ON.  askr,  an  ash,  also  applied  to 
many  things  made  of  ash  ;  see  Vigfusson.] 

ASK,  si."  Sh.andOr.  I.  Also  written  aisk.  A  wooden 
vessel  or  dish. 

Sh  I.  Used  for  carrying  butter,  milk,  eggs,  &c.  It  has  a  lid  and  two 
small  projecting  bits  of  wood  below  the  rim  to  seive  for  handles 
{K  I.'.     Sh  &Or.I.  (Jam.  Stippl.) 

[ON.  askr,  a  small  vessel  made  of  ash-wood.] 

ASK,  v}  Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  Also  in  the 
forms  ax,  ex,  see  Ax.    [as,  aks,  aks.] 

1.  To  publish  the  banns  of  marriage  ;  to  be  asked  at,  in,  or 
to  church,  to  have  one's  banns  published. 

Abd.,  Lth.  Also  called  '  cry  '  i  Jam.  '.  Nhb.',  Dur.i  Cum.i  To  be 
ax't  at  church  is  also  called  '  Hung  in  t'bell  reapp,'  '  Cry't  i'  the 
kirk.'  Wm.'  Axt  [older  form  Ext]  at  church.  n.Yks.i  ;  n.Yks.2 
Ask'd  at  church.  m.Yks.',  w.Yks.i  w.Yks.s  Thuh  wur  ast  at 
church  last  Sunday.  Chs.'  s.Chs.'  Han  they  bin  as't  i'  church 
yet  ?  {Ax  is  less  common.)  Stf.'  Owd  Dick  Taylor's  lad  and 
Martha  Jones  wun  axed  i' church.  n.Lin.',  sw.Lin.',  Lei.'  Nhp.' 
Being  axt  to  church.  War.^,  s.Wor.  ^F.W.M.W. )  Brks  •  Thaay 
was  asted  at  church  laast  Zunday.  e.An.'  I.W.^  Bob  Gubbins 
and  Poll  Trot  was  axed  in  Atherton  Church  last  Zunday.  Wil. 
We'll  be  ax'd  in  church  a  Zunday  week.  Slow  Rliymcs  (i88g) 
Zantmy  an  Zusan.  w.Som.'  Her's  gwain  to  be  a-ax  next  Zunday. 
nw.Dev.'  Cor.^  T'es  most  time  for'ee  to  have  me  axed,  MS.  add. 
Colloq.  They  were  asked  in  church  the  Sunda3- following,  Marryat 
Frank  Mildinay  (1829)  xxii. 

2.  Hence,  to  be  asked  out,  asked  up,  out-asked,  to  have  the 
banns  published  for  the  last  time. 

Dur.'  Cum.  I  reckon  some  one  that's  here  is  nigh  ax't  oot  by  auld 
Nick  in  the  kirk  of  the  nether  world,  Caine  Shad.  Crime  (,18851 
33.  Wra.i  Wiah,  thoo'l  be  ext  oot  a  Sunday.  n.Yks.',  ne.Yks.' 
Ax'd  oot.  e.Yks.'  Tom  and  Bess  was  ax'd  up  at  chetch  o'  Sunday. 
w.Yks.'2  Ax'dout.  Chs.' They  were  axed  out  last  Sunday.  Not.' 
Out-asked.  n.Lin.'  Theare's  many  a  lass  hes  been  axed-up  ...  'at 
niver's  gotten  a  husband.  sw.Lin.'  To  be  asked  up,  or  asked  out. 
Lei.',  Nhp.',  War.  (J.R.W.)  Shr.' To  be  axed  up.  e.An.' Axt- 
out,  or  Out  axt.  Sus.,  Hmp.,  Ken.  On  the  third  time  of  publication, 
the  couple  is  said  to  be  out-asked,  Holloway.  w  Som.'  Dhai  wuz 
aakst  aewt  laa'S  Zun'dee  [they  were  axed  out  last  Sunday],  Cor. 
I  be  axed  out !  keep  company  !  Get  thee  to  doors,  thee  noodle, 
J.  Trenoodle  Spec.  Dial.  (^1846)  41  ;  Cor.'^ 

3.  Phr.  fi)  to  ask  at.  ask  of  (on),  to  ask  ;  (2)  to  ask  out, 
to  cry  off,  be  excused  ;  (31  ask  up,  to  speak  out. 

(i)  Sc.  I  asked  at  him,  Montldy  Mag.  (1798)  II.  435  ;  Ask  at  the 
footman,  Mackie  ScoHc.  (1881^  14  ;  Very  common  idiom  G.W.'l. 
Stf.'  s.Hmp.  He'd  do  anything  you  asted  o'  him,  Vernev  L.  Lisle 
(1870'!  xvii.  (2}  w.Yks.  Willn't  ya  come?  — No,  I'll  ax  aht  'J.R.); 
(3)  Stf.' 

[1.  The  phr.  '  to  ask  the  banns '  is  found  in  ME. :  Aske 
thebannsthre  halydawes.  Then  lete  hemcomeandwytnes 
br3'nge  To  stonde  by  at  here  vveddynge,  Myrc  Inst.  ( 1450) 
203.  3.  Heo  aschede  at  Corineus  how  heo  so  hardiwere, 
R.  Glouc.  (1297)  16.] 

ASK,  v.'^  Sh.  and  Or.I.  Also  written  aisk  I  Jam.)  ; 
esk.     To  rain  slightly,  drizzle. 

Or.  I.  ■  S.A.S. )     Sh.  &  Or.I.  (Jam.  Stippl.) 

ASKER,  sb.'  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Dnb.  Stf.  Der.  Nhp. 
Wor.  Shr.  Hrf  Glo.  Dor.  Also  asgal  Shr.=  GIo.' ;  askard 
w.Yks.'*;  askelHrf.';  askern  w.Yks.  [a'ske(r);  a'skad, 
e'sksd  ;  as'zgl,  as'skl.]     A  newt,  lizard.      See  Ask,  si.' 

n.Cy.  Grose  i  17901;  N  Cy.^  w.Yks.  Feyther  were  liggin'  by 
t'pond  fest  asleap.  an'  one  o'  them  ofl'al  askards  crep  in  at  'is  ear 
(W.F.J  ;  An'  lile  bonny  askerds  wad  squirt  amang  t'iing,  Blackah 
PofM/s ^1867  38  ;  Dryaskerd,  a  landlizard.  Watteraskerd,anewt. 
Yis.  N.  ^^  Q.  (1888.  II.  14  ;  w.Yks.2  In  Rivelin  valley  are  three 
kinds  of  askers  ;  the  running  asker,  the  water  asker,  and  the  flying 
asker,  which  is  the  smallest ;  w.Yks. '^^^  Lan.' He  went  a-fishin" 
an' cowt  nowt  nobbut  askerds.  ne  Lan.',  e.Lan.',  Chs.'^  s.Ctis.' 
This  plcm's  as  rotten  as  an  owd  asker.  Dnb.  Askol  (E.F  ).  St". 
(K.)  ;  Stf.i;  Stf.2  Used  only  in  the  expression,  '  Its  kaud  anuf  for 
starv  askarz  todi.'  Der.',  nw.Der.',  Nhp.'  s.Wor.  Nazgall,  or 
Asgal  H.K.l.  w.Wor.'  The  gentlefolks  is  ac'tully  that  ignerunt, 
thaay  thinks  as  asgills  canna  do  no  'arm  !  Shr.'  It  'adna  'urt  mc, 
an'  that  made  me  think  as  askals  wuz  more  innicenter  than  I  'ad 

s'posed  ;  SIir.=  Shr.  &  Hrf.  Asgal,  or  Ascal,  BoutiD Prov.  (1876). 
Hrf.'  ;  Hrf.^  Askal,  a  water  animal,  a  kind  of  newt  with  rough  hair 
like  fimbriae  [?],  Glo.  Both  forms,  asker  and  asgal,  are  known 
^W.H.C.)  ;  Gio.',  Dor.l 

[Asker,  a  newt.  Kersey;  Asker,  a  sort  of  newt,  or  eft, 
Salaniandria  aquatica,  Bailey  (1755).  Der.  of  ask,  sb.', 
with  suff  of  uncertain  origin.] 

ASKER,  sb.'^  Som.  Slang.  Euphemistic  name  for  a 

w.Som.'  A  respectable  servant-girl  in  reply  to  her  mistress,  who 
had  inquired  what  the  girl's  young  man  did  for  his  living,  said  ; 
Please-m  he's  a-asker,  and  tis  a  very  good  trade  indeed-m.  Slang, 
The  *  askers  '  selling  their  begged  bread  at  three  halfpence  the 
pound,  ReadeW»/o6.   Thief  [\B^S)  37. 

[Elles  he  wolde  of  the  asker  delivered  be,  7?.  Rose,  6674. 
Ask,  vb.-f -£•>-.] 

ASKEW,  (7(fo.     Ess.  Som.  Cor.    [asku-.] 

1.  Of  the  legs  :  extended  awkwardly,  wide  apart. 
Som.  iH.G.);  (G.S.) 

2.  Crosswise,  diagonally. 

Ess.  To  plough  a  field  askew  is  to  make  furrows  obliquely  to 
the  cross  ploughing  ^H.H.iVI.). 

3.  To  go  askeio,  to  be  troublesome,  do  wrong  actions. 
Cf  to  gang  agley. 

Cor.  Likewise  a  thong  to  thock  thee,  ef  Thee  d'st  ever  go 
askew,  Forfar  Poems  \  1885  i  7  ;  Cor.^  A  local  preacher  exhorted 
his  audience  not  to  go  askew  even  if  their  aims  were  good.  In 
fairly  common  use. 

[A-,  on  +  skew,  q.v.] 

ASKEW, />;•<■/!>.     Obs.1     Ess.     Across. 

Ess.  I  seigh  him  a  coming  askew  the  mead, -^jr/ifl^o/.  Soc.  Trans. 
(^1863:  II.  181.     [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ASKING(S,  sb.  In  gen.  dial,  and  colloq.  use.  Not  in 
gloss,  of  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  in  the  forms  axing(s  Cum. 
Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf  Der.  Shr.  I.W.  Dor.;  exing 
Cum.  [a'skinz,  a'ksinz,  e'ksinz.]  The  publication  of 
banns  of  marriage.     Usually  in  pi. 

Cum.  Axin*  i^or  Exin')  at  church  i,  M.P.\  Wm.  She  mud  gaa 
awae  et  yance  an  hae  t'exins  put  up  et  kirk,  Spec.  Dial.  ( 1880  t  pt. 
ii.  20.  n.  Yks.2  In  some  of  our  moorland  churches,  after  the  asking, 
the  clerk  was  wont  to  respond  with  a  hearty  '  God  speed  them 
weel.'  e.Yks.' They'r  boon  te  be  wed  at  last  ;  they'vput  up  axins. 
m.Yks.'  He's  agate  o'  reading  t'askings.  w.Yks.  Wether  they 
\ver  struck  wi  t'assiii  ...  ah  dooant  naw,  bud  ah  naw  this — they 
leak'd  hard  at  me,  Nidderdill  Olm.  (I87o^  ;  T'day  wor  fixed  an 
t'axins  put  in,  an  t' parson  spliced  them  reight  oft',  Yiisinan.  Comic 
Aim.  11878)  17  ;  Will  ye  gang  on  wi'  t'axins.  an'  wed  our  Marget? 
Dixon  Oai'i-ji  Dales  i  1881)399;  w.Yks.' Also  called  Spurrings. 
Lan.  I  put  th'  axins  up  about  a  fortnit  sin,  Wauc-.h  Chimn.  Corner 
(1874")  20;  I  hano' yerdo' th'axins  bein' co'ed  o'er,  Brierley  Cai/ 
upon  If'ocW  ^i886i  213  ;  Lan.'  Well,  thae'rt  for  bein'  wed  at  th' 
lung  length  ;  aw  yer  thae's  gotten  th'  axins  in.  e.Lan.'  m.Lan.' 
When  aw  put  th'  axins  up,  me  an'  th'  lass  as  were  mixt  up  i'  th' 
job  stopt  away  fro'  th'  chiuxh  for  three  Sundays  just  abeawt  thad 
time.  Chs.' ;  Chs.^Oohadtheaxingsput  up;  s.Chs.'  Stf.' ;  Stf.* 
Tummas  is  goin'  get  married  nex'  month  ;  he's  put  th'  axins  in. 
Der.2,  nw.Der.'  nLin.'  Did  ta  hear  Bessie's  askin's  last  Sunda'  ? 
Lei.'.  Nhp.',  War.^a  Shr.'  They  ad'n  thar  axins  put  up  i'  church 
o'  Whi'sun  Sunday.  Sur.  Fee  preferred  being  married  by  '  asking,' 
as  the  good  Surrey  folk  call  it,  Bickley  Stir.  Hills  (1890^/  III.  xvi. 
Sus.  An  occasional  interest  is  given  to  the  ceremony  of  asking 
by  the  forbidding  of  the  banns,  Egerton  Flks.  and  Ways  (1884J  93. 
I.W.',  Dor.l 

[The  publication  of  banns  (popularly  called  'asking  in 
the  church')  was  intended  as  an  expedient  to  prevent 
clandestine  marriages,  Ch.\mbers  Cycl.  (s  v.  Banns).] 

ASKLENT,  adv.  and  prep.     Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.     [askle'nt.] 
1.  adv.     Aslant,  on  one  side,  obliquely. 

Sc.  Frae  bush  to  bush  asklent  the  bank  he  scours,  Davidson 
Seasons  (17891  26  ;  Read  what  they  can  in  fate's  dark  print.  And 
let  them  never  look  asklint  On  what  they  see,  Gallow.\y  Poems 
(1788)  102.  Ayr.  Maggie  coost  her  head  fu'  high,  Look'd  asklent 
and  unco  skeigh.  Burns  Duncan  Gray  (1792).  Rxb.  The  hames 
that  sent  the  reek  asclent,  Riddell  PocI.  IVks.  fed.  1871)  I.  144. 
n.lT.  Ballyincna  Obs.  (18921.  Nhb.  [Of  a  ladder  resting  end  up 
against  a  wall]  Ve  he'd  ower  straight  up  ;  set  it  a  bit  mair  asklent. 
[Of  a  high  chimney]  It'll  be  doon  if  it's  not  seen  tee  ;  it's  lyin  mair 
an'  mair  asklent  (R.O.H.);  Nhb.' 




2.  Applied   to   action   or   conduct :    dishonourably,  not 
'straight.'     Cp.  agley. 

Ayr.  Sin'  thou  came  to  the  warl  asklent,  Burns  Poet's  IVelccnf 

3.  pirp     Across. 

Sc  An'  ilk  ane  brought  their  blads  asclcnt  her,  A.  Scott  Poems 
(1808)  45. 

[A-,  on  +  skleiil,  q.v.] 

ASLASH,  luiv.  Yks.  Lin.  Not.  War.  Also  written 
aslosh  n.Lin.'  Lei.'  War.     [ssla-/,  aslo-J.J 

1.  Awry  ;  obHquely.     See  Slosh. 

n.Lin.^  Ther's  a  foot-pad  nins  aslo-^h  toward  a  steel  thcr'  is  e' 
th'  plantin'.     He'd  getten  his  hat  on  aslosh. 

2.  On  one  side,  out  of  the  way. 

w.Yks.*  Come  Stan' aslash.  Not.  (J.H.B.)  lei.'  Stan' .islosh, 
wool  ye  !     War.^ 

ASLAT ,/>/)/.  <i(//.  Dev.  [aslee't.]  Of  an  earthen  vessel, 
piece  of  furniture,  &c.  :  cracked,  split.     Sec  Slat,  v. 

Dev.  Grose  1 17901  ;  Montlily  Mag.  ^iBoSI  II.  422;  IIolloway. 
n.Dev.Yer,  [IJeetle  Bobby's  plates  aslat,  Rock  yim  no' AV//i  1867;  7. 
Dev.3  Thickee  plate's  aslat.  Dawntee  zit  'pon  thickee  form,  'e's 

[A-  (preP)  4  slat,  q.v.] 

ASLAT,  sec  Harslet. 

ASLEEP,  adv.    e.An.  Naut.     [aslip.] 

e.An.'  .Sails  are  asleep  when  steadily  filled  with  wind.  Suf. 
Used  of  sails  in  a  calm  (F.H.^.  Naut.  Tlie  .sail  filled  with  wind 
just  enough  for  swelling  or  bellying  out  — as  contrasted  with  its 
flapping,  Smyth  Sailors   IVd-hk.  (1867). 

ASLEN,  adv.  Som.  Dev.  Also  written  aslun  Som. 
[asle'n,  asla'n.]  Slantwise,  diagonally,  '  out  of  the 

Som.  Jennings  Obs.  Dial.  iv.Eug.  (1825")  ;  W.  &  J.  C,l.  ^1873^  ; 
w.Som.i  Au'kurd  vee-ul  vur  tu  pluw'ee  een  ;  aay  shud  wuurk  n 
rai-t  usliin"  [awkward  field  to  plough  in  ;  I  should  work  it  right 
across  diagonally].     Thick  post  is  all  aslen  [not  upright].     Dev.' 

\_A-.  on  +  slen  (adj.),  q.v.] 

ASLEW,  adv.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Not.  Sus.  Som.  Also 
written  aslue  e  Lan.'  Som.     [aslii',  asliu'.] 

1.  Aslant,  obliquely,  awry. 

e.Yks.i  n.Lan.  Thoo  munnet  mak  it  aslew  (W.H.  H.").  e.Lan.' 
Not.2  He's  ploughing  aslew.  Sus.  Holloway;  Sus.'^  Som.W.&J. 
CI  (i873\ 

2.  Amiss,  out  of  course. 

Cum.  There's  nowt  so  far  aslew.  Robbie,  but  good  manishment 
may  set  it  straight,  Caine  S/iari.  Crime  { 18851  '9  1  Cum.^  There's 
nowte  sa  far  aslew,  but  gud  manishment  med  set  it  sti'eight,  Ptoii. 
An'  t'CIay-Dubs  isn't  far  aslew  when  t'wedder  isn't  wet,  47. 

3.  Tipsy. 

[A-,  on +  sleiu  (vb.),  q  v.] 

ASLEY,  s6.     Sh.I.     Used  only  in  ^/m 

Sli.I.  (K.I.)  S.  &  Ork.^  Horses  in  aslcy,  horses  belonging  to 
different  persons,  bound  firm  one  to  another. 

ASLEY,  see  Lief. 

ASOL,  see  Hazzle,  v. 

ASOON,  adv.  Dev.  Obsol.  Written  azoon.  Anon, 

n.Dev.  [Used  in]  Exmore,  Grose  ('1790') ;  Fegs,  they'll  be  yer 
azoon.  Rock  Jim  an'  Nell  '^1867)  3  ;  Certainly  not  in  common  use 

[A-  ( prep°)  +  soon.] 

ASOONB,  adv.     Sh.L     [asu'nd.]     In  a  fainting  fit. 

Sh.I.  In  very  common  use  iK.l.).  S  &  Ork.'  He  fell  dead 

[This  word  is  due  to  a  mixture  of  two  forms  — of  asivooii 
(ME.  on  sii'oiiiie},  and  swooned  (ME.  jswowned,  ChaIjCER), 
pp.  of  sivoott,  vb.] 

ASOSH,  see  Aswash. 

ASP,  .sA.     Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Chs.  War.  Wor.  Hrf 
Wil.     Also  written  esp  N.I. '  Nhb.' Cum.  w.Yks.'*    [asp, 
1.  The  common  aspen,  Popii/its  Irrimda.     See  Aps. 

N.Cy.',  Nhb.*  Cum.  Thur  lass  noo  began  teh  shaddcr  antl  trim- 
mel  like  esp  leaves,  Sargesson  Joe  Seoap  1  i88i(  20  ;  Cum.'  He 
trimmel't  like  an  esp  leaf.  w.Yks.'  '.  Chs.'  ;  Chs.^  Shaking  like 
a  asp.  War.  (J.R  W.)  se.Wor.',  Hrf.'  Wil.  Woodmen  always 
call  the  aspen  the  '  asp,'  Jefferies  Gf.  Esletlr  1 18801  16. 

2.  Comb.  Quaking  esp,  Popidiis  tremuta. 


[.Asp  or  aspen-tree,  Kersey  ;  Poptdiis  Iremula  ...  in 
English  aspe  and  aspen  tree,  Gerarde  (ed.  1633)  1488; 
Tirnible,  an  asp  or  aspen  tree,  Cotgr.  ;  An  espe,  treniidiis, 
Cal/i.  Aiif;l.     OE.  (Fspe.] 

ASI'AIT,  adv.    Sc.     [aspe-t.]     Of  a  river :  in  flood. 

Sc.  Commonly  used  of  a  river  or  burn  J.W.M.'.  CId.  I'  the 
mirk  in  a  stound,  wi'  rairan'  sound,  Aspait  the  river  ran.  Mar- 
maidrn  of  Clyde  in  Blncktv.  Mag.  (May,  1820)  (Jam.X 

[./-,  on  +  spait  or  spate,  q,v.] 

ASPAR,  adv.  Cum.  [aspaT.]  Stretched  out,  wide 

Cum.  When  a  man  puts  himself  in  fighting  altitude,  with  legs 
and  arms  spread  out,  he  stands  aspar  (J. P.)  ;  Cum.'  He  set  his 
feet  aspar. 

[A-,  on  +  spar  (to  box),  q.v.] 

ASPARAGUS,  sb.  Comb.  Bath,  French,  Prussian, 
Wild  asparagus,  the  young  flowcr-scapcs  ofOniilhogaliDH 
pviriiaiaim  (Som.)  ;  Foxtailed  asparagus,  Eqiiisetuin 
maximum  (Glo.). 

Som.  Balh  asparagus,  tied  up  in  bundles, and  sold  in  Bath  market. 

ASPEN,  s6.     Mrt.     Populiis  alba. 

The  name  is  generally  applied  elsewhere  only  to  Popidus 

ASPERSEAND,  .•!*.     Irel.     A  term  of  abuse :  a  wretch. 

w.Ir.  The  ould  dhrunken  asperseand,  as  she  is,  Lover  Leg. 
1^18481  I.  108. 

ASPLEW,  adv.  .'  Obs.  Som.  Of  the  legs  :  extended 
awkwardly,  wide  apart. 

Som.  W.  &  ].Gl.{  1873".    [Unknown  to  all  our  correspondents.] 

ASPODE,  adv.  n.Yks.  Of  the  legs:  wide  apart, 
stretched  out. 

n.Cy.  Aspaud  (Hall  ).  n.Yks.  He  stood  with  his  legs  aspode 

ASPOLE,  «^z;.     Cum.     Of  the  legs:  wide  asunder. 

Cum.'     [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ASPRAWL,  fZflfe.    Brks.  Ken.  Hmp.    [aspr^'l,  sspra-l.] 

1,  Headlong,  sprawling. 

Brks.'  Falling  down  with  legs  and  arms  helplessly  extended  on 
the  ground  is  said  to  be  'vallin'  all  aspraal.'  Ken.  The  horse  fell 
down  and  we  were  pitched  all  asprawl  on  to  the  road  (^P.M.). 
Hmp.'  He  fell  all  asprawl. 

2.  In  confusion,  gone  wrong. 
Ken.'  The  pig-trade's  all  asprawl  now. 
[A-,  on  +  sptawl,  vb.] 

ASPROUS,f7rt>:  Lei.  War.  [a-spras.]  Of  the  weather: 
raw,  inclement. 

Lei.'  It's  a  very  a-sprous  dee.     War.^ 

[Fr.  aspre,  sharp,  harsh,  rough  (Cotgr.)  4--o/r<;.] 

ASQUAT,  adv.  Lan.  War.  Dor.  [askwo't.]  In  a 
squatting  posture,  squatting. 

ne.Lan.',  War.  (j.R.W.)  Dor.'  A  gaytongued  lot  of  hay- 
miakers  be  all  a-squot,  122. 

[A-,  on  +  squat,  vb.] 

ASQUm,  sec  Aswint. 

ASS,  see  Ash. 

ASSAL,  sec  Axle. 

ASS'ARD,  see  Arseward. 

ASSEGAR,  see  Assinego. 

ASSEL-TOOTH,  see  Axle-tooth. 

ASS(EN-HEAD,  5A.     Yks.     [a-s-iad.]     A  blockhead. 

e.Yks.'  Asscn-heead,  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

ASSHEFLAY,  see  Accroshay. 

ASSIDUE,  sb.    w.Yks.     [a-sidiu.] 
1.  Thin  brass  tinsel  of  a  bright  gold  colour;  a  kind  of 
Dutch  metal. 

w.Yks.  |.'\t  the  Scotland  feast  May  29^  in  ShefTield]  garlands 
are  composed  of  hoops.  .  .  .  with  foliage  and  flowers,  .  .  .  ribands, 
rustling  with  asidew.  Hone  Ei'e>y-day  Bk.  (^18271  II.  126a;  A  thin 
knife  blade  is  said  to  be  as  thin  as  assigew  [sic]  (  S.O.A.)  ;  w.Yks.* 
Mummers  at,  not  being  able  to  afford  gold  leaf,  decked 
their  bright  and  coloured  garments  with  the  thin  metallic  leaf. 
People  speak  of 'working  for  assidue  '  as  equivalent  to  working 
for  nothing.    Also  contemptuously,  '  as  thin  as  assidue ' ;  w.Yks.* 

M  2 




2.  Copperas  water  used  for  blacking  the  edges  of  boots. 


[Are  you  piifft  up  with  the  pride  of  your  wares  ?  your 
arsedine,  B.  Jonson  Earth.  Fair,  11.  i  (Nares).  Etym. 
and  even  the  "orig.  form  unknown.  The  word  is  spelt  in 
various  ways  in  lit.  E. :  arsowde,  orsidue,  orsady;  see 
H.E.T).  {sx./irsedine).] 

ASSILAG,  sb.  Sc.  The  Storm  Petrel,  Procellaria 

Sc.  So  called  in  the  Hebrides,  Swainson  Birds  (1885)  211 ;  (Jam.) 

ASSILTOOTH,  see  Axletoot'o. 

ASSINEGO,  sb.  Obsol.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  in  the  forms 
assneger  Dev.  Cor.'^  ;  asnegar  Dev.;  assegar  Dev.' 

1.  An  ass. 

Dev.  Hosses  and  mares,  assnegers,  movies,  Peter  Pindar  Royal 
I^js.  (1795"  St.  4  ;  Grose  (1790)  MS.  adii.  (C.)  n  Dev.  My  ould 
asneger  11  doo  vor  put  Into  a  little  giirry-butt,  Rock  Jim  an'  NtU 
(1867'!  St.  74;  Div.'  Polwhele  {Hist.  Dev.)  says  that  the  common 
appellation  of  [the  ass]  is  asseg.^r,  but  I  have  never  heard  this 
term.     Cor.  Grose  (1790)  iV/S.  fla'(/.  (C.) 

2.  A  fool,  simpleton. 

Cor.  A  term  of  reproach,  not  much  in  use,  is  'Thee  are  an  as- 
sineger"  (W.S.)  ;  Car.'  Do  'ee  be  quiet,  thee  assneger  ;  Cor.^ 

[1.  We  jogged  leisurely  on  upon  our  mules  and 
asinegoes,  Herbert  Trav.  (1634)  127  (N.E.D.).  2.  All 
this  would  be  forsworn,  and  I  again  an  asinego,  B.  &  Fl. 
Scorn/.  Lady  (Nares)  ;  An  assmego  (ed.  1606,  asinico) 
may  tutor  thee,  Shaks.  Tr.  &=  Cr.  11.  i.  49.  Sp.  asiiico, 
a  little  asse,  Minsheu.] 

ASSLE,  see  Axle. 

ASSOILYIE,  V.  Sc.  Also  written  assoilzie,  see 
below.  To  acquit,  free  from  a  charge  (in  law  courts) ;  to 

Sc.  Grose  (1790")  MS.  add.  (C.)  ;  (Jam).;  The  defender  was 
assoilzied,  Scott  JVavcriey  (1814)  xlviii ;  'God  assoilzie  her!* 
ejaculated  old  Elspeth,  'she  was  a  hard-hearted  woman,'  ib. 
Antiquary  fi8i6)  xxvi. 

[ME.  assoilcn,  to  absolve.  I  yow  assoile,  by  myn  heigh 
power,  Chaucer  C.  7".  c.  913.  AFr.assoiler ;  cp.  que  Dicu 
assoille.'  (  =  Lat.  qiiein  Dens  absolvat .'),  a  prayer  for  the 

ASSOL,  sb.    Irel.    [a-sl.]    An  ass. 

Ir.  Guiding  and  whipping  the  poor  assol,  Kennedy  Fireside 
Stories  (1870)  93.     w.  &  s.Ir.  Occas.  heard  (J.S.). 

[Ir.  asa/,  an  ass.] 

ASSUD,  see  Arseward. 

ASSYPOD,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  [a'si-pod]  A  dirty, 
slatternly  woniati.     See  Ashypet.  Ashiepattle,  2. 

Bwk.  The  assy  pods  o'  Blackhill,  Will  ncithur  sing  nor  pray, 
Henderson  Pop.  Rliyives  (1856;  38.  Nlib  Get  away  wi'  ye  !  yor 
nowt  but  an  assipod  :G.H.T. ). 

[Assy  for  ashy,  adj.  der.  of  ash,  ashes  +pod  (a  person  of 
small  stature),  q.v.] 

ASSYTH,  V.  Sc.  Also  written  assyith,  syith,  sithe 
(Jam.),  [asi-f).]  To  make  a  compensation,  to  satisfy.  A 
legal  term. 

Sc.  Still  used  in  courts  of  law  (Jam.V 

Hence  Assythement,  sb.  compensation,  satisfaction, 
atonement  for  an  offence.     A  legal  tcnn. 

Sc.  The  blood-wit  was  made  up  to  your  ain  satisfaction  bj'assythe- 
ment.  Scott  Waveiiev  (^18141  xlviii. 

[From  ME.  n5//A,  satisfaction,  compensation.  Whom  I 
begylyd  to  him  I  will  Make  a-sith  agayne,  York  Plays, 
215.  This  is  the  n.  form  of  aset/i.  Hit"  sufficith  nat  for 
a-seth,  P.  Plowman  (c.)  xx.  203.  OFr.  aset'm  the  phv.fcrc 
aset.  '  satisfacere.'] 

ASTEAD,  adv.  n.Cy.  to  Yks.  and  Chs.;  also  Stf.  Sur. 
Also  written  isteed  Nlib.' ;  asteead  Wni.  n.Yks.  e.Yks.' 
w.Yks. ;  asteed  w.Yks. ;  astid  s.Chs.'  Stf.''  [sstl'd, 
astia'd.]     Instead. 

Nlib.'  Dur.  Asteed  o'  putfii'  'cr  i'  Kitty,  Egglestone  Betty 
Pudkiiis'  Let.  (1877)8.  Cum.  Astead  o  shuttan  snipes,  Dickinson 
Lamplngh  (1856,  8;  Cut  intull  me  finger  astead  ev  t'taty,  IVilly 
JVatllc  ( 1870)  7  ;  Cum.3  Asteed  of  Amen,  I  say,  '  m'appen  I  may,' 
38.  Wm.  An  waare  ote  [all  the]  bit  a  brass  thae  hev  for  im  asteead 
a  gittin  t'pooar  wife  an  t'baarns  sumnuit  tu  it,  Clarke  Spec.  Dial. 
(i368;    pt.  iii.  31.     n.Yks.  Asteead  o'  bein'  thenkfull,  TwEDDELL 

Chvcl.  Rhymes  (1875"!  36;  Astead  o'  getting  away.  Broad  Yks. 
(1885)  35.  e.Yks.'  w.Yks.  He  thowt  t'dicky  wor  to  be  used 
asteed  of  a  shirt,  Cudworth  Dial,  and  Skctehcs  (1884)  28; 
If  awd  nobbut  had  sense  to  wait  asteead  o'  gcttin  wed  when  aw 
did.  Hartley  Seets  (1895^  i.  Lan.  Astid  o'  lookin'  as  iv  aw 
were  nobbut  dirt,  Clegg  Davids  Loom  {i8g^)  xix;  Yore  mug  would 
'a  bin  all  reet,  a  stead  o'  bein'  creackt,  '  Lancashire  Lad  '  Takin 
New  Year  ( 1888)  10.  Chs.',  s.Chs.'  sSLf.  I  axed  him  to  let  the 
rent  stond  but  astid  o'  that  he  put  the  bums  in,  Pinkock  Blk.  Cy. 
Ann.  (1895).  Stf.2  Mother  went  astid  o  me.  Sur.  I  canna  give 
you  a  present,  but  I'd  loike  'ee  to  taike  this  ride  astead,  Bickley 
Snr.  Hills  (1890'!  III.  iv  ;  Only  used  by  old  people  (T.T  C). 

[A-,  on  +  stead  (OE.  stcde,  place).  ME.  on  slcde.  And 
he  toe  him  on  sunes  stede,  Gen.  &"  E.x.  2637.] 

ASTEEP,  adv.  Sc.  [astip.]  To  lay,  set  the  brain 
asleep,  to  ponder,  revolve  in  the  mind,  make  a  mental 

Sc.  I  daresay  you  couldn't  guess,  though  3'ou  set  your  brains 
asteep,  Setoun  Sunshine  (1895)  272  ;  In  common  use.  I'll  lay  my 
brains  asteep  ower  it  (J.W.M  ).  Lnk.  I  dinna  wonder  at  them 
layin'  their  brains  asteep  to  fin'  oot,  Fbaser  IVhaups  (iSgs)  xiii. 

[Laying  it  asteep  in  .  .  .  quickening  meditation,  Ranew 
in  Spurgeon  Treas.  Dav.  ( 1672)  xxxix.  3  (N.E.D.).  A-, 
on-^ steep  (to  soak  in  a  liquid).] 

ASTEER,  adv.  Obsol.  Sc.  Yks.  Moving  about, 
active,  bustling. 

Sc.  Ye're  air  asteer  the  day  ("Jam.)  ;  My  minny  she's  a  scalding 
wife,  Hads  a'  the  house  asteer,  Ritson  Sngs.  (1794)  I.  45  (Jam.)  ; 
Ere  Martinmas  drear  set  the  Factor  asteer,  Thom  Rhymes  (1844) 
107;  The  haill  Hielands  are  asteer,  Scott /.rg-.  it/o;/^.  (18301  vi.  Ayr. 
Wha  was  it  but  Grumpbie  Asteer  that  night  !  Burns  Hallotveen 
(1785).     w.Yks.'  Country  foak  war  au  asteer,  ii.  359. 

[A-,  on  +  sleer  (stir,  commotion).  ME.  on  steir.  That 
lord  and  othir  var  on  steir  (were  astir),  Barbour  Bruce 
XIX.  577.] 

ASTEL,  sb.  Cor.  Also  written  astull,  astyllen. 

1.  A  board  or  plank,  an  arch  or  ceiling  of  boards,  over 
the  men's  heads  in  a  mine,  to  protect  them  (Weale). 


2.  A  ridge  or  dam  to  stop  a  stream  in  a  mine,  or  to  bank 
off  ore  from  rubbish  at  the  mouth  ;  a  wall  underground, 
to  prevent  the  giving  way  of  the  '  deeds,'  q.v. 

Cor.2  MS.  add. 

[Astelle,  a  schyyd,  Teda,  astiila.  Prompt.  OFr.  astclle, 
der.  of  aste,  a  stick,  a  splint,  Lat.  hasta.] 

ASTHORE,  phr.  Irel.  A  term  of  endearment :  my 
treasure  ! 

Ir.  Don't  ye  restaisy,  Michael  asthore  ?  Spectator  (Oct.  26, 1889)  ; 
Molly  asthore,  I'll  meet  you  agin  to-morra,  Tennyson  To-morrow 
(18851.  Wxf.  Shut  j'our  eyes,  asthore,  and  go  sleep,  Kennedy  £w«. 
DnJ/rey  (1869)  49. 

[An  Ir.  phr.  A-  (sign  of  the  voc.)  +sldr,  store, 
treasure.    Cp.  ME.  stoor,  OFr.  cstor.] 

ASTITE,  adv.  phr.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Also 
written  asty  N.Cy.' ;  astit  w.Yks.'  ne.Lan.'  [ss-stai't.] 
Of  preference  or  comparison  :  as  soon,  rather. 

Ayr.,  Lnk.,  Dmf.  I  would  astit  rin  the  kintry  [would  rather 
banish  m^'self].  Astit  better  (Jam.).  n.Cy.  Grose  ( 1790')  ;  N.Cy.'^ 
Nlib.'  Aa  wad  astite  stop  where  aa  is.  Ve'd  astite  gan  wiv  us. 
Dur.'  n.Yks. 2  I'd  as  tite  nut  gan.  w.Yks.  Thoresby  Lett.  (17031  ; 
Wright  Gram.  H'ndhll.  (1892)  50;  Common  in  Wilsden,  Leeds 
Mere.  Siippl.  (May  30,  1891I  ;  w.Yks.'  Ye  mud  astite  at  yunce — 
hev  eshed  for  our  laithe,  ii.  293  ;  w.Yks."  Lan.'  I  can  go  rstite  as 
him.     ne.Lan.'     [Astide  (K.).] 

[Astite,  as  soon,  anon,  Coles  (1677).  ME.  Antenor 
alstite  amet  to  speike,  Desf.  Troy,  11693.  As  +  tite 
(quickly),  q.v.  The  phr.  means  lit. '  as  quickly  as  possible.'] 

ASTLEY,  see  Lief. 

ASTOGGED,  see  Stog. 

ASTONIED, />/./.  n(7>:  Nlib.  Nhp.  Obsol.  Astonished, 
in  consternation. 

N.Cy.'     Nhb.  Still  in  use,  but  rare  (R.O.H.)  ;  Nlib.',  Nhp.' 

[And  anoon  al  the  puple  seynge  Jhesu,  was  astonyed, 
Wyclif  (1388)  Mark  ix.  14;  For  so  astonied  am  I  that  I 
deye  !  Chaucer  TV.  &=  Cr.  11.  427.  OFr.  estoner  (mod. 
clonner],  to  astonish.] 




ASTOOP,  ailv.  Win.  Yks.  [astiTp.]  Of  an  aged 
person  :  bent,  stooping. 

Wm.  (B.K.)  n. Yks.  Old  John  g.ins  sair  astoop'I.W.X  n.Yks.* 
e.Yks.  Awd  man  gct-sti  Ran  varry  mitch  astoop,  Nicholson /'rt'-S/>. 
(rSSpi  89.  e.Yks  »  MS.  add.  (,T.H.)  w.Yks.  He  gooas  varry 
micli  astoop  (R.K.). 

[A-,  on  +5/00/).] 

ASTORE,  adv.  Brks.  I.W.  Wil.  Also  written  astoor 
Brks.';  astour  I.W.'  [3stu3-(r).]  Speedily,  shortly, 
very  quickly. 

Brks.'  I.W.  The  dm-lc'.s  [dusk]  coming  on  ;  I'll  be  ofT  in  astore, 
MoNCRiEFF  Dn/iiii  in  Gent.  Mag.  (^1863);  I.W.'  Wil.' An  ex- 
pletive.    She's  gone  into  the  street  astore, 

\A-,  on  +  .'i/ore  (quantity).] 

ASTOUND,  />/./.  adj.    Chs.  War.    Astonished. 

Chs.i2,  War.  (J.R.W.) 

[With  Staring  countenance  sterne  as  one  astownd, 
Spenser  F.Q.  i.  viii.  5;  Ase  a  mesel  thcr  he  lay  Astouncd 
in  spote  and  blode,  Shoreh.xm,  88  (M.atznkr).  ME. 
astnuiiifii  (nsliiiiieii),  OFr.  es/oiicr,  see  Astonied.] 

ASTRADDLE,  adv.  Sc.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Lei.  War. 
Oxf.  Brks.  limp.  Som.  Also  written  astroddle  War. 
Lei.*  O.xf.  Som. ;  astruddle  Cum.  [astra'dl.]  Astride  ; 
with  legs  wide  apart. 

Fif.  Astraddle  on  their  proud  .steeds  full  of  fire,  Tennant  Aitstty 
(1812)  32,  ed.  1871.  Ayr.  The  tongs  were  placed  astraddle  in 
front  of  the  grate,  Gai.t  En/ail  1  1823  xxvi.  Cum.  We  pot  t'winn- 
lass  astruddle  eh  t'wholl,  Sargisson  Joe  Scoap  ^i88i  1  224.  w.Yks. 
That  young  lad  wot  thah  seed  jump  into't  sea,  an  get  astraddle  on 
a  piece  a  powl.  Shevvild  Ann.  (18491  5-  ne.Lan.',  Lei.*,  War. 
(J.R  W.  1,  War. 3,  Oxf.'  MS.  add.,  Brks.'  Hmp.  Astraddle  a  harse 
(H.C.M.H.).  Som.  W.  &  J.  G/.  (1873^  ;  Agian  my  feavorite  hobby 
I'm  gwain  to  mount  a  straddle  on,  *  Agrikler'  Rhymes  1  18721  10. 
w.Som.'  Neef  aay  diid-n  zee  ur  ruydeen  dh-oal  au's  aup  uslrad"), 
saeum-z  u  guurt  bwuuy  [if  I  did  not  see  her  riding  the  old  horse 
up  astride,  like  a  great  boy]. 

[Astraddle,  Vaiiri/us,  Coles  (1679).  A-,  on  +  .t/raddlp,  q.v.] 

ASTRE,  sb.  Obsol.  n.Cy.  Der.  Stf.  Lei.  Shr.  Ken. 
Also  written  aster  nw.Der.' ;  aister  nw.Der.'  Shr.'  ; 
aistre  Stf. ;  easter  n.Cy.  ;  ester  Lei.  The  back  of  a 
chimnej'  or  grate.    See  Back-aister. 

n.Cy.  Grose  (1790)  ;  (,P.R.)  ;  N.Cy.2,  nw.Der.',  Stf.';  Stf.' 
S  broj)  bIob3rd  sa  fast  "iis  mornin  Sat  fS'asistor's  0  squalid  wi 
grls.  Lei  '  My  hay  was  over-heated,  and  is  as  black  as  the  ester. 
Shr.'  Wy  look  'ow  y'on  collowed  yore  face!  as  if  3*o'd  newly 
comen  down  the  chimley  and  kissed  the  aister.  *  As  black  as  the 
aister'  is  a  phrase  employed  to  express  any  sooty,  grimy  appear- 
ance.    Ken.  Obs.  (P.M.)  ;  Ken.''     [Easter  i  K.  1.] 

[Astrc,  that  is  to  say,  the  stocke,  harth.  or  chimney,  for 
fire  .  .  .  which,  thougli  it  be  not  now  commonly  under- 
stood in  Kent ;  yet  do  they  of  Shropshire  and  other  parts 
reteine  it  in  the  same  signification  till  this  day,  LAMiiARDE 
Pcramh.  Kent  (1576)  562,  ed.  1596.  OFr.  asire  (mod.  dire), 
a  hearth  ;  cp.  G.  estricli,  a  pavement,  It.  dstricn  (Florid).] 

ASTREES,  sh.     Or.I.     The  beam  of  a  plough. 

S.  &Ork.'     Or.I.    Jam.) 

ASTRIDDLE,  adv.  Nhb.  Cum.  [sstridl.]  Astride ; 
with  the  legs  wide  apart. 


Hence  Astriddling:,  pf'l.  adj.  sitting  astride. 

Cum.  Astriddlin'  cocked  u'th'  hallan.  Gilpin  Pop.  Poetry(^ii-j^6$. 

\A-.  on  +  si  riddle,  der.  of  s//-/V/^.] 

ASTRIDE.  (7rft;.  Yks.  [astral  d.]  Phr.  lo  be,  i^cciii  a.'slride 
of,  (i)  to  make  progress  with,  be  master  of;  (2)  to  hold  a 

(i^  w.Yks.  He  hez  ta  hcv  it  done  i'  two  month,  and  he  seems 
wccl  astride  on't  1  M.F.)  ;     J.T.).    (2i  (  J.T.) 

ASTROUT,  adv.  Nhp.  LW.  Dor.  Som.  Dev.  [astreu't.] 
Stretched  out  stiffly. 

Nlip.'  I.W.2  My  vingersbe  all  astroiit  wi' the  coold.  Dor.  The 
players*  pockets  vver  a-strout  Wi'  wold  brown  pence  a-rottlen  in, 
Barnes  Poems  1^1869"!  102  ;  Dor.'  He  jump'd  about,  Wi"  girt  new 
shirt-sleeves  all  a-strout,  206.  Som.  Vailed  down  wi'  her  lags  all 
astrout,  Raymond  Cf«/.  Upcoll  (18^3)  85;  Sweeiman  ll'inean/on 
CI.  (iBBs).     Dev.' 

[A-strowt,  titrffidc,  Proiitpl.  480;  A-,  on +  slronl,  q.v.] 

ASTRUT,  adv.  Yks.  Lin.  Nhp.  [astru't.]  Stretched 
out ;  projecting. 

n.Yks.2  Said  of  the  legs  in  a  state  of  expansion,  m  Yks.' 
n.Lin.'  Jutting  out,  as  a  buttress  does.     Nljp  '  It  stands  aslrut. 

[Thcyre  Iselyes  standingc  a  strutte  with  stuffing.  More 
Coii/iil.  Tindale  (1532)  589  (N.E.D.);  Astrut,  tiirgide, 
Prompt.,  cd.  Pynson  (sec  VVay,  480).    A-,  on +  siru/,  q.v.J 

ASTULL,  sec  Astel. 

ASTY,  see  Astite. 

ASTYLLEN,  see  Astel. 

ASWAIP,  adv.  Sc.  Yks.  [aswe'p.]  Aslant,  on  one 

Slk.  (Jam.")     n.Yks.  It  lies  aswapc    I.W.V 

[A-,  on+sivafie  (to  place  aslanti,  q.v.] 

ASWASH,  adv.  e.An.  Also  in  e.An.'  asosh,  ashosh. 
[aswo'J,  aso'/.]     Awry,  aslant. 

Nrf.  lA.G.),  Nrf.',  e.An  ' 

[Giii>is;ois,  de  GitiHffois,  slovenly,  uncvenlj',  awry; 
also  huffingly,  swaggeringly  aswash  ;  .  .  .  Ciiaiiiarre,  a 
loose  and  light  gown  that  may  be  worn  a  swash  or  skarf- 
wise,  CoTGR. ;  A  sosshe  as  one  weareth  his  bonnet,  a 
g}'iti;ovs,  Palsgr.     A-,  on +  S2i'as/i  (vb. ),  q.v.] 

ASWIM,  adv.  Sc.  [aswrm.]  Afloat,  covered  with 

Sc.  The  soldiers  sleeping  carelessly  in  the  bottom  of  the  ship, 
were  all  a  swim,  through  the  water  that  came  in  at  the  holes  and 
leaks  of  the  ship,  .Spalding /fc/.  Troubles  (,179a;  I.  60  ^Jam.)  j 
Commonly  used  in  this  sense  (J.W.M.). 

[A;  on  +su'iiii.] 

ASWINT,  adv.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Also 
written  aswin  Dur.' w.Yks.'*:  asquin  w.Yks.'  [aswrnt, 
aswrn.]     Awry,  crooked,  obliquely.     See  Swin. 

Dur.',  Cum.',  Wm.'.  n.Yks.^  e.Yks.  Put  blind  right,  it's  all 
aswint.  Obsol.  in  Holderncss  (R.S.  ;  e.Yks.',  w.Yks.'  Lan. 
Commonly  used  in  Hurnlcy  some  years  ago.  Of  a  footpath 
across  a  field,  '  It  goes  aswin,'  Manr/i.  O/v  News  (Mar.  21.  1896'. 
n.Lan.This  boord*  gitten  aswin  wi  liggen  i  t'sun  W.H.H.i.  Lan.' 
He  geet  it  aswint,  an  cudna  set  it  straight  hisscl.     ne  Lan.' 

[Prob.  the  same  word  as  lit.  E.  asquint,  used  only  with 
ref.  to  looking  obliquely.] 

ASWIR,  adv.    .'  Obs.    Lan.    Diagonally,  aslant. 

ASWISH,  adv.  Yks.  Not.  Lin.  [aswi-J.]  Aslant, 

w.Yks.*  Now  don't  cut  that  truss  of  hay  all  aswish.  Not.'  s  No'. 
Straighten  that  table-cloth;  yer've  laid  it  all  aswish  iJ.P.K.'. 
sw  Lin. 'You  see  it's  aswish  way;  it's  not  straiet,  it's  aswish. 
Two  pair  of  cottages  recentlj'  built  at  Whisby  slantwise  to  the  road 
have  received  popularh'  the  name  of  'The  a  swish  houses." 

[A-,  on  +  swi.'ih  (vb.),  q.v.  The  mg.  of  the  adv.  is  devel- 
oped fr.  the  use  of  .•ni'is/i,  vb.,  in  the  sense  of  making 
a  movement  slantingly  as  with  a  whip  or  scj'the.] 

AT,  prep.     Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Eng.  Anier.     [at.] 

I.  Obsol.  Used  instead  of  to  as  the  sign  of  the  infini- 

Cum.'  I's  gaan  at  git  my  poddish  ;  Cum.'  Aw  wad  leyke  at  gan 
to  Carcl ;  Cum.^  An'  ivery  mak'  o'  pains  they  teuk  ut  git  'cm 
druven  away,  99  ;  An  priss  them  hard  the'r  bit  o"  land  ut  swap.  95. 
Wm.  Parliament's  gaan  et  meak  a  la'  et  thear's  to  be  full  moon  for 
three  months,  Brigcs  Retnains  (1825)  217;  A  woman  cam  fra' 
Dent  at  see  a  nebbor.  At  larn  at  knit,  Southey  Kml/ers  c"  Dent 
in  Doctor  (18481  558;  Wm.'  Ets  nowt  at  dow  [it's  of  no  use]. 
He's  nowt  at  dow  [he  is  good  for  nothing].  n.Yks.'  What's  at 
do.  now  ^  Now  rarely  used.  n.Lan.  Hev  I  at  gang  to  t'markot 
tode  ?  (W.S.)       ne.Lan.'  I  don't  like  at  see  it. 

H.  Of  place  or  position. 

1.  Used  redundantly  to  denote  rest  in  a  place,  dwelling, 
position.     In  gen.  use. 

Cud.  It's  a  varra  sensible  thing  and  aw,  ...that  sheep  should  know 
theer  oan  *  heafs.'  We  could  nivvcr  ken  wliar  siieep  was  at  if  they 
didn't,  llelvelhn  in  Com/i.  Mag.  1  Oct.  1890  383.  Wm.'  Whar  is 
t'at?  n.Lin.'  He's  left  Croasby  an'  I  doan't  knaw  whcilre  he's  at 
noo.  Nl»p.'  Now  his  mother's  dead  where  is  he  at!  He  docs 
not  know  where  to  be  at  now.  Wil.'  Th'  rwoad  be  all  up  at  hill 
[uphill].     [Araer.  Where  is  he  at !  (Bartlett).] 

2.  Referring  a  condition  or  sensation  to  a  particular 
place  :  in,  about. 

Cum.  What  seesta"  at  hur,  Graham  Gwordy  1778'  I.  52.  n.Yks. 
(I.W.1  I. Ma.  He  has  ...  no  bowels  of  compassion  at  him.  Caine 
Manxman  11894'    pt.   II.   i;    l.ies  with  a  stink  at  Ihein, 




Z)ofto>-    1887'!  3.       Chs.';     Chs.3  A  pain  at  her  stomach.        War. 

3.  Phr.  to  be  at.  (i)  With  obj.  of  person  :  to  demand  of, 
to  importune.  (2)  With  obj.  of  thing:  to  do,  set  about, 
esp.  of  bad  or  mischievous  acts.  (3)  With  vbl  sb.  :  in  the 
act  of,  at  the  point  of. 

(i)  n.Yks.'  Well,  I  was  at  my  lord  agen  laast  neeght.  an'  he  said 
he  wad  nae  hev  it  sae.  Ah  was  at  f  priest  about  it,  but  'twur  te 
ra  use.  1  a)  Yks.  What  he'd  be  at,  Munby  fi-rscs  i  1865]  66.  Not. 
I  don't  know  what  they'll  be  at  next  ■  L.C  M.  I.  n.Lin.'  Oor  Jack's 
cot  o'  Ketton  [prison]  once  moore  ;  I  wonder  what  he'll  be  at  next 
to  get  his  sen  putten  in  agean.  Nhp.'  What  are  you  at  ?  What  are 
you  going  to  be  at  ?  is  often  said  when  any  one  is  mischievously 
inclined.  Hnt.  (^T.P.F.)  n."Wil.  What  be  at  thur  ?  lE.HG.j 
w.Som.l  Yuur-z  aa-t  ut  [here's  at  it],  a  very  common  expression 
on  beginning  or  resuming  work.  Aa-I  bee  aa't  ut,  fuus  dhing 
maa'ru  mau'rneen  [I  will  be  at  it.  first  thing  to-morrow  morning]. 
(3  I  Cor.  The  beef  is  at  roasting,  Grose  ^1790,1  MS.  add.  .^C.) ;  The 
water  is  just  at  boiling  i  M.A.C.). 

4.  Motion  to,  arrival  at  a  place  or  condition. 

Ir.  To  call  at  [visit  a  person]  ■  G.M.H.'i.  Cum.  Old  people  used 
to  say  '  they  were  gaun  at  church  '  ■  M.P. '.  Wm.  He  cam  at  a 
coffin,  liggen,  Lonsdale  Mag.  1  18211  11.  267  ;  Wm.'  Aa's  gang  at 
sea  [I'm  going  to  sea].  Yks.  At  an'  thro',  at  an'  for'ard  [to  and  fro] 
(C.C.R.\  e. Yks.  It's  a  spot  I  never  gans  at  yE.B.V  n.Lin.' When 
ye  cum  at  th'  big  elmin-tree  ye  mun  to'n  to  th'  reight.  It'll  all 
be  th'  3'ung  Squire's  when  he  cums  at  aage. 

5.  In-phr.  to  come,  go  at.  (i )  With  obj.  of  person:  to  attack, 
contend  with,  compete  with  ;  freq.  with  ellipsis  of  i'.  of 
motion.     (2)  With  obj.  of  thing:  to  attack,  set  about,  do. 

fi)  w.Yks.  If  t3  duz,  il  [lie  will]  at  ¥3.  I  up  [he  was  up]  an  at 
im  i'  nu3  taim  iJ.W.).  e.Lan.'  Go  at  him.  At  him  with  your  feet. 
Chs.i  If  tha  says  that  again,  I'll  at  thee.  Stf.^  Weet  till  th'  bobby 
cums  at  him.  he'll  ma}'  'im  goo.  Dor.'  We  dree'll  at  3'ou  dree. 
Som.  I'll  at  you  in  a  game,  Pulm.\n  Sketches  '18421  77,  ed.  1871. 
Colloq.  Up,  Guards,  and  at  'em  [saying  traditionally  ascribed  to 
Wellington,  on  the  day  of  the  battle  of  Waterloo,  June  i8,  1815]. 
(2    Not.  (_L.C.M.')     Nhp.2  What  are  ye  gwain  at? 

6.  Fig.     Of  feeling  towards  a  person. 

Sc.  Angry  at  him,  Scotic,  (17871  8  ;  A  hatred  at  him  CG.W.)  ; 
He  was  the  last  to  hae  an  ill-will  at  ony  ane,  Roy  Horseman 
(1895 J  viii.  Ayr.  Ye  just  hae  a  spite  at  the  bairn,  Galt  Entail 
(18231  viii.  Yks.  A  wor  that  mad  at  im  wol  a  cudn't  bide  ("J.W.). 
n.Lan.  Me  muther's  childer  were  mad  at  ma,  Phizackerley  Sng. 
Sol.  (i860)  i.  6.  Not.  Was  ragged  [wrath]  at  him  i^W. H.S.J  ; 
s.Not.  I  wor  mad  at  'im  (J.P.K.). 

in.  Of  time  or  occasion. 

1.  Time  when  ;  often  used  redundantly. 

Sc.  When  I  got  home  last  Monday  at  e'en,  Wihtehead  Daft 
Davie  (1876)  131.  w.Yks. ^  When's  he  boun' — Haw,  to-morn  at 
neet  [to-morrow  at  night].     He's  coming  at  Setterda  neet. 

2.  In  phr.  fi)  at  long,  finally  ;  (2)  —long  and  at  last,  in 
the  end;  (3) — the  Jirst  onset,  at  first;  (4) — the  long 
length,  at  last ;   (5)  — time  and  lime,  at  various  times. 

I  I  i  Ayr.  So  at  long  .  .  .  Miss  Jenny  was  persuaded  to  put  her 
name  to  the  paper,  Galt  Legatees  (18201  i.  (^21  Ant.  At  lang  an' at 
last,  Ball YMiena  Obs.  {iSg2).  (31  Hrt.  (H.G.I  (4  Lan.  At  th' lung 
length  aw  geet  him  laid  still,  Waugh  Sngs.  (18661  8,  ed.  1871. 
(5  I  w.Yks.  Thease  not  a  bairn  e  all  Pogmoor  but  wot  ive  nurst  at 
time  an'  time,  Tom  Treddlehoyle  T>ip  ta  Liinnan  (18511  15. 
Lan.  Th'  pranks  'at  it's  pLayed  abeaut  this  plaze  at  time  an'  time, 
Harland  &  Wilkinson  Flk-Lore  (,1867)  62. 

I'V.  Of  agent  or  action. 

1.  Of  agent  :  by. 

I. Ma.  \o\x  must  have  been  found  in  the  bulrushes  at  Pharaoh's 
daughter  and  made  a  prophet  of,  Caine  Man.Kman  1,1894  1  pt.  v. 
xviii  ;  It's  never  been  worn  at  me,  ib.  pt.  vi.  i. 

2.  Denoting  the  person  froin  whom  a  thing  is  received  : 
from,  at  the  hands  of. 

e.Yks.'  Ah  weeant  tak  sike  sauce  at  him.  w.Yks. =  Alice  took 
the  milk  at  him.  Lan.  The  new  bride  to  tak  'em  at  him,  'Eaves- 
dropper' ViU.  Life  1869  g.  I.Ma.  I'm  hearing  the  like  at  some  of 
them,  Caine  Man.vnian  (18941  pt.  i.  iv.  nw.Der.i  '  Tak  it  at  him,' 
applied  to  taking  or  reaching  something  from  a  person  who  stands 
on  a  higher  or  lower  level,  as  on  a  cart,  &c. 

3.  With  V.  of  listening,  asking,  &c.,  denoting  the  person 
or  source  from  which  information  is  received. 

Sc.  I  asked  at  him.  Sco/ic.  1 17871  9  ;  After  some  weeks  she  sought 
an  opportunity  of  inquiring  at  himself  by  visiting  him.  Whitehead 

Daft  Davie  (1876  '  149  ;  To  '  ask  at '  is  an  ever3'day  Scoticism.  Ask 
at,  inquire  at,  the  footman